The Padma Purana

by N.A. Deshpande | 1951 | 1,261,945 words | ISBN-10: 8120838297 | ISBN-13: 9788120838291

This page describes gauri’s marriage which is chapter 43 of the English translation of the Padma Purana, one of the largest Mahapuranas, detailling ancient Indian society, traditions, geography, as well as religious pilgrimages (yatra) to sacred places (tirthas). This is the forty-third chapter of the Srishti-khanda (section on creation) of the Padma Purana, which contains six books total consisting of at least 50,000 Sanskrit metrical verses.

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

[Sanskrit text for this chapter is available]

Pulastya said:

1-2. The door-keeper, who had put on a bright silken garment appeared (before the king of demons). Going down to (i.e. touching) the ground on his knees, he, without delay. said the following adorned with (i.e. couched in) few words, to the lord of demons, having a bright body resembling a host of suns.

3. “Having brought the gods, after binding them, Kālanemi stands at the door. He respectfully asks: ‘O lord, where should the captives stay?’”

4-5. Having heard those words of the doorkeeper, the demon said: “Let them stay as they like. The three worlds are my residence. Release only Indra, after having clean-shaved him, after making him put on white garments and after having marked him with a dog’s foot.”

6-7. When this was done, gods, with their minds dejected went to the lord of the world, the Lotus-born one to seek his shelter. The despondent gods, having reached him, prostrated themselves with their heads touching the ground, and praised the Lotus-seated (god) with words (couched in) beautiful syllables.

The gods said:

8-10. Salutation to you, the origin of Oṃkāra etc., the first and unending cause of the diversity of the universe, (to you) who are at the root of the beings immediately after creation; O you, of a pious form, salutation to you who desire to withdraw (the world unto you); on account of your greatness, you are the cause of the manifested forms; and due to this appellation, you, having thought about us, divided the worlds above the heaven and the earth, and the ones below them, from (i.e. out of) the cosmic egg. It is clear that Meru was your outer skin of the embryo; we know that the space was put forward by you; it is clear that from your body the gods were created; the embodied ones move within your body.

11. The heaven is your head; the moon and the sun are your eyes; the serpents are your hair; the directions are the cavities of your ears; sacrifice is your body; rivers are your joints; the earth is your feet; the oceans are your belly.

12. You are the author of illusion; you are the cause; you are declared to be calm by the Vedas; you are said to be the light and the sun. With the help of the meaning of the Vedas, they by intellect, expound you, the ancient one, who are placed in the lotus of the heart.

13. Those who have mastered abstract meditation, describe you as (their) soul; (they describe you) to be the source of the seven subtle (pricinples) propounded by the Sāṃkhyas, and also of the eighth one, told by them. You alone being the soul, live in them.

14. Having perceived, you fashioned a subtle and (at the same time) a gross form; those entities which are said to exist in the cause, are said to have come up from you at the time of the first creation; again, they are to be reached after the impressions according to desires (?).

15. Kāla (i.e. desitny) is conceived by you; its origin is concealed in you; it is immeasurable; in it the uncertainty about number has disappeared; it is the cause of the withdrawel of the manifestation of entities and non-entities; it is endless; you are its author, and its abode.

16. All that is gross is useless; that which is other than that is said to be subtle and (therefore) important. You are presented in the Purāna to be even grosser than those which cover the gross objects.

1 7. You join (i.e. bestow) prosperous condition to every being, and in every existence you put what is cherished (by you); driving out what is joined to a manifested form you bring about manifestation in every place.

18a. Thus the lord is protector of those who possess individuality; and also he having endless forms, is their saviour and protector.

18b-20a. Thus having praised Brahmā, the cause (of everything) the gods ceased (praising him). Then they remained thinking about the objects they wanted. Brahmā, thus praised, was extremely pleased. Pointing out with his left hand, he, the giver ofboons, said to the gods:

Brahmā said:

20b-22a. Why do you, with the lotus of your face faded, look like a widow who has discarded ornaments from her hands, O Indra? O Agni, you too, without smoke, do not look charming, (as it were) remaining for a long time covered with grass and with famished wild fire.

22b-23a. O Yama, you, distressed with a diseased body, do not appear splendid, being as it were dragged at every step by your staff, your prop.

23b. O lord Moon, why do you talk as if you are afraid?

24-25a. As you are wounded by the enemy in the seizure done by the lord of demons, O Varuṇa, your body is dry as it were surrounded by fire. Observe your foot from which blood has flowed.

25b. O Vāyu, you are gloomy, and (appear) as if you are driven away with the tips of swords (pointed towards you).

26-27a. O Dhanada (i.e. Kubera), why have you, abandoning your status of Kuberahood, bowed down? O Rudra, being the trident-holder, you have earned the reputation of being very brave. Who has taken away your sharpness? Tell it to us.

27b-28a. Thus addressed by Brahmā, dwelling in the Supreme Being, the gods urged Vayu to speak on account of his being pre-eminent in speech.

28b-29a. The gods urged Vayu through Śakra. He said to the four-faced god (i.e. Brahmā): “You know the mobile and the immobile.

29b-30. Gods, led by Indra, were forcibly vanquished along with their army, by hundreds of demons. You have laid down the performance of sacrifices, having wonderful and varied merits, for the stability of the worlds. Then before them you placed the sages, performers of sacrifices, who got the well-known fruits of their desires.

31-33. Due to your order, heaven always became (accessible) to the enjoyers of sacrifices. The demon, snatching the host of heavenly cars, converted the mountain, which you had made to possess excellent qualities conforming to its being the lord of all mountains, which was adorned by (i.e. had been a site for) sacrifices, which had set a limit to the (sun’s) rays, which was always the abode of gods in heaven, the slopes of which were made unfit for living and sporting as the jewelled caves on it had gone down, into the resort of many demons.

34-35. The excellent thunderbolt, which was fashioned by you only, which had host of splendours, which for a long time had filled the quarters with pure lustre, which was intended for enjoyment, broke into a hundred parts, after having reached the body of the demon, like the change of views of those who know little, and has gone (out of use) due to its form being depressed.

36-37. O god, we, whose bodies were pierced with arrows in the war, who were directed by the door-keepers at the door, and who did not talk at all, were ushered into the assembly of gods’ enemy and were dragged and seated there by them (i.e. the door-keepers) with canes in their hands and were laughed at by the enemies.

38-39a. ‘O gods, you are rich, you have accomplished all your objects, you talk little. Talk according to the rules. Do not talk much. This is the assembly of the king of the demons and not that of Indra, where there is no restraint.’

39b. We were very much derided by the demon’s servants who talked like this.

40-41. The seasons being embodied day and night serve the sinful and fierce (demon), and do not forsake him, in whose residences Siddhas, Gandharvas and Kinnaras sing (songs) with the (proper) rhythm on the wires of the lute, methodically, melodiously and with excellence.

42-43. He who gives relative importance to his friends etc. by favouring or not favouring them, who forsakes those who have come to seek his refuge and who has given up (giving) shelter to truth—who is thus able to describe fully or how can one describe fully his impudence? The creator alone is the best resort.”

44. Having thus gradually told about the movements of gods (to Brahmā) Vāyu ceased (speaking). Then the lord with the lotus of his face smiling said to the gods:

Brahmā said:

45. “The demon Tāraka cannot be killed even by all gods and demons. The man, who will kill him, is as yet not born in the three worlds.

46. After having pleased him by granting a boon I have dissuaded him just now from burning (even) the three worlds.

47-48a. The demon has chosen his death (at the hands) of a child seven days old. The boy, born of Śaṅkara, and resembling the Sun, will be, when he will be seven days old, the killer of Tāraka.

48b-50. The revered lord Śaṅkara is at present without a wife. Tāraka, encountering him, to whom Himālaya’s daughter who will be a goddess, will give birth, as fire is born from the wooden stick, will not survive. I have told you the remedy by which he will (not) survive.

51. Then you should divide (among yourselves) his remaining wealth. Wait, with a fearless heart, for some time.

52-54. The gods, the residents of heaven, thus addressed by the Lotus-born himself, having saluted the lord, went as the circumstance (demanded). When the gods had left, revered Brahmā, the grandsire of the world, remembered that goddess Niśā, born earlier. Then the revered (goddess, viz.) Rātri, approached the grandsire, Having seen Vibhāvarī in a solitary place he said to her:

Brahmā said:

55. O Vibhāvarī, an emergent business of (i.e. for) the gods has approached. O goddess, you should do that. Hear about the details of the business.

56-58. There is the lord of demons, the enemy of gods who is not vanquished (by gods). The revered lord will generate a son for his destruction. He (i.e. the son) will indeed be the killer of Tāraka. That Satī, the goddess, who was Dakṣa’s daughter, and got angry with her father for some reason, will be born as Himālaya’s daughter, the most beautiful women in the world.

