Concept of Oneness in the Upanishads (study)

by Chandra Shekhar Upadhyaya | 2015 | 52,584 words

This page relates ‘Common elements regarding Oneness in Upanishads’ of the study dealing with the Concept of Oneness in the Upanishads—Spiritual teachings of ancient India in the form of Sanskrit literature. The Upanisads teach us the essential oneness of humanity and guide us to the truth that the whole world is a family.This concept of oneness is the very essence of spiritualism, which constitutes the solid structure of Indian culture.

Chapter 6 - Common elements regarding Oneness in Upaniṣads

The philosophy of the Upaniṣads is the search for Ultimate Reality, which is the essence of living. The Upaniṣadic seers, the intellectual visionaries, tried to understand the reality from different directions and established their truth which they finally gained from their vivid imagination. The Upaniṣadic seers consider all existing beings as one, because all living entities are not different from the Brahman or Ātman, the Ultimate Reality, where from they come into existence. The Upaniṣadic teaching is the essential oneness between individual self and the Supreme Self. In this chapter an endeavours have been made to elaborate the common elements regarding oneness as depicted in the principal ten Upaniṣads. From the discussion presented in the earlier chapters regarding this concept, it has been observed that Brahman has various denotations like Om, Prāna, Ātman, etc., in different Upaniṣads. Thus, apparently these terms seem to be different, but actually all these indicate one and the only Brahman. The divergent ways of interpretation ultimately lead us towards that Supreme Knowledge that the Brahman is the only truth.

The Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad says that,

omityetadakṣaramidaṃ sarvam,’[1]

I.e., the syllable Om alone means of everything.

The Taittirīya Upaniṣad asserts,

omiti brahma omitīdaṃ sarvam,’[2]

I.e., the syllable Om is Brahman and He is all this.

The Kaṭha Upaniṣad states:

sarve vedā yatpadamāmananti tapāṃsi sarvāṇi ca yadvadanti/
yadicchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti tatte padaṃ saṃgraheṇa bravīmyomityetat

[Trans: I tell you briefly of that goal which all the Vedas with one voice propound, which all the austerities speak of, and wishing for which people practise Brahmacarya: it is this, viz Om.][4]

The Kaṭha Upaniṣad tells that this Om is nothing but Brahman itself. This is the Supreme Force wherefrom all the creatures come. One who meditates Om as Brahman, can achieve the desired objects in his life. According to Kaṭha Upaniṣad, Oṃkāra is the best path for the realisation of Ultimate Truth. It is the ultimate support of all for attaining the Supreme.[5] The Chāndogya Upaniṣad proclaims that Om is praṇava, i.e., Brahman.[6] According to the Chāndogya Upaniṣad the term Om also indicates to udgītha which is derived from ut-gī + tham. Here ‘ut’ means prāṇa, ‘’ means vāk (speech) and ‘tham’ means anna (food).[7] But Upaniṣads again and again suggest that this prāṇa and anna mean the Supreme Reality, i.e., Brahman.[8] The Chāndogya Upaniṣadic concept of udgītha denotes to Brahman, the Ultimate Reality.

The Upaniṣad states:

saṅkunā sarvāṇi parṇāni saṃtṛṇṇānyevamoṃkāreṇa sarvā vāk saṃtṛṇṇoṃkāra evedaṃ sarvamoṃkāra evedaṃ sarvam//’[9]

[Trans: As all leaves meet together in a stalk, so all speech is held together by Om, the syllable Om covers everything and verily the syllable Om is all this.]

