Bhoga: 22 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Bhoga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Bhoga (भोग).—Motion. Note: Bhoga is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Bhoga (भोग) or Bhogāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Vimalāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Bhoga Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Vimala-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bhoga (भोग) refers to “enjoyment”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.16. Accordingly, “the world bhaga means the primordial nature because it increases and flourishes. The śabdamātrā etc. (the cosmic sound principle i.e. all objects of enjoyment) evolved out of Prakṛti, being enjoyed by the sense organs; the word bhoga comes to mean that which gives bhaga. The principal bhaga is of course the Prakṛti and Bhagavān is Lord Śiva Himself. The lord alone is the bestower of enjoyment (bhoga) and not anyone else. The Lord who is the master of bhaga is called Bharga by wise men”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Bhoga (भोग) refers to “offering foodstuffs”, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—The procedures for offering the bālya-bhoga (early morning food offering), the madhyāhna-bhoga (noontime food offering), the cooling aparāhna-bhoga (afternoon offering of refreshments, such as fruits and sweets) and the rātrikālīna-bhoga (nighttime food offering) are the same. The noon time offering and ārati are to be completed by midday.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Bhoga (भोग) or Mahākarṇa is the name of a Kṣetrapāla (field-protector) and together with Sahajā Devī they preside over Bhoṭa: one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). Their weapon is the makara and dhvaja and their abode is on top of the mountain. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Bhoga (भोग) refers to “objects of enjoyment” and is related with the bhogopabhoga-vrata ( vow of limitations of objects of daily use). Cāmuṇḍarāya (in his Caritrasāra p. 13) has a fivefold division, built up from the less explicit model given by Pūjyapāda (in his Sarvārtha-siddhi 7.21) and Samantabhadra (in his Ratna-karaṇḍa-śrāvakācāra with commentary of Prabhācandra 38-40), of paribhoga and upabhoga to which he gives the common name of bhoga.

Cāmuṇḍarāya’s five-fold division of bhoga:

  1. trasa-ghāta,
  2. pramāda,
  3. bahu-vadha,
  4. aniṣṭa,
  5. anupasevya.

Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 164-4) insists that bhoga and upabhoga lie at the root of hiṃsā. Bearing in mind his own capacity a wise man should eschew even those varieties which are not forbidden and should restrict those which he is unable to abandon altogether. Indeed he should review continually his capacity for self-denial and if possible curtail further each day the limits already set. This of course is in the very spirit of the stories of the Upāsaka-daśāḥ.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Bhoga (भोग, “enjoyment”) or Bhogāntarāya refers to “gain obstructing karmas” and represents one of the dive types of Antarāya (obstructing karmas), representing one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.—What is meant by enjoyment obstructing (bhoga-antrāya) karmas? The rise of which obstructs enjoying consumption of worldly items even though one is fit to enjoy (consumable items) is called enjoyment obstructing karmas. What is meant by bhoga and upabhoga? Objects which are unusable or consumed after their enjoyment once are called bhoga (e.g. earned money, food items, oil etc). Objects which can be enjoyed again and again are called upabhoga (e.g. dwellings, clothes, ornaments etc).

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Bhoga (भोग) may be a personal name, thus the name may stand for a pond of the astrologer named Bhoga. Another possibility is that bhoga signifies enjoyment. Also see Doṣībhogapuṣkariṇī: a place-name classified as a puṣkariṇī and mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 52.

Source: Early History Of The Deccan Pts.1 To 6: Principal Administrative Divisions from the Rise of the Sātavāhanas

Bhoga (भोग) refers to a division of a rājya (administrative division).—The bhoga and bhāga apparently appear in Vākāṭaka records as a subdivision of the rājya. Bhoga as part of a viṣaya occurs in the Jejūrī plates of Vinayāditya (a.d. 687). The rājya seems to have been subdivided into bhogas or bhāgas. Two of these, the Hiraṇyapura-bhoga and Beṇṇākārpara-bhāga, are known from inscriptions.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of place names of Nalgonda district

Bhoga is one of the terms designating an ‘administrative division’ used in the inscriptions of Andhra Pradesh.—Besides the ordinary connotation of enjoyment, property, tax in kind, etc., the term was employed to designate a territorial unit which was generally a subdivision of a district. In Andhra Pradesh the occurrence of bhoga divisions is so far found only in the districts of Srikakulam, VIsakhapatnam and Prakasam. In the fifth century A.D. the Kalinga king Umavarman’s Brihatproshtha grant and the Dhavalapeta plates refer to Dantayavagu-bhoga and Mahendra-bhoga respectively. Other bhogas in the Kalinga region were Pattana-bhoga and Vonkhara-bhoga.