59-61a. Hara, due to her separation, will regard the three worlds as void, will live in the cave of that mountain, which is resorted to by Siddhas, waiting for her birth. The great son that will be born to the two who (will) have practised penance, will be the destroyer of that demon, viz. Tāraka.

61 b-62. That respectable, beautiful lady, as soon as she is born, having just a little knowledge, will become extremely distressed by the absence of her husband (i.e. Hara), and eager for union with him. The union of the two having practised good penance, would be auspicious.

63. Then there will be a wordy quarrel between the two caused by both of them. Then a danger to Tāraka is indicated.

64. Listen as to how you will create a distraction to them when they will be united through sexual desire.

65-66a. When he would be in the womb ofhis (i.e. Guha’s) mother in his own form, Śarva, laughing, and with gesture, (pretending to be) dejected, will deride the respectable lady in jest.

66b-67. Then being angry, she will leave to practise penance. Then she, endowed with penance, from Śarva, give birth to him of an unlimited orb of lustre. Undoubtedly he will be born as the killer of the enemies of gods.

68-69. O goddess, you should also kill them who are invincible in the world. As long as the goddess remains with the multitude of virtues transferred to her body, you will not be able to kill the demons due to them. When you have acted thus, she, having practised penance, will do everything.

70. When, O goddess, Umā will have completed her religious observance, she, the Mountain’s daughter, will obtain her own form.

71. Then with you too, she will be Bhavānī (i.e. Śiva’s wife). You will also have a portion of Umā’s form.

72. O you giver of boons, the world will worship you as Ekānaṃśā—you—who would be going everywhere in various forms and who would satisfy desires (of your devotees).

73. (You will be looked upon as) Oṃkāravaktrā Gāyatrī, of a bright form, by those who are well-versed in the Vedas and by great-armed kings who are overcome.

74. As the mother of vaiśyas you will be known as Bhūḥ; you will be worshipped as Śaivā by śūdras. You will be the compassion of the restrained ones.

75. You will be the doubt in a great exertion, and the prudence of the politicians. You will be the intimacy with wealth, and the desire lying in the heart of beings.

76. You are the shelter of all human beings. You are the delight of those whose minds are delighted. You are the affection in the heart of human beings.

77. You are the fame of true (i.e. honest) beings. You are she tranquility ofthose who do evil deeds. You are the error of all beings. You are the recourse to the performers of sacrifices.

78. You are the great tide of oceans. You are a sportive lady, giving joy to the lover by embracing him. You are Vibhāvarī.

79-80a. In this way, O goddess, you are worshipped in many forms. There is no doubt, O giver of boons, that those who please and also worship you, certainly get all their desires satisfied.

80b-81a. Goddess Niśā, thus addressed, saying, with salutation, ‘All right’, quickly went to the great house of Himālaya.

81 b-85. There in a great chamber in a large mansion, which was illumined with a great light of multitudes of jewelled lamps, where there were many accomplished, agreeable attendants scattered (here and there), which had an umbrella (i.e. a ceiling) of pure china-silk, which was bright with the bed spread on the ground, which was pleasing to the mind due to the fragrance of incense, in which all necessary things were kept ready, she saw Menā, who was seated leaning against a wall, whose lotus-like face had a pale complexion, who was a little emaciated, who was slightly stooping because of the tips of her (stout) breasts going up to her face, who was taken care of by the best of charms tied with multitudes of great herbs, who looked charming on account of an amulet used as a preservative, covered with gold and worn (on her body).

86-90. When the day had gone far (i.e. had come to a close), when enjoyment of pleasure had reached its climax, when men were almost asleep, when remedies causing sleep (were being used), when the light of the moon was clear, when the nocturnal birds were wandering, when the quandrangular places had been filled with beings moving at night, when persons talking sweet things were locked in close embraces, when the two lotus-like eyes of Mena had become a little drowsy, Rātri, bringing about a wonderful union, easily entered her mouth and then her belly for maddening the mother of the world, (thinking) 'when will the matchless birth (take place)?’

91a. Vibhāvarī (i.e. Rātri) tinged the house of the queen in the forest of caves.

91b-92a. Then, the cause of joy of the world, the beloved of Himālaya, gave birth to the mother of Guha[1] in the early part of the day.

92b-93a. When she was born, all mobile and immobile livings beings residing in all the world became happy.

93b-94. At that time, even the cruel beings, living in hell, enjoyed pleasure as in heaven. The minds of human beings became tranquil. The lustre of even the luminaries became exceedingly great.

95-98. The herbs remained in the thickets; fruits became tasty; flowers became fragrant; and the sky was clear. Breezes were pleasing to touch; the quarters were very attractive; and goddess Earth was bright with the quality of ripeness due to her contact with the seasonal fruits, and full of the rows of śāli (-plants). Penances of sages with purified souls and of pure heart, which were practised for a long time became fruitful at that time; sacred books that were forgotten became manifest again.

99. The power of the principal sacred places became most auspicious at that time. And in the sky thousands of gods led by Indra, Varuṇa, Vāyu and Agni remained in the aerial cars.

100-102. They showered flowers on Himālaya mountain. The chief Gandharvas sang (songs) and groups of celestial nymphs danced. The great mountains like Meru became personified; came there at the great festival; and divine beings with their hands stretched out, and oceans and rivers came from all directions.

103. At that time Himālaya, the best of mountains, became fit to be resorted to by and accessible to and a refuge to all the mobile and immobile (beings).

104-105. Having enjoyed the festival the gods then went home. The respectable daughter of Himālaya was imparted knowledge (i.e. instructed) by groups of charming ladies from among gods, best of serpents, Gandharvas and from (i.e. living on) the (Himālaya) mountain with emulation and also by industrious learned persons, in due order.

106. She duly became endowed with all good signs in all the three worlds due to her charm, good fortune and understanding.

107. In the meanwhile, Indra, closely intent on accomplishing an undertaking, remembered the divine sage Nārada honoured by gods.

108. That revered (sage) knowing the desire of Indra, then gladly came to the residence of Indra.

109. Seeing him, Indra, the thousand-eyed god, got off from his great seat and honoured him with (i.e. by offering him) water for washing his feet as he deserved it.

110-111a. Having accepted the worship duly offered by Indra, Nārada asked Indra about his well-being. When Indra was (thus) asked about (his) well-being, the lord spoke (these words:

Indra said:

111b-113a. The sprout of well-being has made its appearance in the three worlds. O sage, I am looking upon you (for helping me) in (making it) bear the wealth of fruit. You know all that; still you are (thus) directed (by me); for one gets joy by telling (about) one’s desires to those who love one.

113b-1 1 4a. So, all belonging to our side should quickly exert in such a way that the respectable daughter of the (Himālaya) Mountain becomes united with the Trident-holder (i.e. Śiva).

114b-116a. Understanding the object fully and then taking his leave (of Indra) the revered Nārada quickly went to the residence of the Himālaya mountain. There, at the door full of variegated staffs of the doorkeepers (i.e. full of doorkeepers), the sage was honoured by the Himālaya Mountain, who had come out (of the house) before (the sage reached it).

116b-117. Having entered, with the Mountain, his house which had become the ornament of the world, the best sage, of matchless lustre sat upon a great spacious seat, indicated by the Himalaya Mountain himself.

118-120a. The Mountain offered him proper respectful worship and water for washing his feet. The sage then duly accepted the respectful worship. The Mountain, with his lotus (-like) face blooming, gently asked the best sage in mild words if his penance was going on well enough. The sage too asked the Lord of mountains about his well-being.

Nārada said:

120b-122. O great Mountain, your vicinity is fit for piety. The largeness of your caves is comparable (only) to your mind. The greatness of the multitudes of your virtues excels a mountain. The perspicuity of your water is greater than (that of) the sages. O best of mountains, I cannot locate where impoliteness has remained.

123-124. You are always purified by sages who are lustrous like fire and the sun, and who resort to your caves for the practice of various (kinds of) penance. Gods, Gandharvas and Kinnaras, having disregarded aeroplanes, and being indifferent to staying in heaven, are dwelling in you, as in the house of their sire.

125. O lord of mountains, you are lucky that Hara, the lord of the world, intent upon meditating upon Rāma lives in your cave.

126-128a. When the divine sage was speaking these words with respect, Mena, the queen of Mountain Himālaya, who was followed by her daughter, who had a few friends and attendants (with her), and who was humble due to bashfulness and courtesy, entered, with a desire to see the sage, the house, where the best and restrained sage was staying with the Mountain.

128b-129a. Joining her lotus-like hands and concealing her face the beloved of the Mountain saluted the sage, a heap of lustre.

129b-130a. The divine sage, of matchless lustre, having seen the magnanimous lady, congratulated her with blessings resembling the stream of nectar.

130b-13la. Then the respectable daughter of the Himālaya mountain, whose mind was amazed, saw the sage Nārada of a wonderful form.