The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad also asserts that by the control of this reality, i.e., Om, the sun, moon, heaven, earth, moment, hours, days, night, half months, months, seasons, years and rivers are performing their duties very smoothly by standing their own position. These all are happening only for the command of the Brahman, the Ultimate Reality of this whole universe.[10] The Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad also affirms that Om, i.e., Brahman is the ultimate goal of our life for achieving the immortality.[11]

The Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad says very beautifully that:

arā iva rathanābhau saṃhatā yatra nāḍyaḥ sa eṣo’ntaścarate bahudhā jāyamānaḥ/ omityevaṃ dhyāyatha ātmānaṃ svasti vaḥ pārāya tamasaḥ parastāt//’[12]

[Trans: Just as in the hub of the chariot-wheel spokes are fixed; similarly in the heart all nerves are there; (in the same heart) He stays in many forms; meditate on that Paramātmā who has Om as His epithet; may you cross the ocean of the world and attain the Supreme Person and be blessed.][13]

The Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad also advices us that only through the knowledge of Brahman one can merge into Brahman at last. Except this Reality no other devices present in this world will be able to lead us towards the realisation of Brahman. The Brahman is pervading also as the Om in this entire universe. In the Praśna Upaniṣad Pippalāda says to Satyakāma that Om is both Parama (superior) and aparama (inferior) Brahman.[14] The inferior Brahman is the name that comes from our ignorance. In reality Brahman is one and without the second.

The Brahman is Om itself. Pippalāda explains:

tamoṃkāreṇaivāyatanenānveti vidvānyattacchāntamajaramamṛtamabhayaṃ paraṃ ceti//’[15]

Guru Pippalāda says that by pronouncing the syllable Om, the wise gains the Supreme Brahman, i.e., the Ultimate Reality, which is peaceful, free from birth and death, oldage and fear. In this way, almost all the Upaniṣads describe the syllable Om as nondifferent from Brahman, wherefrom the whole universe comes into view and who is the creator and also the protector of all.

Upaniṣads announce that all the living entities for their existence depend upon the prāṇa, as they originate from prāṇa and this prāṇa is the emblem of Parama Brahman and nothing else.

The Praśna Upaniṣad states:

prāṇasyedaṃ vaśe sarvaṃ tridive yatpratiṣṭhitam/’[16]

This mantra says that the entire universe and even the heaven is also controlled by this prāṇa. Thus, prāṇa rules everything. The Praśna Upaniṣad again states:

devānāmasi vahnitamaḥ pitṛṇāṃ prathamā svadhā/
ṛṣīṇāṃ caritaṃ satyamatharvāṅgirasāmasi//’[17]

Here, the Praśna Upaniṣad states that prāṇa is the chief, i.e., best sender of the oblations to the Gods, the same prāṇa is the first svadhā for the departed forefathers. Pippalāda suggests that this prāṇa is Indra, the king of svarga; the prāṇa is the Rudra, the protector of the universe and the same prāṇa is the Surya, the chief of the shining bodies.

The Chāndogya Upaniṣad also maintains that:

prāṇo vā idaṃ sarvaṃ bhūtaṃ yadidaṃ kiṃca/’[18]

The Upaniṣad says that prāṇa is all this. The Upaniṣad clearly states that at the time of dissolution, all the living beings enter into the prāṇa and again at the time of creation they comeforth from it. Saṃkarācārya also accepted this view.[19] This prāṇa is the eldest and greatest and nothing exist beyond it. The Upaniṣad proclaims that this prāṇa is nothing but Brahman itself when it states that, ‘prāṇo hyevaitāni sarvāṇi bhavati’.[20] The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad also states that, ‘prāṇena hīdaṃ sarvamuttabdham’,[21] i.e., everything of this universe is originated and maintained by prāṇa. The same Upaniṣad speaks again, ‘sa brahma’,[22] i.e., the prāṇa is Brahman. The Taittirīya Upaniṣad affirms that, ‘prāṇo hi bhūtānāmāyuḥ’,[23] i.e., this prāṇa is the life of all entities.

Thus, this prāṇa is the Supreme Spirit as Upaniṣads declare that:

viśvasya satpatiḥ[24]
tadetadakṣaraṃ brahma sa prāṇastadu vāṅmanaḥ[25]
prāṇaḥ sthūṇā[26]
prāṇo brahmeti[27] etc.

