Cina, Cīna, Cīnā: 19 definitions



Cina means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include China.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Cīna (चीन) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The literal translation of the word is “thread” or “banner”. The plant Cīna is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Cīna is said to be cold, unctuous, non-heavy, promoting the stability of and alleviates the three doṣas.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Cīna (चीन) is the name of a region mentioned in a list of regions in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—According to the author people living in different regions [viz., Cīna] have their own nourishing foodstuffs [viz., mārdvīka (grapes)]. Such foodstuffs are more beneficial for them.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Cīna (चीन).—(c) a northern kingdom;1 unfit for śrāddha;2 people of.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 7; 18. 46; 31. 83.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 16. 16.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 42; 58. 83.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Cīnā (चीना) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.47.19, II.47.22, III.48.21, III.174.12, V.19.15, V.72.14, VI.10.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Cīnā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya

Cīna refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva. Cīna probably corresponds to the Chinese.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Cīna (चीन) is the name of a country classified as Kādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Cīna] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The Pali name of China. It is several times mentioned in the Milindapanha (121, 327), once as a place where ships congregate (359). Nagasena speaks (121) of a contemporary Cinaraja who could charm the ocean by an Act of Truth and could enter the ocean to a distance of one league in his chariot drawn by lions, the waves rolling back at his approach.

The Apadana (ii.359) speaks of the Cinarattha in a list of countries and tribes.

The Commentaries (E.g., VibbA.159) speak of the softness of Chinese silk (Cinapata).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Cīna (चीन) refers to a sub-division of the Mlecchas: one of the two-fold division of men born in Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans. [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. [...] The Mlecchas—[e.g., the Cīnas, ...] and other non-Āryas also are people who do not know even the word ‘dharma’”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cīṇa (चीण).—f ( P) The ruffle or plaits of a garment. 2 A crack or an opening (as in a wall or floor). 3 C (ciṇaṇēṃ) A well-beaten terrace or floor.

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cīna (चीन).—m n The root of cinī (a variety of yam). 2 m f ( P) The ruffle or plaits of a garment. 3 f (Better cīṇa) A crack or fissure. 4 n or cīna- rēśīma n An inferior kind of silk.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

cīṇa (चीण).—f The ruffle of a garment. A crack. A well-beaten floor.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cīna (चीन).—[ci-nak pṛṣo ° dīrghaḥ]

1) Name of a country, the modern China.

2) A kind of deer.

3) A sort of cloth.

4) A thread.

-nāḥ m. (pl.) The rulers or people of China.

-nam 1 A banner.

2) A kind of bandage for the corners of the eyes.

3) Lead.

Derivable forms: cīnaḥ (चीनः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīna (चीन).—m.

(-naḥ) 1. A kind of deer. 2. A sort of panic, (Panicum miliaceum.) 3. A country, China. 4. A sort of cloth 5. A thread. n.

(-naṃ) 1. A banner, (perhaps made of deer skin.) 2. Lead. E. ci to collect, nak affix, and the deriv. irr. pṛṣo dīrghaḥ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīna (चीन).—m. 1. pl. The name of a people, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 44. 2. A sort of cloth, [Suśruta] 1, 65, 14.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cīna (चीन).—[masculine] [plural] the Chinese.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cīṇa (चीण):—for cīna etc. q.v.

2) Cīna (चीन):—m. [plural] the Chinese, [Manu-smṛti x, 44; Mahābhārata ii f., vf.; Rāmāyaṇa iv, 44, 14; Lalita-vistara; Jaina literature; Caraka; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] (also cīṇa)

3) m. sg. a kind of deer, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Panicum miliaceum (also cinna, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])

5) a thread, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) n. a banner, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) a bandage for the corners of the eyes, [Suśruta i, 18, 11]

8) lead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Cīṇa (चीण):—m. pl. v.l. für cīna (Nomen proprium eines Landes) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 10, 11. 14, 30. 16, 1.] [Śatruṃjayamāhātmya 14, 192.]

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Cīna (चीन):—

1) m. a) pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes, die Chinesen [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 264.] [Medinīkoṣa Nalopākhyāna 4.] [Lassen’s Indische Alterthumskunde I, 857.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 44] (zu Śūdra herabgesunkene Kṣatriya). [Mahābhārata 2, 1002. 3, 1991. 12350. 5, 584. 2730.] vājināṃ ca sahasrāṇi cīnadeśodbhavāni ca [3049. 6, 373.] cīnānaparacīnāṃśca [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 44, 14.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 5, 77. 78. 80. 10, 7. 11. 11, 62. 14, 30. 16, 1. 38.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 194.] [Rgva tch’er rol pa 122.] — b) eine Art Antilope [Amarakoṣa 2, 5, 9.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1294.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — c) eine best. Körnerfrucht, Panicum miliaceum [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 238.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — d) eine Art Zeug [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Suśruta 1, 65, 14] (hier viell. cīnapaṭṭa als ein Wort aufzufassen). [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 88, 3.] — e) Faden (tantu) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

2) n. a) Banner, Fahne (vgl. u. cīnāṃśuka) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 8, 58.] — b) eine best. Art von Verband für die Augenwinkel [Suśruta 1, 65, 18. 66, 2.] — c) Blei [Ratnamālā 296.]

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Cīna (चीन):—

1) a) die CĪna und Prācya gebrauchen zu viel kṣāra [CARAKA 3, 1.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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