13lb-133a. The sage also addressed her with (these) affectionate words: “Come, O daughter”. But embracing the father, she sat on his lap. The mother said to the respectable girl: “O daughter, salute the revered sage, blessed with penance. (Thereby) you will obtain a husband of your liking”.

133b-135. Thus addressed[2] by her mother, she, having covered her face with her garment and with her head slightly trembling, did not utter any word. Then the mother again said these words to her daughter: “O daughter, salute the divine sage. I shall give you a fine jewelled toy, which I have kept (aside) for a long time.”

136. Thus addressed, she placing together her hands like lotus-buds on her (fore-) head, quickly went to the (sage’s) feet and saluted them.

137-138. When she had (thus) saluted the sage, the mother (i.e. Menā), as is the nature of ladies, through her friend gently urged (upon Nārada to tell about) the indication of her good fortune and for understanding the auspicious signs on her body.

139. Knowing that intention of his queen, the Mountain of an humble form, entertaining anxiety about his daughter, thought that it was a nice thing that had come up.

140-142a. Urged on by the queen's friend, Nārada, the excellent maganimous sage, with a smiling face said (these) words: “O good lady, her husband is not born at all; (and when born) he will be without all good signs. Her hands are always stretched out; and due to her feet deviating (from good signs), she is shadowy; whats the use of saying much?”

142b-143a. Hearing these words, the great Mountain, overcome with confusion, and with his courage sinking and with his throat (choked with) tears, again said to Nārada:

Himālaya said:

143b-145. Since the course of the mundane existence, full of many faults, since the limit of the creation, which is sure to take place, has been laid down by the creator of a superior soul, and is fixed for those who remain in the worldly existence, he, who is born from the seed of a particular person accomplishes the desired object of his father, but it is clear that the father does not accomplish the desired object of his progeny.[3]

146. The various species of beings are born as a result of their own deeds. As oviparous being born from an oviparous being may be born as a man.

147-149. A man may also be born in the species of serpents and not as a man. In a higher existence obtained by the excellence of righteousness (certain) other beings are unperturbed by the non-birth of a son (i.e. even though they have not a son). (Only) men very much follow piety with prudence. By the order of the creator, who has expanded the worldly existence, the acquisition of various stages of life beginning with the vow of a celibate, takes place.

150-151. The worldly life would not have come up, if all remained without a house (i.e. a family). The creator has, in all sacred books, praised the acquisition of a son, for deluding beings and for protecting (the ancestors) from (falling into) hell. Without a female, birth is not possible for beings.

152. The females are naturally pitiable and miserable; and in them the creator has placed faults as a result of their not being able to grasp the scriptures.

153-158. He has repeatedly made a definite and very significant statement that in that class none will have higher knowledge. A daughter, even if she is void of (good) character, is equal to ten sons. The statement that ‘A daughter, full of all accomplishments, and endowed with a husband and sons, is miserable, pitiable and enhances the father’s grief’ is fruitless and would cause depression to men; then what about the luckless one who is without a husband or sons or wealth? And you have said that there is a heap of faults in my daughter’s body. O Nārada, I am deluded; I am being dried up; I am fatigued; I am sinking. O sage, to favour me, remove my grief due to (my having) a daughter; though it is not to be had now and though it is improper (to do so), it has to be expressed. Though the (mother) is accurately defined, (my) mind is in doubt due to (the fear of) insult.

159- 160a. Desire again robs (even) a clever person due to his having greed. The birth of women designated as the acquisition of a good husband—is said to be great as it leads to happiness of both the families here and in the other world.

160b-166a. Due to a good husband being difficult to obtain, even a defective husband in never got by a woman without religious merit. Since piety has no means, interest rises after maturity. The wealth of the wife remains in the husband till death; for a husband, even though he is poor, ugly or without any auspicious signs, is always said to be a great deity of (i.e. for) the wife. You, the divine sage, said that her husband is indeed not born. This misfortune is matchless, unintelligible, and difficult to bear. O sage, the anxiety pervades the entire creation of beings including the mobile and the immobile. Knowing (from you) that he (i.e. my daughter’s husband) is not born, my mind is perplexed. Marks on the hands and feet of the species of human beings and gods are said to be the auspicious signs indicating bad or good (things) about them.

166b-169a. O best of sages, you described her to have stretched out hands, and the state of the ever stretched hands, which you referred to, is never seen in the case ofprosperous, rich givers. You said that her shadowy feet are deviating (from good signs). (So) in that case also, O sage, I do not have any hope for (something) good. The other marks on the body also indicate different fruits.

169b-170a. When the Mountain, who, full of (such) very painful thoughts, stopped speaking, Nārada, adored by gods, said with a smile, these words:

Nārada said:

170b-171. On an occasion of great joy, you are talking (about) sad things. Not having ascertained the meaning of my words, you, O great Mountain, are getting confused. Listen to these words of mine (i.e. which I utter), which are well-fixed (i.e. based) on a secret.

172-173. O great Mountain, being composed, (give) a thought to what I said. Her husband is not born—this is what I said truly. O Himālaya, that Mahādeva (i.e. Śiva) is unborn, and is the origin of the past, future and present. He is the protector, ruler, benefactor and the highest lord.

174. O Mountain, Brahmā, Rudra, Indra, sages—all of them oppressed by being subjected to conception, birth and old age, are his toys.

175-176. The universe has sprung up from him, according to his desire. He is the lord of the world. O Mountain, even after the destruction of the inaminate the soul does not perish. The body of a living being, being subject to birth and death in the mundane existence, alone perishes. The soul is said not to perish.

177. What is said to be the mundane existence beginning with Brahmā and ending with the inanimate things is afflicted with birth, death and grief and is ever changing.

178. Mahādeva is stable, is unborn, is unchanging and is the creator (of all this). He, the lord of the world and pure, will be her husband.

179. Listen to the correct meaning (i.e. explanation) of what I said, viz. that this respectable daughter of yours is void of auspicious signs.

180. An auspicious mark is a mark found on parts of a body. It indicates one’s (span of) life, wealth, and the effect of good fortune.

181. O Mountain, there is no mark put on the body, of (i.e. which would indicate) unending, immeasurable good fortune.

182-183. Therefore, O you highly intelligent Mountain, there is no auspicious mark on her body. What I (mean by having) said that her hand is stretched out is that the hand of the respectable girl will always be stretched out to grant a boon. She will be a granter of boons to a host of gods, demons and sages.

184-186a. O best of mountains, listen also to the explanation of my utterance that her feet would be shadowy and deviating (from good signs): Due to the lustre of the jewels of many colours in the crowns of gods and demons bowing (before her), and looking at her feet, they (i.e. the feet) will have their reflections, and (therefore will appear) shadowy.

186b-188. O Mountain, she is born to be the wife of Śiva, the lord of the world, and to be the source of all beings. She is auspicious, of a purifying lustre and (is born) on (i.e. from) your wife for the purification (of everything) only. Therefore, O best of mountains, you should duly do that by which she would be quickly united with the Trident-holder.

189a. O Mountain, here a great mission of the gods is to be executed.

l89b-190. Having heard all these words from Nārada, the lord of mountains, the husband of Menā, regarded himself as reborn. He, the Himalaya mountain, being delighted, said to Nārada:

191. “O lord, you have taken me up from a terrible, in superable hell. Having raised me from Pātāla (i.e. the last of the seven regions under the earth), you have made me the lord of the seven worlds.

192. I am well-known as the Himalaya mountain. Now, O best sage, you have raised me a hundred times above the Himalaya mountain.

193-195. O great sage, my heart, being captivated due to (i.e. by) joy, does not determine the consideration of (i.e. is not in a fit condition to appreciate) the division of deeds. O sage, the sight of persons like you is certainly fruitful. You yourself have said that I am a proper resort for the sages and deities of the nature of the soul. Yet command me to do one thing.”

196-197a. When the lord of mountains spoke these words, Nārada, full of joy said: “O lord, all is done. That is the object of the mission of the gods and it is much more important than yours.”

197b-199a. Speaking thus, Nārada quickly went to heaven from there. He went to the gods’ residence and saw Indra (there). Then, the sage, who was seated on a great seat proper for him, being asked by Indra, told (him) the account pertaining to the Mountain’s daughter (i.e. Pārvatī).

Nārada said:

199b-200a. The mission that was told (i.e. entrusted) to me is done; but (now) the influence of the arrows of the five-arrowed one[4] (i.e. Cupid) is required.

200b-202. Venerable Indra, who was thus addressed by the sage who knew the business, remembered him whose missiles are mango-sprouts (i.e. remembered Cupid). He, of graceful movements, and having jhaṣa as his banner (i.e. god of love), who was (thus) remembered by the intelligent Indra, quickly stood by him with Rati. Seeing Manmatha (i.e. god of love) who appeared there, Indra said to him:

Śakra (i.e. Indra) said:

203. What is the use of giving you profuse instruction, O you dear to Rati? You are mind-born; therefore you know the intentions of beings.