In this way Upaniṣadic philosophy is based on the one entity which is ‘ekamevādvitīyam’, whether it is known as prāna, or Ātman, or Brahman or Supreme. Explaining the mysterious nature of this all pervading being, almost all the Upaniṣads convince us at this point that the existing beings surrounding us spring from that single divine power and without it all is lifeless and void.

The Aitareya Upaniṣad speaks:

ātmā vā idameka evāgra āsīnnānyatkiṃcana miṣat sa īkṣata lokānnu sṛjā iti/’[28]

This mantra proclaims that in the beginning of this world only the existence of the Ātman was there and from this Ātman comes all the beings. Therefore, all the diversified things are nothing but the immortal and pure-consciousness Ātman itself, as sparks are nothing but the fire itself. The Chāndogya Upaniṣadic concept regarding the creation of this world is same with the Aitareya Upaniṣad when it states that,‘sarvaṃ khalvidaṃ brahma tajjalāniti,’[29] i.e., verily this whole is Brahman. In this mantra the term ‘tajjalān’ indicates to Brahman, as the whole creation comes from Him, maintained by Him and at last returns to Him. Therefore, Āruṇi tells to Śvetaketu in the sixth chapter of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad that before the creation, there was only sat alone and from Him the whole universe came into existence.

According to Chāndogya Upaniṣad this Supreme, i.e., Ātman or Brahman is above all. This is behind, front, south, north, far from far and near from the near. It resides in everywhere at the same time.

That is why, the Kenopaniṣad speaks:

bhūteṣu bhūteṣu vicitya dhīrāḥ pretyāsmāllokādamṛtā bhavanti/’[30]

According to the Kenopaniṣad realising the existence of the Supreme Being in every individual, the wise becomes immortal after their death.

In the same way, the Taittirīya Upaniṣad declares,

tasmādvā etasmādātmana ākāśaḥ sambhūtaḥ ākāśādvāyu…//’[31]

The Taittirīya Upaniṣad proclaims that from that Spirit, i.e., Ātman springs up the ākāśa, from the ākaśa, the vāyu, from the vāyu the agni, from the agni the water, from the water the earth, from the earth the herbs and food and from the food comes the puruṣa.

The Kaṭḥa Upaniṣad expresses the same idea in a very beautiful manner when it states that:

eko vaśī sarvabhūtāntarātmā ekaṃ rūpaṃ bahudhā yaḥ karoti/’[32]

The Kaṭha Upaniṣad also maintains that the Ultimate Reality who controls the entire universe is one and only, and it transmutes its single form into many. Apart from this Reality we cannot imagine anything in this universe. This single pervading Reality cannot be said as many.[33]

That is why, the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad states:

ātmaivedamagra āsīt puruṣavidhaḥ[34]
ātmaivedamagra āsīdeka eva so’kāmayata[35]
brahma vā idamagra āsīt[36]
ahaṃ brahmāsmīti[37]

These Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣadic mantras prove the Brahman’s single entity, who presides the whole under his control. Because, Brahman alone is real and without it nothing can be possible. The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, therefore, says that this Reality is ultimate support of all.[39] That is why, Brahman is called as ‘bhūtānāmadhipatiḥ’,[40] i.e., Brahman is governor of all. In this context the Īśopaniṣadic view regarding the Brahman is remarkable. The Īśopaniṣad proclaims that the Reality is above the all, It travels and at the same time it travels not. It is far from far and also near from near and resides within the heart of all existing beings and also dwells outside, i.e., in the external things.