204-205a. Therefore, O you mind-born (god), do in due order what is dear to the residents of heaven, i.e. quickly unite Śiva with the daughter of the (Himālaya) Mountain. With this Spring and accompanied by Rati, go (to execute your mission).

205b-206a. Thus addressed by Indra for accomplishing his mission, Madana—the five-arrowed one—being afraid said (these) words to Indra:

Kȧma (i.e. Madana) said:

206b-207. O you lord of the world, O god, do you not know that with this collocation of materials causing fear to gods and demons, Śaṅkara is difficult to be conquered? You know that the immutable position of that god is his (chief) ground.

208-209a. Generally in the case of the great, everything—their favour or wrath—is great. Divine beauty is the essence of all enjoyments. O Indra, those who desire a special fruit, fall from (i.e. do not get even) the ordinary fruit.

209b. Hearing these words, Indra, with gods, said to him:

Śakra said:

210-211a. O Rati’s husband, here we are your authority (i.e. we empower you to do things); there is no doubt about it. Power is not expected for a blacksmith (i.e. a blacksmith has no power) without a pair of tongs. The power of one is seen somewhere (i.e. in a particular field), and not everywhere.

211b-212. Thus addressed, Kama went (i.e. left) taking with him Spring. With Rati he went to the peak of the Himālaya (mountain). Having reached there, he thought about the means to (bring about) the mission.

213. ‘Great-souled ones are steady, and their mind is difficult to conquer; therefore it should be agitated first; otherwise it would not be won over.

214-215. Generally success comes after the mind is first cleansed. In the absence of hatred, and with such pure thought, how can there be anger without contact with a more cruel feeling? And jealousy is a terrible great friend, which is very powerful, as, due to rashness, it first destroys fortitude—which is a great prop.

216. I shall first join him with (i.e. create in him) that (i.e. jealousy), which is the perturbation of mind, by closing the channels of courage and taking away his delight.

217-219a. Nobody there will be clever enough to recognize me. Having entered Hara’s passion which will remain only as an uncertainty (i.e. which will be unsteady), I shall be like a difficult eddy to cross to Hara of a firm mind and engaged in penance, and will begin my work, after having closed (i.e. controlled) the group of senses and employing charming means.’

219b-221. Having thought like this, Madana then went to the hermitage of the lord of beings. The hermitage was the essence of the world; it had raised seats in the form of the sarala trees; it was full of peaceful beings; it was steady; it was crowded with beings; it had masses of many flowering trees; it had the lord of Śiva’s attendants seated on the top; it was resounding (with the bellowing) of a fully agitated bull; it had a peak having dark-green grassy spot.

222-223. There he saw, (as it were) another Śiva, the charming Vīraka, lord of the world of the brave, bright like Śiva, mature, having matted hair like saffron and a mass of filaments of flowers, having a cane in his hand, unruffled, fierce, and having inauspicious ornaments.

224-227. Then gradually as Madana came near Śiva, he saw Śiva, whose lotus-like eyes were closed but with their corners open; who was looking straight at (with his eyes fixed on) the tip of his nose; who had the upper garment in the form of an excellent hide of the best lion; who was tawny due to the fire of the breaths (i.e. hisses) given out by the hoods of serpents on his ears; whose long mass of hair was oscillating by the cheeks and touching them; who had Vāsuki whose end had entered the navel of Śiva; whose hands were respectfully folded, and whose nose tip was adorned by a serpent.

228-229. Then resorting to humming of the bees on the tops of trees, Madana entered Śiva’s mind through the cavity of his ear. Śaṅkara then having heard that sweet humming resorted to by Madana thought of Dakṣa’s daughter, and desired to sport with her.

230. Then gradually the abstract meditation of Śiva having vanished there appeared the actual form of the target.

231. Then with his heart covered with an obstacle he became one with that. (Thus) the (mind of the) lord of gods was (temporarily) possessed by a change in the form of amorous sentiment.

232. Śiva (however) slightly angry and having mustered courage, having driven away Madana, remained there being covered by his divine power.

233-234. Madana, taking any form as he desired, difficult to understand, with night as his abode, of a great heart, being overpowered by that power, (began to) burn and he, full of the danger of ignorance, moved out of (Śiva’s) heart. He, the jhaṣa-bannered, reaching an outside place, remained there.

235-236. He was followed by his friend Spring. Makaradhvaja Madana discharged at the chest of Hara, a charming bunch, tossed by a gentle breeze, of mango blossoms, (which) was an arrow called Mohana (i.e. deluding).

237. That great, harsh, long, flowery arrow causing delusion, and resplendent with (i.e. true to its) name (Mohana) fell on the pure heart of him.

238. When his heart with the group of senses was pierced, Śiva, the protector of beings, with his courage shaking, became prone to passion.

239. Then he realised that his passion was caused by the influence of emotions. Then he spoke many words due to the obstruction (caused to his penance).

240. Then on the face, fearful on account of his terrible ‘hum’ sound caused by the fire of anger, of Rudra of a terrible form, a third eye, full of fire appeared.

241-242. Śiva flashed it at Madana who was nearby. By the spark (of fire) from the eye, Madana, the proud Kāma, was quickly reduced to ashes, while the residents of heaven were crying.

243-246. Then the fire that rose from Śiva’s (third) eye spread out to burn the world. Realising the fire voracious with the hum-sound, Śiva, then divided it (for the well-being) of the world, by putting the fire burning Madana, part by part, into the mango-tree, into wine, into the moon, into flowers and other objects, into bees and cukoos. That Śiva, pierced with Madana’s arrows internally and externally, saw the fire, causing agitation in the worlds, and spreading in such a way as to be difficult to be checked, as it were entering these parts, after being divided.

247. The fearful one (i.e. Śiva), burning in the heart with full passion due to the strong desire to obtain her (i.e. Pārvatī) came under the influence of grief.

248. Rati, seeing Madana reduced to ashes by the flame of Hara’s [?] hum-sound, wept excessively with (Madana’s) friend, Spring.

249-250. Then repeatedly weeping and being consoled by Spring, she sought the refuge of the three-eyed Śiva who had the crescent-moon on his head, taking with her a twig with flowers, of a mango-tree accompanied by bees and covered with leaves, and with a cuckoo as her friend.

251-252a. Rati, having tied her mass of curly hair, and having besmeared her body with the white ash of Madana, and having knelt down said to Śiva, adorned with the (crescent-) moon.

Rati said:

252b-258. My salutation to Śiva who has fully occupied my mind, who has occupied the world, whose ways are wonderful. My salutation to Śiva, who is worshipped by gods. Salutation to you (O Śiva), who are always intent on showing favour to your devotees. My salutation to Bhava and the origin of the worldly existence. My salutation to you, who destroyed Madana. Salutation to you who are adorned with the filthy things in nature. My salutation to the immeasurable one, to the abode of virtues, to the ancient Siddha. My salutation to the protector, to the virtue (incarnate), to the leader of the fearful attendants. My salutation to the author of many (kinds of) prosperity in the world. My salutation to you who give what is liked by your devotee. My salutation to the origin of (every) act. My constant salutation to you whose form is ever unlimited. My salutation to you whose anger is unbearable; to you having the mark of the moon (on your head). My salutation to you whose unlimited sports are excessively praised; to you whose vehicle is a bull (Nandi); to you who destroyed the city (of Tripura). My salutation to you who are famous, who are a great medicine having various forms. My salutation to Kāla (i.e. destiny), Kalā, to you who go beyond Kāla and Kalā; to you, O spiritual guide of the mobile and the immobile; to the best of those who should be thought of; to you who fancied the creation of beings.

259. For getting (back) my husband, I have suddenly sought the shelter of you, the great god, having the (crescent-) moon on your head. Give me Kama, glory and prosperity. O lord, without that husband, I cannot live.

260. O lord of gods, who is greater and dearer to the be

loved in the world than her lover, who is the lord, who is powerful, who is the source of dear things, who is clever, who knows various ways[5] and who does not torment others?

26la. You alone are the lord, you (alone) are the protector of the world, you (alone) are kind, who have uprooted the fear of your devotees.

261b-262a. Śaṅkara having the moon on his head, (called) Vṛṣākapi,. thus praised by Madana’s beloved, was pleased, and looking at her spoke to her (these) sweet (words):

Śaṅkara said:

262b-263a. O beautiful lady, after a long time this Madana will (again) be (alive). In the worlds he will be known as Anaṅga (bodiless).

263b-264. Thus addressed, Rati, the beloved of Kāma, having saluted Śiva by (bowing down) her head, went to another garden on the Himalaya mountain. The distressed one wept many times at every charming spot.

265a. Though she was determined to die, she abstained from (doing so) by Śiva’s order.

265b-268. The (Himālaya) Mountain, impelled by Narada’s words, with a full (i.e. pleased) mind, took, at an auspicious time, his daughter, who had put on ornaments, who had performed an auspicious ceremony, who had put on a chaplet of divine flowers, who had worn a white silken garment, and who was accompanied by her friends, proceeded, and having approached thickets and gardens he saw (at one place) a lady who was weeping, about whom no guess could be made, and who had great prowess.

269-270a. There was none like her in (point of) beauty in the world, in the beautiful forests and on the (mountain-) peaks. Seeing her weeping, the Mountain thought with curiosity. Having gone near her, he asked her:

Himālaya said:

270b-27la. O auspicious one, who are you, to whom do you belong, and why are you weeping? O you most beautiful lady in the world, I think the reason (for your weeping) is not small.

271 b-272a. Hearing his words, she, accompanied by Spring wept and heaved a sigh and uttered words that caused grief and increased distress.

Rati said:

272b-274. O you of a good vow, know me to be the dear wife of Kāma. On this mountain, Śiva was practising penance. Being annoyed by an obstacle (in his penance), he, through anger, flashed his (third) eye, and discharging a flame of fire, reduced Kāma to ashes. Overcome with fear I sought the refuge of that god.

275-277. (When) I praised him, he was pleased, and then he i.e. Śiva said (to me:) “O beloved of Kāma, Kāma will be born (again). A man resorting to me, and reciting this eulogy (made) by you, will obtain (i.e. get fulfilled) his desire, and will even come back from (the clutches of) death. Waiting for the fulfilment of his promise, I am, O you of great lustre, preserving my body for some time.

278-279. The Mountain, thus addressed by Rati, (looking) terrific due to alarm, held the hand of his daughter, and desired to go to his city. As what was going to happen was to happen, she the future cause of beings, being abashed, said to her father, the Mountain, through her friend:

The Mountain’s daughter said:

280-282. What is the use of this wretched body to me? How would Śaṅkara, who has reached that state, be my husband? What is desired can be obtained by austerities? There is nothing that cannot be obtained by one who practices penance. When a legitimate means is available, wretchedness is useless (has no meanining) in the world. With my doubts about penance removed, and with a desire to live for (my) self, I shall thus practise penance; I shall go (to practise it).

283a. To his daughter, who spoke like this, the lord of mountains spoke words with the letters of them (i.e. with his voice) choked:

Himālaya said:

283b-284a. Do not (do this) rash act, O daughter. Your body is not capable of bearing (the trouble of) penance which is fit for (persons) capable of suffering, O you of pleasing appearance.

284b-285a. Even if a person does not desire future acts (i.e. that are to take place) do take place; and also future (i.e. would-be) objects[6] come up.

285b-286a. Therefore, O daughter, you have nothing to do with penance. I shall go home (with you) and will think about this (there only).

286b-287. Even after he had said so, when the Mountain’s daughter did not go home, the Mountain, full of anxiety, approved of (what) his daughter (had decided). Then a divine voice was heard in (i.e. from) the sky, (spreading) in the three worlds:

288-290a. “Since, you said, ‘O daughter, do not (do this) rash act’, to your daughter, her name will be ‘Uma’ in the worlds. She is success incarnate, and will accomplish what she thinks about.” Hearing these words (uttered) in the sky, he allowed his daughter (to practise penance) and went home.

Pulastya said:

290b-294. Followed by her two friends, the restrained daughter of the lord of mountains too, went to the peak of the mountain which was inaccessible even to deities, which was auspicious, which was adorned with many minerals, which was full of divine creepers, the trees in which were beautiful with bees, which had divine streams, which was full of many birds, which was adorned with Cakravāka birds and with fully blown auspicious (flowers) growing in water and on land, which had many secret caves, and which had divine chambers, which was resounding with groups of birds, and which was full of the desire-yielding trees.

295-296. There she saw a tree, which had large branches, green leaves, flowers of all seasons, which was decorated with Cakravāka birds, which was full of hundreds of flowers of various kinds, which had various kinds of fruits, which was forsaken (i.e. untouched) by the sun’s rays, the sprouts of which were expanded and well-knit.

297-298. Leaving her garments and ornaments there, the Mountain’s daughter, clad in divine bark-garments and wearing a girdle made of darbha-grass, bathed thrice (a day), ate red lodhra flowers for a hundred autumns. Then she subsisted on one withered leaf for a hundred years.

299-301. She, the treasure of penance, remained without food for a hundred years. Then by the fire of her penance, all the beings were frightened. Then revered Indra remembered the seven sages. All of them gladly came there; and they, who were glad, after being honoured by Indra, asked him the reason of that (i.e. for inviting them): “O best among gods, why have you remembered us?”

302-303. Indra said: “O you revered ones, listen to the reason (why I invited you). The daughter of the (Himālaya) Mountain is practising a severe penance on the Himālaya mountain. Please do quickly what is pleasing to her, by (bringing about) the completion of the respectable lady’s penance for the (good of the) world.”

304-305. Saying, “All right”, the sages having come to the mountain resorted to by the multitudes of Siddhas, spoke to her in sweet words: “O daughter having lotus-like eyes, what is the desire that you have set about (to be fulfilled)?” The respectable girl said to the sages with respect and regard:

The respectable girl said:

306-307. O you magnanimous ones who practise penance by observing silence, to salute people like you I have made up my mind which does not entertain doubts. You with pleased faces, please, be seated first, and being free from fatigue, then ask me (what you want to ask).

308-309. Thus addressed, they took seats there; she too, breaking her vow of silence and saluting the sages duly, and worshipping them according to the proper rite, gently spoke to the seven sages resembling the sun.

310. The revered seven ones also, after the end of her silence (i.e. when she broke her silence) again asked her who deserved honour.

311. She too, of a charming smile, with a mind full of honour (for the sages), seeing all the sages (seated) like that, spoke with restraint in speech:

312. “You, the revered ones, know the desire of the mind of beings, for human beings very much torment their bodies, etc.

313. Certain clever ones exert themselves with (in) various efforts. With (certain) means, they, being careful obtain objects difficult to get.

314-315. Others, having accurately fixed various undertakings, resort to the vow with effort for the (good) in another body (i.e. next existence); and my hand, desiring to touch the Vindhya-peak, decorated with the garland of flowers produced (i.e. grown) in the sky, repeatedly sp reads out.

316-318a. Indeed, I am eager to obtain Bhava (i.e. Śiva), who is, by his (very) nature, difficult to please, and who is now practising penance, whom (even) gods and demons have not (properly) judged, and who is the abode of the action undertaken for (reaching) the supreme spirit. By him, free from attachment, Madana has now been burnt. How should a person like me propitiate Śiva whose nature is like that!”

318b-319a. In order to know the steadiness of her mind, the sages spoke to her about (her) present undertaking from the beginning.

The sages said:

319b-320. O daughter, in the world two kinds of happiness are observed: Contact with this body and the joy of mind. He (i.e. Śiva), the naked one, is, by nature, fierce and has ashes and bones as his ornaments.

321. He wears skulls, is a mendicant, is naked, has deformed eyes, and his actions are unsteady. He is heedless, has an insane figure, is loathsome, and has stored nothing.

322-324. You will not obtain your desired object by having this husband (entertaining) formless and worthess objects. If you desire eternal happiness of your body, how can you get it from Mahādeva (i.e. Śiva) who dwells among ghosts, who is abhorred, from whose ornaments made of bones and skulls human marrow is trickling, who is adorned with ornaments made of hissing and fierce lordly serpents, who lives in crematory and who is followed by Pramathas (i.e. a class of beings attending upon Śiva).

325. There is Hari, whose feet are rubbed by the multitudes of crowns of lordly gods, who is the killer of (his) enemies, who is the creator of the world, who is the husband of Śrī (i.e. Lakṣmī), and whose form is infinite.

326. Similarly there is Indra, Pākaśāsana in whose honour prayers are muttered[7]. (And also) there is Agni, the treasure of gods and the yielder of (all) desires.

327. There is Vāyu, the supporter of the world and the life of all beings. And also there is king Vaiśravaṇa (i.e. Kubera), the lord having greatness due to (his having) all wealth.

328. Why do you not desire to have one of these? Or you can have the pleasure kept in your mind (i.e. entertained by you) from someone else.

329-330. Thus, O daughter, the efficacy of the worldly wealth will lead to your good in this or the next world. Your father has everything that is offered to gods. The trouble that you will take for obtaining your husband is a fruitless tree.

331. Generally an object in full is difficult to be obtained by (merely) leaving one’s place; it may be obtained even (by remaining) there.