That is why, the Īśopaniṣad speaks:

īśā vāsyamidaṃ sarvaṃ yatkiṃca jagatyāṃ jagat/’[41]

Substantiating this concept, the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad states that, ‘brahmaivedaṃ viśvamidaṃ variṣṭham’,[42] i.e., the complete universe is established in the Supreme Brahman. He is in the right, left, in front, back and it has expanded himself in above and also in the below. That is why, the Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad declares that, all the manifesting and non-manifesting beings in this universe is Brahman and nothing else.[43]

In this context Dr. S. Radhakrishnan’s view may aptly be quoted,

“That omniscient, omnipotent cause from which proceed the origin, subsistence and dissolution of the world–which is differentiated by names and forms, contains many agents and enjoyers, is the abode of the fruits of actions, these fruits having their definite places, times and causes, and the nature of whose arrangement cannot even be conceived by the mind, that cause, we say, is Brahman.”[44]

In the same way, the Praśna Upaniṣad proclaims that as the several birds in the evening return to their dwelling place in different trees, in the same way these living beings stay in the

Supreme Paramātman.[45]

The ultimate goal of our life is to comprehend the nature of the Brahman or Ātman, the Ultimate Reality and only through the realisation of Brahman one can achieve the immortality. The truth which we want to realise in this human life is Brahman, the essence of living beings. But on account of our ignorance we give greater importance to the enjoyments of material objects. But, the Upaniṣads again and again suggest that man cannot be satisfied by the wealth and temporary pleasures, which originate from the enjoyments of material things. The happiness acquired from these material things is the cause of bondage to a person in this world. One who desires liberation, he must avoid these transient gratifications, which are the main obstacles for achieving the liberation and he should follow the path of Brahman. Because, realisation of the nature of Brahman only can give mokṣa or liberation in this life. That is why, Naciketa tells to Yama, ‘na vittena tarpaṇīyo manuṣyo’,[46] i.e., man cannot be conciliated with wealth. Naciketa tries to understand the real nature of Ātman from Yama, which is the ultimate path of liberation. In the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, we find that Maitreyī, the wife of Yājñavalkya has ignored the properties offered by Yājñavalkya and wanted to know about that immortal truth which will give the ultimate bliss in this human life. Therefore, she says:

yannu ma iyaṃ bhagoḥ sarvā pṛthivī vittena pūrṇā syātkathaṃ tenāmṛtā syāmiti/’[47]

In this mantra Maitreyī says to Yājñavalkya that -venerable sir, if this world be filled with things that give material pleasure, can these things bring immortality to me?

Then Yājñavalkya also replies to her that by the wealth or earthly enjoyments no one can get liberation. In this context reference may be cited from Śrimad Bhagavadgītā:

ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te/
ādyantavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ//’[48]

[Trans: The pleasures which are born of sense-contacts are verily a source of suffering only (though appearing as enjoyable to worldly-minded people). They have a beginning and an end (they come and go); Arjuna, it is for this reason that a wise man does not indulge in them.][49]

The Upaniṣad suggests that we will have to try to understand the proper nature of Ultimate Spirit, which is known as Brahman or Ātman. Realising the mysterious nature of Brahman only one can merge himself into Brahman. Therefore, elaborating the secret essence of this Reality, Yama tells to Naciketa, who is interested to know about this secret, that a person gets Ultimate Bliss after realising the nature of Ātman, who is seated in our own body.

Yama tells the obscure nature of this reality to Naciketa that:

taṃ durdarśaṃ gūḍhamanupraviṣṭaṃ guhāhitaṃ gahvareṣṭhaṃ purāṇam/ adhyātmayogādhigamena devaṃ matvā dhīro harṣaśokau jahāti//’[50]

[Trans: That who is hidden behind the curtain of Yogamāyā; who is all permeating; who is situated in the cave of the heart of all beings; who lives in forest of the world; who is eternal; knowing Him through the Adhyātmayoga; such deity who is difficult to perceive; the wise Sādhaka renounces pleasure and sorrow both.][51]

Yama tells to Naciketa that, the Ātman which is free from birth and death, is the Ultimate Controller of all beings. Realising this secret one becomes free form birth and death and after leaving this phenomenon world he merges himself into Brahman. But the realisation of the nature of the Supreme Being is not an easy task. Āruṇi tells his son Śvetaketu the way of knowing Brahman in a very attractive manner in the sixth chapter of the Chāndogya Upaniṣad. According to Āruṇi one Reality which is all pervading transforms Himself into multifarious. Though He is one, He is present at the same time in the whole universe and these varieties are nothing but Brahman’s own nature, which is mysterious.