332. The Mountain’s daughter got angry when the best sages were speaking like that, and with her eyes red, and lips throbbing, she spoke:

Devi said:

333-334. What can be the (proper) guidance for a wrong perception? Where can there be a curbing of crime? Who can put you, teaching perverse things, on the right path, (since) you thus take me to be wicked, liking wrong position and wrong perception? I have no deliberation since I am an egotist.

335-336a. All of you are, like the creator, omniscient. (Yet) you do not know that god, the eternal lord of the world, who is unborn, who is the ruler, who is immutable and whose greatness and rise are immeasurable.

336b-340. Let that undertaking (of yours, viz. trying to dissuade me) stop. Even lords of gods like Viṣṇu, Brahmā have not known him, who is the reality, and correct knowledge that is just covered. Do you not even know that greatness of him, which has spread in (all) the worlds and is clear to all beings, whose form is the sky or the fire or the earth, or Varuṇa, whose eyes are the moon and the sun, whose genital organ in the form of a phallus do the demons and gods, led by lords of gods like Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Indra, and also the sages, devoutly worship? Do you not even know him, the source of their power?

341-342. Gods like Nārāyaṇa (i.e. Viṣṇu) are born on Aditi from Kaśyapa; Kaśyapa is the son of Marīci, and Aditi is Dakṣa’s daughter. It is said that Marīci and Dakṣa also are the sons of Brahmā. Brahmā has achieved his power from the golden egg itself.

343-347. From whose meditation has the original division (of the world) been manifested? Nārāyaṇa, with his own desire and impelled by him, would get birth as Nārāyaṇa. (Even) the thought of those who are subject to urge is due to his act (only). It is the idea of one who is spoiled by madness (by which) one looks upon desirable things as perverse. Such a person always ridicules the affairs (of people) when they are seen by him in the world. Know Viṣṇu to be the cause of the attainment of religious merit and demerit. O sages, know this much and like farmers sowing a handful of seeds in an excellent field on the earth for obtaining good fruits, listen repeatedly to my words near (i.e. within the range of) the hearing of the lord of mountains.

348. They, known as masters of speech, and (looking) handsome due to smile, having heard that charming speech describing that undertaking in order, spoke:

The sages said-.

349-351. O daughter, when the world was in distress, his mission was really excellent. Probably the fear of (i.e. entertained by) the Himālaya mountain was due to his form at that time. Those that are ready to do a deed are indeed eager (to do it). Even their hearts are impatient; then what about the hearts of the magnanimous ones? Especially those who desire to speak in particular should follow the course of the conduct of the world; since those who accept their authority live in comfort.

352-353a. Saying so, the sages quickly went to the Himalaya mountain. There, respectfully honoured by the Mountain, the best sages, being pleased, hastily spoke a few words.

The sages said:

353b-355a. The trident-holding god himself seeks (the hand of) your daughter. So quickly purify yourself as by offering an oblation into fire. That is the mission of the gods which has turned round after a long time. This effort should be done for the emancipation of the world.

355b-357a. Thus addressed, the (Himālaya) Mountain, overcome with joy, and as it were looking for a reply, was unable to speak. Then Mena, overcome with love for her daughter and having saluted the sages, herself spoke these significant words to the sages:

Mena said:

357b-360a. Now all that, for which they desire the birth of a daughter, has come up in due course. Even to him, who is endowed with being born in (a good) family, with (young) age, with handsome form, with power, a daughter should not be given by inviting him if he is not seeking her hand. How is it that he, who has the quarters as his garment (i.e. who is naked), who grants Kāmas (i.e. satisfies desires) though he has burnt Kāma (i.e. Madana), is worshipped by my daughter?

The sages said:

360b-363a. Understand the supremacy of Śaṅkara. Gods and demons, worshipping the pair of his lotus- like feet, become very happy. That form which is useful to a person is desired by him for a long time. The girl, pleased with that form (of Śiva) is practising a severe penance. When she will have finished the divine vows she will listen to us only.

363b-364. Saying so, they went to the place where the Mountain’s daughter was (practising penance). That resolute Umā, full of lustre because of her having vanquished the heat of the sun and that of fire’s flames, being affectionately addressed by the sages, spoke (these) significant words:

365-367a. “I do not desire (to be favoured) by any mean one except Śarva, the trident-holder. I have sought Śiva who remains with distinction, who gives great prosperity to beings, whose great matchless standard is his courage and deeds of grandeur, than whom there is nothing other (to be sought), from whom all (else) proceeds, and whose affluence is without a beginning or an end.

367b. He is impartial, resolute and his (so called) perverse deeds are far-reaching.”

368-369a. Having heard these words, the best sages, with their eyes full of tears, embraced that devout (girl). They, being very much pleased spoke (these) sweet words to the Mountain’s daughter.

The sages said:

369b-371a. It is a great wonder, O daughter; you, like a spotless form of knowledge, are, by resorting to Bhava (i.e. Śiva), pleasing our hearts. We indeed know the wonderful supremacy of that god. We have come here to guage the firmness of your resolve.

371b-372. O you of slender body, this (your) desire will be soon fulfilled. The sun moves with his radiance. Is the lustre of the gems separate from them? Which object gives up its own colour? In the same way you are without Śiva (i.e. cannot be separated from him).

373-374. We (now) go to request him with (i.e. using) not one (i.e. many) means. We too have the same object in our heart. Since you are the intellect and the wisdom (of Śiva), Śaṅkara too will certainly accomplish the mission.

375-376. All the sages who spoke thus, were honoured by the Mountain’s daughter, and then they went to the great peak of the Himālaya with the water of the Ganges and had their tawny hair matted; in their hands they had the wreaths of the Mandara flowers followed by bees.

377-378a. Reaching the mouatain-peak, they saw Śaṅkara’s hermitage where all the beings were tranquil, where the thicket was quiet, where water flowed in all directions without (making) any noise or agitation.

378b-379. Then at the door they saw Vīraka, with a cane in his hand. The sages, the best speakers, who were polite, worshipped him and on account of the importance of the mission spoke to him in sweet words:

380-381. “Know that we, urged by the (importance of) the mission of gods, have come to see Śaṅkara, the most virtuous three-eyed (god). O lord, you alone are our refuge; (see that) there will be no delay. This is a general rule that a door-keeper should be requested (first).”

382-383a. Thus addressed by the sages with respect, he said to them: “He has gone to the Ganges for offering his last prayer of the sacrifice. O sages, sanctified by meditation, you will sec Śiva after a while.”

383b-384a. Thus addressed, the sages, expert in the mission, remained there with watchfulness, as the thirsty Cātaka-birds remain (waiting) for the rainy season with deepsounding clouds.

384b-386a. Then Vīraka, bowing down and touching the ground with his knees, gladly said (these words) to Śaṅkara who had assumed Vīrāsana[8] (pose) and had deer-hide fastened to his body and who was the abode of affection:

386b-387a. “The seven sages have come to see you of blazing lustre. O lord, order (them) to see you, then you (may) resort to meditation.”

387b-388a. Then Śiva, who was thus addressed by the magnanimous Vīraka, gave an order, with a gesture, viz. moving his eye-brows, for their entry.

388b-389a Vīraka also, by nodding his head, called the seven great sages remaining at a distance to see Śiva.

389b-390. They too, quickly tying their hair and wearing long hides of black antelopes as their garments, entered the divine sacrificial ground of lord Śiva.

391-392. Then with their hands folded, and having thrown a heap of divine flowers (at Śiva’s feet and thus) worshipping the pair of Śiva’s feet, the residents of heaven, affectionately looked at by Śiva, together saw Śiva and were glad.

The sages said:

393. We are blessed now, since we are seeing the sproutlike feet (of Śiva) saluted by the lords of gods having the wealth of the greatness of virtues. Order us what we should do for the protection of all.

394. The omniscient one then laughed and said to the best sages: “Carry out the mission that you have in mind.”

395-397a. Thus addressed, the sages quickly came to the place where the Mountain’s daughter was, and they who knew distinction (between one thing and another) spoke to the Mountain’s daughter in the mountain’s cave: “Do not burn your charming, dear and attractive form with penance. Śaṅkara is pleased with you; he will accept your hand. Desiring the same thing, we approached your father before you. Go home with your father, we (too) shall go home”.

397b-398a. She (i.e. Pārvatī), who was thus addressed, thought: ‘There is a fruit of penance (i.e. penance gives its fruit)’. She hastily went to the divine, well-decorated house of her father.

398b-399a. The daughter of the Himālaya mountain, eager to see Hara (i.e. Śiva) regarded one night as equal to a myriad years.

399b-400. Then the (inmates of Himalaya’s house) performed a friendly rite in the early part of the day[9], and many groups of auspicious rites duly and in proper order, and also combinations of divine, auspicious (rites).

401-402. Seasons, being embodied and satisfying all desires waited upon the Mountain. The breezes were comfortable in the act of sweeping the Mountain. Goddess Lakṣmī herself made many decorations in the mansions; there was Kānti in every object, and Ṛddhi was full of ornaments.