That is why, Āruṇi says to his son Śvetaketu:

yathā somyaikena mṛtpiṇḍena sarvaṃ mṛnmayaṃ vijñātaṃ syādvācārambhaṇaṃ vikāro nāmadheyaṃ mṛttiketyeva satyam//’[52]

[Trans: As a lump of earth is the common substance of all earthen materials, so, it is the only real thing. The earthen materials are nothing but the different shapes of the earth and this transformation is also nothing but various denotations.]

In this way, with this above beautiful example Āruṇi gives the concept of one Supreme Being, who pervades the whole universe and who is seated in all beings.

The easiest way to understand the reality or Brahman is to realise the existence of Brahman in each and every living beings. Because our five sense organs are unable to grasp that Supreme Power.[53] The all pervading Spirit cannot be identified by the naked eyes. So, it is necessary to realise the presence of the Supreme Self within one’s own self. Thus realising the presence of the Supreme Being in every living beings and knowing that this world is nothing but Brahman himself, one can understand the real nature of that Ultimate Reality.

Varuṇa in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad teaches his son Bhṛgu very beautifully the nature of this Brahman and the means to understand it:

yato vā imāni bhūtāni jāyante yena jātāni jīvanti yatprayantyabhisaṃviśanti tadvijijñāsasva tadbrahmeti//’[54]

Here Varuṇa gives instruction to Bhṛgu that where from all these things and beings are born, by which they live and into which they are dissolved at the end, that is Brahman and that is to be known. Our sense organs are able to do their respective functions like seeing, hearing, grasping, etc., only for the command of this Reality.

Without It, i.e., Brahman, all become inactive and powerless. For the realisation of Brahman, one should try to understand his own nature and also the nature of other existing beings, which are essentially and ontologically one with the Brahman. For the ultimate happiness of our life, the realisation of the nature of this mysterious being is very very essential. On the other word the path of understanding the Brahman only can provide us the highest bliss in this life. That is why this Ātman or Brahman is said to be the bliss or ānanda in the Taittirīya Upaniṣad.[55]

Regarding the absolute bliss the Chāndogya Upaniṣad also states:

yo vai bhūmā tatsukhaṃ nālpe sukhamasti bhūmaiva sukham..//’[56]

The Absolute which is known as Brahman is the bliss or happiness or ultimate delight, which cannot be found in other finite things. Bhūmā is a state where one cannot see, cannot hear and cannot understand anything, i.e., after realisation of Brahman, nothing remains to be known in that final ecstasy of life. This is the actual nature of mokṣa or liberation.

In that moment the nature of a person is explained by the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad thus:

bhidyate hṛdayagranthiśchidyante sarvasaṃśayāḥ/
kṣīyante cāsya karmāṇi tasmindṛṣṭe parāvare//’[57]

[Trans: After knowing Supreme Person who is effect as well as cause Himself, in reality; the knot of the heart of the Jīva is unravelled; all doubts are cut asunder and the actions good as well as evil get perished.][58]

Nothing is superior than this Reality. Because at the time of pralaya all the creatures merged into Him and then nothing remains and only one Spirit, i.e., Brahman exists in this universe. The Praśna Upaniṣad speaks very clearly that all the rivers are running towards the sea and reaching there they intermix into the sea annihilating their names and forms and merely known as the sea only, in the same way, at the time of final dissolution the puruṣa constituting of sixteen parts merges into the Brahman destroying his name and form. He becomes one with the Brahman and at that time what remains is known as Brahman one without a second.[59] The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad asserts that he who resides in all beings and all beings reside within him and he who presides all, is our Self and nothing else. Therefore, we should try to understand the real nature of our own Self which resides within our body and in the whole world.

The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad states:

ātmā vā are draṣṭavyaḥ śrotavyo mantavyo nididhyāsitavyo maitreyyātmano vā aredarśanena śravaṇena matyā vijñānenedaṃ sarvaṃ viditam//’[60]

According to Yājñavalkya, everything is known by the knowledge of the Ātman. In other words after knowing the existence of this Ātman seated in our heart as well as everywhere in the same time, there will be nothing that remains to be known.

Explaining the path of Brahman, Swami Cinmayananda states,

“The Self is not only to be realised in the centre of our own individual life, but it is to be experienced as the same everywhere. Pure Consciousness is homogeneous and All-pervading and as such the Self cognized here is the same as the Self experienced as revelling there.”[61]

Knowing the fact that one Supreme Spirit exists everywhere at the same time, one feels his presence everywhere and the presence of every beings within him. At that time he becomes free from sorrows, sufferings and worldly attachment and gives equal importance to all. He sees ‘puruṣa evedaṃ sarvam’ in that state. In this respect

the Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad has rightly stated:

tvaṃ stṛī tvaṃ pumānasi tvaṃ kumāra uta vā kumarī/
tvaṃ jīrṇo daṇḍena vañcasi tvaṃ jāto bhavasi viśvatomukhaḥ//’[62]

This mantra enumerates that this Ātman alone is feminine, masculine, youth and also the spinster. The same is an old man who walks with the help of a stick. It alone reveales his cosmic form in all the directions. In this way avoiding its existence nothing is possible in the whole universe. Realising this nature of Ātman one becomes free from sorrows and sufferings. For ultimate liberation, a person must have these qualities which help him to uplift his life into Brahman, the immortality.

In this context Sarab Dayal explains the Kaṭhopaniṣadic saying thus—

“Man attains salvation or immortality when various lusts of sex, anger, greed, name and fame are quenched and when all doubts or mis-givings are removed.”[63]

Regarding the Ultimate Reality, i.e., Brahman, which is the ultimate goal of our life, the Kaivalya Upaniṣad also declares that by the strong belief, dedication, contemplation and deep-concentration one is able to comprehend the real nature of Brahman, which is immortality itself.

That is why, the Upaniṣad states:

… śraddhābhaktidhyānayogādavaihi, na karmaṇā na prajayā dhanena tyāgenaike amṛtatvamānaśuḥ//”[64]

According to the Kaivalya Upaniṣad, not by performing karma or by progeny and wealth one will obtain the Ultimate Reality in his life. It can be achieved only through the renunciation or tyāga. If a person fails to understand the real nature of Brahman in this human life, he is a looser one and his whole life is meaningless.

In the word of A.K. Srivastava,

“Brahman, which manifests itself in and through the variety of the universe, is essentially one and indivisible. The knowledge of the Supreme is the real knowledge. If we remove the bonds of finitude, the emancipated soul will be the same as the ‘one’ eternal all pervading Existence. Thus the man who knows his own being in its proper essence also knows the ‘Reality’. The person who knows the supreme one knows all individuals and also his own-self.”[65]

It is very remarkable that almost all the Upaniṣads give importance on satya or truth, brahmacarya or continence and tapas or penance for understanding the Supreme Reality. The Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad proclaims that truth alone can win and by truth one can uplift his life in to the Ultimate Truth, i.e., the Brahman. Therefore, the Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad says, ‘satyameva jayati nānṛtam’.[66] Again the same Upaniṣad asserts that, ‘satyena labhyastapasā hyeṣa ātmā’,[67] i.e., by the performing truth and contemplation one will attain the Reality. The Kenopaniṣad also says that the austerity or tapas is the means of Brahmavidyā or liberation.[68] The continence or brahmacarya also plays an important role for realisation of Brahman in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad.[69] The Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad again states that, ‘tapasā cīyate brahma’,[70] i.e., by the tapas one can understand the nature of Brahman. In Taittirīya Upaniṣad Varuṇa says to Bhṛgu that tapas is Brahman.[71]