403-405a. Gems like Cintāmaṇi (i.e. the desire-yielding gem) stood around the Mountain. Creepers and great trees like Kalpa (i.e. the desire-yielding tree) also stood (by him). Herbs in embodied forms with divine herbs, and all liquids and minerals were the Mountain’s servants; the servants, the inmates of the hermitage, were engrossed in work.

405b-406. Rivers, all oceans, and whatever was mobile and immobile—all these enhanced the greatness of the Mountain. The sages, serpents, Yakṣas, Gandharvas, Kinnaras became (engrossed in work).

407. The gods, with pure forms, stood ready with decorations for Śaṅkara on the Gandhamādana mountain.

408. The grandsire, with his eyes widely dilated due to affection (for Śaṅkara) tied the piece of the moon (i.e. the crystal-moon) on the matted hair of Śaṅkara.

409-410a. Kālī, Cāmuṇḍā, tying a large garland of skulls on his head, said to Giriśa (i.e. Śaṅkara): “O Śaṅkara, produce a son, who after killing the family of the lord of demons, will satisfy me with blood.”

410b-411a. Śauri (i.e. Viṣṇu), taking the best of ornaments viz. a bright neck-ornament, a snake-ornament, became ready before Śiva.

411 b-412a. Indra hastily put on his (body with a) perspiring large lotus-like face, an elephant-hide, with its extending ends smeared with marrow.

412b-413a. Sharp breezes blew, and decorated Śaṅkara’s bull, his vehicle, having the speed of mind and resembling the brilliance of the Himālaya mountain.

413b. The sun, fire and the moon that dwelt in Śaṅkara’s eyes, shone.

414. The funeral ashes, bright like silver, on (i.e. applied to) the forehead of the lord of the worlds, the witness to the deeds of the world, had their own lustre.

415. With his hand he tied the wreath of human bones. The lord of dead bodies (i.e. Yama) remained, through fear, at a distant city (i.e. place).

416-417a. The lord (i.e. Śiva), discarding the jewelled ornaments of various sizes brought by Kubera, himself, with his own hand, having bracelets of bright lordly serpents, put on spotless Takṣaka as his ear-ornament.

417b-418a. Decorating the lord with various decorative articles they (i.e. gods etc.).... (obscure).

418b-419a. Goddess Earth, charming in all respects, and eagerly occupied, let out new, all-beautiful rice and juicy herbs.

419b-420. God Varuṇa, who knew everything about everybody, himself took ornaments decked with jewels, and also variegated flowers full of gems, and remained there (ready) with ornaments.

421. Devout Fire too (was ready with) divine golden ornaments and silver vessels.

422-423. Fragrant Wind, pleasant to the touch for the lord, blew. Graceful Indra, having the thunderbolt as his ornament and being glad, held the umbrella bright and large with the lunar rays. The chief Gandharvas sang (songs) and groups of celestial nymphs danced.

424. Gandharvas and Kinnaras playing on musical instruments, sang very sweetly. In a while the Seasons also sang and danced there.

425-427a. The unsteady attendants (of Śiva) disturbed the Himālaya mountain (by their movements). In due order, (Śiva), the creator, the author of everything and the destroyer of Bhaga’s eyes[10], performed with his wife (i.e. bride) the rites relating to marriage as told (in sacred books). He, the destroyer of the cities (of Tripura), to whom worship was offered by the lord of mountains (i.e. Himālaya), and who was amused by hosts of gods, lived there that night with his wife.

427b-428a. Then the lord of gods was awakened (next morning) by the singing of the Gandharvas and the dancing of the celestial nymphs, and the praises of (i.e. sung by) the gods.

428b-429a. Next morning, taking his leave of the lordly Himālaya mountain, he, with his wife, went to Mandara mountain (carried) by Śṛngin, having wind’s speed.

429b-430a. When lord Śiva had (thus) left with Umā, the (Himālaya) Mountain, along with his relatives, experienced joy (i.e. became happy); for, the mind of which father having a daughter is not free (when the daughter is given) away to a worthy groom!

430b-431. He, the destroyer of the eyes of Bhaga, with his heart that was very much attached, sported with the respectable lady (viz. Pārvatī) in charming city-gardens and secluded thickets.

432-433a. When a long time (like this) passed, the Mountain’s daughter played with artificial sons (i.e. dolls) with her friends (in) a game called ‘Son’. Sometime the Mountain’s daughter anointed her body with fragrant oil and rubbed and cleaned it which was filled (i.e. covered) with dirt.

433b. Taking those unguents used for rubbing and cleaning the body, she prepared a human (shape) having an elephant’s face.

434. The respectable lady (i.e. Pārvatī) while playing, once threw that human (form) into the water of the auspicious friendly Ganges. Then that (form) turned into one having a big body (i.e. increased in size).

435. With his very vast body he filled the world. The respectable lady (i.e. Pārvatī) addressed him ‘O son’; and Jānhavī (i.e. Gaṅgā) also called him ‘O son’.

436. That form having the face of an elephant, was worshipped by the gods as Gāṅgeya (i.e. the son of Gaṅga); and the grandsire, gave him supremacy as Vināyaka, over the attendants (of Śiva).

437-438a. Again while playing the lady of excellent complexion fashioned a tree. The lady of an auspicious face nourished a charming sprout of Aśoka that had shot forth by treating it with auspicious operations.

438b-439a. Then the respectable lady was addressed in these words by gods along with sages through brāhmaṇas like Bṛhaspati, the priests of the lord of heaven.

439b-440a. “Now please formulate rules on (i.e. for) the path shown (by you). O respectable lady, what will be the fruit of such trees and (dolls called) sons?”

440b. Thus addressed, she, with her body full ofjoy, spoke extremely auspicious words:

441-443a. “The wise man, who gets fashioned a well in a village where there is want of water, lives in heaven (for as many years as there are drops in the well, at the rate of) one year for one drop. (The fashioning of) a large well is equal to (the fashioning of) ten wells; (the fashioning of) a deep lake is equal to (the fashioning of) ten large wells. (The offering in marriage of) a daughter is equal to (the fashioning of) ten deep lakes; and (the planting of) a tree is equal to (the offering in marriage) ten girls. This is the auspicious rule that would definitely take place in future in the world.”

443b. The brāhmaṇas, led by Bṛhaspati, thus addressed, went home after having saluted the mother viz. Bhavānī (i.e. Pārvatī).

444-450. When they had gone, Śaṅkara too, holding the hand of the Mountain’s daughter went to his own residence, which gave delight to the mind, which had mansions with upper stories and gateways, which had long strings of pearls (hanging about), the quadrangular spot in the courtyard of which was full of jasmine creepers, which was well tied (i.e. decked) with gold, which had a sporting chamber as desired, which was resounding with the humming of bees intoxicated with the fragrance of flowers that had scattered there, the walls of which were (as it were) covered with the songs sung loudly by Kinnaras, which had a mass of fragrant incense obtainable as desired (yet) unseen, on all sides of which pet pea-hens were zealously kept, to the crystal-pillars and arches of which groups of swans were assigned, which was clean, and was mostly crowded with Kinnars without flurry, where parrots, through misunderstanding, saw the walls, reflected with pearls and made of rubies (as containing) their own species (i.e. other parrots).

451-453a. There the lord began playing with dice with his beloved. At that portion of the ground (decked) with spotless sapphires, where the two remained sporting, their bodies gladdened with their interest in amusement, entered into companionship. When thus the respectable lady and Śaṅkara were sporting, a great sound like the falling sky arose.

453b-454a. Hearing that the respectable lady (i.e. goddess Pārvatī) asked Śaṅkara, the best of gods, through curiosity, as to what it was.

454b-455a. The god said with a smile: “O you of bright smile, you have never seen this before. These are lords of my attendants, dear to me; they are playing on this mountain.

455b-456a. They who formerly were best among men, have pleased me by means of penance, celibacy, muttering my names and by resorting to sacred places.

456b-457. O you of an auspicious face, they have come to me and are dear to me. They take any form they like; they are very energetic; they are endowed with great forms and virtues. I am amazed by the deeds of them who are mighty.

458-459. They are capable of destroying this creation along with gods. Even though left by Brahmā, the Moon, Indra, Gandharvas, the great serpents and Kinnaras, I still rejoice; (but) without them I never rejoice. O you beautiful in all limbs, these dear to me are playing on the mountain.”

460. The lady thus addressed by him, being full of amazement approached a window and with all wonder (on) her face she saw them all (through the window):

461-463. They were thin, tall, short, fat, large-bellied. The faces of some of them were like those of tigers and elephants. Some appeared like rams and he-goats. They had the forms of many beings, had flames in their mouths, were dark and brown; (some were) pleasing, (some) fearful, (some) had smiling fac es, (some) always had black and brown matted hair; the faces of some resembled those of various birds, or those of gods; their garments were silken or made of hides; (some were) naked, others were deformed.

464-466. The ears of some were like those of cows or like those of elphants; they had many faces, eyes and bellies; had many feet and arms; they had various divine missiles in their hands; they had put on chaplets of flowers; they were agitated and fierce; they had held various weapons and were adorned with many armours; they had got into strange vehicles; they had divine forms; they moved in the sky; they were proclaiming to the accompaniment of the sound of lutes and other musical instruments; they were dancing at various places.

467a. Seeing the lords of attendants like that the goddess said to Śaṅkara:

The goddess (i.e. Pārvatī) said:

467b-468a. What is the number of the lords of the attendants? What are their names? What is their nature? Tell me about each one of them, who are settled down.

Śaṅkara said:

468b-469a. Their number runs in crores, and their valour is known in many ways. The entire world is occupied by these who are fierce and very mighty.

469b-470. These, eating various kinds of food, and enjoying (themselves), joyfully enter the places sacred to Siddhas, paths, old gardens, houses, bodies of demons, children and mad persons.

471-472. Some of them drink hot (liquids), some drink foam, some drink (i.e. inhale) smoke, some drink honey, some eat marrow, some drink blood, some eat all things, some do not eat all. Some eat the (food of) gods, some eat the food of ascetics, some like many musical instruments and enjoyment. Due to their unlimited number it is not possible to describe them separately.

The goddess said:

473-475. O lord, who is that lord of attendants? Who is followed by Kinnaras, who has put on the upper part of his body the hide of elephant, whose body is pure, who has put the girdle of muñja (around his waist), who, the smart one, has dyed his face with the tenacious paste of red arsenic, who has put on the garland of lotuses bitten (i.e. stung) by bees, who has a charming figure, who is producing the rhythmic sound of (the cymbals of) bell-metal with pieces of stone, and who is repeatedly listening to the songs of the attendants? What is his name?’

Śarva (i.e Śiva) said:

476. O lady, he is Vīraka, who is always dear to my heart, who is the support of many wonders and virtues and who is honoured by the lords of attendants.

The goddess said:

477. O you destroyer of the cities (of Tripura), I long for such a son. When shall I see such a son, causing delight?

Śarva said:

478. Just this is your son giving delight to you. Vīraka too will be lucky to have a mother like you, O lady of charming waist.

479-480. Thus addressed, the Mountain’s daughter quickly sent her friend Vijayā, eager with joy, to bring (to her) Vīraka. Getting down quickly from the mansion touching the sky, Vijayā said to (Vīraka), the protector of the attendants, who remained in their midst and who prompted a crore of suns:

481-482. “O Viraka, come on; you have pleased the goddess with your smartness; she is calling you.” He, bright like a red lotus blooming on the top of the mansion, thus addressed by her dropped the pieces of stone, and, followed by Vijayā, approached the goddess.

483. Seeing him, Pārvatī started oozing profuse milk from her breasts. The Mountain’s daughter said (to him): “O child, drink as much as you desire, this milk, oozing (from my breasts).”

484. The goddess affectionately said in sweet words, “O Vīraka, come on quickly: you have now become my son, given by the god of gods”.

485-486. Saying so and placing him on her lap, she embraced him and kissed him on his cheeks; then smelling his head, stroking his limbs, herself, decorated him with many divine ornaments like girdles with bells, anklets and with anklets and necklaces strewn in invaluable strings, also with tender leaves and beautiful auspicious bracelets.

487. Then she performed the rite for the protection of his body with many white mustards sanctified by divine hymns. Taking (him) thus she fashioned a wreath on his head by drawing lines of bright yellow pigment, and said to him:

488. “Like a child play well with the attendants, slowly and carefully go by avoiding holes. The trees on the mountain peaks are full of lines (i.e. groups) of serpents; their branches are broken by elephants.

489-490. O boy, do not enter a place agitated by the eddies in the Ganges, and also the forest resorted to by many tigers. O boy, in many inaccessible places a man with a pure heart gets what thing is desired by him, being pleased by all his qualities.” Thus addressed, that Vīraka, smiling, and his mind overpowered by sport, said to his mother:

491. “This bracelet is made by my mother herself, it is painted with reddish dots. This delicate garland made of charming jasmine flowers is placed on my head. I shall please the goddess.”

492-495a. Saying so, he, being happy, went out to play with his attendants. The Mountain’s daughter, moving from the southern window to the western, from the western window to the northern window, from the northern window to the eastern one, along with her friends, saw from (each) window Vīraka playing outside and due to her love for the world she attached to her son said: “Who is here? One having a body—the aggregate of flesh, feces and urine—and knowing little gets infatuated. When the residents of heaven went to another chamber to see Śiva, the regents of quarters got into the vehicles.[11]

495b-496, This sword is spotless, it cuts off; please tell whose sword has been snatched by whom? It is no use having a staff. What shall we say? There is some fierce actual mission of the attendant on the mountain. This is a noose; nobody is bound here; O followers of the regents of quarters, do not stay in vain.”

497-498. They said, “It is so”. Then seeing Vīraka, the protector, following the gods the goddess said: “O protectors of beings, do not (go to) thickets on the mountain, to the door of of fire-chamber; do not dive into the falls of streams; and do not (go into) residences to which masses of flowers are tied; do not move as you like into deep mountain caves full of sounds produced by wind.”

499-500. He having a tawny lustre like a mass of golden pollen on the region of the slope of the lofty golden peak, having the wealth of handsomeness, appeared to give fragrance even in the charming forest of gods and in caves, on the bank of a charming well, having the flowers of kunda, mandāra, sprouts and lotuses. The Mountain’s daughter, longing for her son and desiring to amuse herself, in a moment remembered her son, whose nectar of handsomeness was drunk by Siddha-women with large winking eyes.

501-505. He was her son in the previous birth and had his religious merit rising at that moment only. How can he, who was fashioned by the creator with attention, be satisfied when he was playing? The lord of the lords of attendants (sported) giving delight to the deities—for a moment looking (here and there); for a moment singing divine (songs); for a moment moving with the lords of attendants, unsteady due to (i.e. while) dancing; (remaining) for a moment on a mountain-peak full of roars of lions; for a moment on blazing masses of jewels; for a moment on a lofty Śāla or Tāla tree; for a moment on blossoming Tamāla trees, dark like bees; for a moment at the root of tree; for a moment in water having some mud and marked with lotuses; for a moment on mother’s auspicious and spotless lap. In this way the lord of the lords of Śiva’s attendants, spreading (i.e. indulging in) child-like sports, and giving delight to the deities, with his life being loudly sung by Vidyādharas, and having the same sport as the trident-holder, played.

506-507. When the sun, after having illumined the world, with his rays went to another region, the wealthy Mountain, remaining away and making clear in his heart his very fast friendship, was always propitiated by brāhmaṇas. Meru did not oblige the falling sun.

508-510. About one stumbling down it is always heard: ‘This is the order among people.’ The day fulfilling (the desires) of people, followed the sun. When the sages, keeping off the feeling of heat, and with the palms of their hands folded in obeisance, and with their faces turned towards the sun, performed their evening prayer, the nocturnal darkness spread over this world, as foulness spoiling the mind of a crooked person spreads over his heart.

511-514. When the movements in heaven had become dull, Śiva remained, with his neck clasped by the hands of the Mountain’s daughter, and his senses very much filled with (i.e. affected by) the white moonlight, on a bed, the partitions of which were illumined by the jewelled lamps on the blazing hoods (of serpents), the coverlet of which had gems of groups of moons which imitated the bow of Indra (i.e. the rainbow) due to its shining with various gems, which had heaps of bright pearls along with gems and a mass of bells and which had been covered with a charming, moving, graceful expansive cloth.

515. The Mountain’s daughter too, with the corners of her eyes, dark, her feet having the charms of blue lotuses, touched by (i.e. due to the coming on of) night became very much overpowered by passion. Then the god spoke to her who was full of the art of (love-) sport.

Footnotes and references:


Guhāraṇi—mother of Guha or Kārttikeya; i.e. Pārvatī.


Ityuktvā—should be ityuktā.


Some such verses are not quite intelligible.


Pañcaśara—God oflove. His five flowery arrows are: aravinda (a lotus), aśoka, cūta (mango-blossom), navamallikā (jasmine flower), nilotpala (a blue lotus).


paryāyapara: the expression is not very clear.


padārthāni-the gender is wrong here.


japya—in whose honour prayers are muttered.


Vīrāsana—also called ‘paryaṅka’: sitting on the hams. It is a posture practised by ascetics in meditation.


Brāhmamuhūrta—the last watch of the night i.e. the early part of the day.


Bhaganetrahā—See 33.156 above.


Vv 494ff are not properly worded.

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