From the above discussion, perhaps, it can be said that almost all the Upaniṣads has been provided the message to discard the object of material pleasure and concentrate on the thought of the Brahman, who manifests himself in each and every creation. The famous statement like, ‘tattvamasi’,[72]ahaṃ brahmāsmīti’,[73]sarvaṃ khalvidaṃ brahma’,[74] etc., denote the existence of Brahman in every living beings and that all the living beings are one with the same Brahman. The knowledge of the Supreme Brahman makes us free from illusion and leads us towards salvation and after the attainment of salvation, a person enjoys Supreme Bliss and becomes one with the Supreme Being, i.e., the Parama Brahman.

Footnotes and references:


Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad ,1


Taittirīya Upaniṣad , I.8.1


Katha Upaniṣad , I.2.15


English translation from Gambhirananda, Swami., Eight Upaniṣads , (Vol.I), p. 148


Katha Upaniṣad , I.2.16-17


Chāndogya Upaniṣad , I.5.1., I.5.5


Ibid., I.3.6


Taittirīya Upaniṣad ,III.2.1., III.3.1., Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad , III.9.9., Praśna Upaniṣad , II.11


Chāndogya Upaniṣad , II. 23.3


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad ,III.8.9


Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad , II.2 3


Ibid., II.2.6


English translation from Aggarwal Keshoram., Kalyāna Kalpataru , p.177


Praśna Upaniṣad , V.2




Praśna Upaniṣad , II.13




Chāndogya Upaniṣad , III.15.4


Sen, Atul Chandra., (et al), Upanishads Akhanda Samskara , p.442.


Chāndogya Upaniṣad ,VII.15.4


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad ,I.3.23




Taittirīya Upaniṣad , II.3.1


Praśna Upaniṣad , II.11


Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad , II.2.2


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad , II.2.1


Taittirīya Upaniṣad , III.3.1


Aitareya Upaniṣad , I.1.1


Chāndogya Upaniṣad ,III.14.1


Kenopaniṣad , II.5


Taittirīya Upaniṣad , II.1.1


Katha Upaniṣad , II. 2.12


Ibid., II.1.11


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad , I.4.1


Ibid., I.4.17


Ibid., I. 4.10






Ibid., I.4.16


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad ,II.5.15


Īśopaniṣad ,1


Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad , II.2.11


Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad ,2


Verma, K P., F.H. Bradley and the Concept of Reality , p.110


Praśna Upaniṣad , IV.7


Katha Upaniṣad , I.1.27


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad , II.4.2


Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā , V.22


English translation from Śrīmad-bhagavad-gītā , Gita Press Gorakhpur, p.75


Katha Upaniṣad , I.2.12


English translation from Aggarwal, Keshoram., Kalyāna Kalpataru , p.63


Chāndogya Upaniṣad ,VI.1.4


Kenopaniṣad , I.3


Taittirīya Upaniṣad , III.1.1


Taittirīya Upaniṣad ,III.6.1


Chāndogya Upaniṣad , VII.23.1


Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad , II.2.8


English translation from Aggarwal, Keshoram., Kalyāna Kalpataru , p.179


Praśna Upaniṣad ,II.8


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad ,II.4.5


Chinmayananda, Swami., Discourses on Isavasya Upaniṣad , p.106


Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad ,IV.3


Dayal, Sarab., Sublime Thoughts of Katha Upanishad , p.104


Katha Upaniṣad 2-3


Srivastava, A.K., God and the Finite Self in Tagore’s Philosophy, pp.8-9


Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad , III.1.6


Ibid., III.1.5


Kenopaniṣad ,IV.8


Chāndogya Upaniṣad ,VIII.5.1-4


Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad , I.1.8


Taittirīya Upaniṣad , III.2.1


Chāndogya Upaniṣad , VI. 8.7


Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad , I. 4.10


Chāndogya Upaniṣad , III.14.1

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