The bhogas were subdivisions of rashstras. The Chendalur plates of the Pallava king Kumaravishnu-II refer to Kavachakara-bhoga as a subdivision of Kammanka-rattha. Being a Sanskrit name, bhoga divisions are mentioned more in Sanskrit inscriptions and in the North than in regional languages and in the South. Bhoga divisions existed in maharashstra, Madya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh and in Guj arat where it was a subdivision of a vishaya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Bhoga.—(IE 8-4; CII 3; EI 23, 33), literally, ‘enjoyment’ (cf. bhukti); a jāgīr (cf. Mahārāja-Sarvanātha-bhoga, Mahā- sāmantādhipati-Śrīdhara-bhoga, etc.); possession (cf. bhog- ādhīnā gṛhītā). Originally ‘enjoyment’; then ‘property’, ‘a jāgīr’; then also a territorial unit which was generally the subdivision of a district (IE 8-4; EI 25; 28; CII 4). See bhukti, āhāra. Cf. Kaivarta-bhoga (IE 8-4; EI 2; CII 1), the fishermen's preserve. (IE 8-5; EI 29, 30; HRS), periodical supplies of fruits, firewood, flowers and the like which the villagers had to supply to the king; sometimes explained as ‘tax in kind’ (CII 4). (EI 1), [an object of] enjoyment. (SITI), tax-free land set apart for the enjoyment of a person for the performance of specified services; same as mānya. See bhogottara, Bhogin, etc. Cf. bhoge (LP), ‘for the right of enjoyment’. Cf. sa-bhoga (IA 9), privilege of the donee of rent-free land; probably refers to aṣṭabhoga-tejaḥsvāmya (q. v.). Note: bhoga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

bhoga : (m.) possession; wealth; enjoyment; the coil of a snake.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Bhoga, 2 (fr. bhuj to bend, cp. bhuja3 & Sk. bhoga id. Hālayudha 3, 20) the coil of a snake J. III, 58. See also nib°. (Page 510)

2) Bhoga, 1 (fr. bhuñj: see bhuñjati) 1. enjoyment A. IV, 392 (kāmaguṇesu bh.).—2. possession, wealth D. III, 77; Sn. 301, 421; Dh. 139, 355; Pug. 30, 57; Sdhp. 86, 228, 264.—appa° little or no possession Sn. 114.

—khandha a mass of wealth, great possessions D. II, 86 (one of the 5 profits accruing from virtue).—gāma “village of revenue,” a tributary village, i.e. a village which has to pay tribute or contributions (in food etc.) to the owner of its ground. The latter is called gāmabhojaka or gāmapati “landlord” J. II, 135. Cp. Fick, Sociale Gliederung 71, 112.—cāgin giving riches, liberal A. III, 128. .—pārijuñña loss of property or possessions VvA. 101.—mada pride or conceit of wealth VbhA. 466. —vāsin, as f. vāsinī “living in property,” i.e. to be enjoyed or made use of occasionally, one of the 10 kinds of wives: a kept woman Vin. III, 139, 140; cp. M. I, 286. (Page 509)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhōga (भोग).—m (S) Enjoyment or endurance (of pleasure or pain); fruition or experience: also the pleasure or pain enjoyed or suffered. v ghē, kara. 2 Using, use, usufruct, holding possession of. v kara, ghē. 3 Any object of enjoyment or endurance. Ex. jhālōṃ karmadharmavirahita || manāṃ āvaḍē tō bhōga bhōgati ||. 4 Pleasure or pain arising to be received or borne; allotment or lot (of the good or evil of life). v yē, uṭha, ubhā rāha, ucala. Ex. bhōga asēla titakā bhōgūna sāralā pāhijē. Pr. bhōga phiṭē āṇi vaidya bhēṭē. 5 Accomplishing; passing over or through (a space or period): also accomplished, passed, spent state. Ex. sūrya prāyaḥ tīsa divasānta ēka rāśīcā bhōga karitō. Hence used to express Celestial longitude. 6 Rice risen up during the boiling above the level of the boiler. bhōga bhōgaṇēṃ To receive the reward of one's deeds (good or bad).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bhōga (भोग).—m Enjoyment or endurance; use.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhoga (भोग).—[bhuj-ghañ]

1) Eating, consuming.

2) Enjoyment, fruition.

3) Possession.

4) Utility, advantage.

5) Ruling, governing, government.

6) Use, application (as of a deposit).

7) Suffering, enduring, experiencing.

8) Feeling, perception.

9) Enjoyment of women, sexual enjoyment, carnal pleasure.

1) An enjoyment, an object of enjoyment or pleasure; भोगे रोगभयम् (bhoge rogabhayam) Bh.3.35; भोगा मेघवितानमध्यविलसत्सौदामिनीचञ्चलाः (bhogā meghavitānamadhyavilasatsaudāminīcañcalāḥ) Bh.3.54; भोगो विभवभेदश्च निष्कृतिर्मुक्तिरेव च (bhogo vibhavabhedaśca niṣkṛtirmuktireva ca) Brav. P.; Bg.1.32.

11) A repast, feast, banquet.

12) Food.

13) Food offered to an idol.

14) Profit, gain.

15) Income, revenue.

16) Wealth; भोगान् भोगानिवाहेयानध्यास्यापन्न दुर्लभा (bhogān bhogānivāheyānadhyāsyāpanna durlabhā) Ki.11.23.

17) The wages of prostitutes.

18) A curve, coil, winding.

19) The (expanded) hood of a snake; श्वसदसितभुजङ्गभोगाङ्गदग्रन्थि (śvasadasitabhujaṅgabhogāṅgadagranthi) &c. Māl.5.23; R.1.7;11.59.

2) A snake.

21) The body.

22) An army in column.

23) The passing (of an asterism).

24) The part of the ecliptic occupied by each of the 27 Nakṣatras.

Derivable forms: bhogaḥ (भोगः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhoga (भोग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Pleasure, enjoyment. 2. Wealth. 3. Nourishing, cherishing. 4. Eating. 5. A snake’s body. 6. A snake’s expanded hood. 7. Hire. 8. The hire of dancing girls or courtezans. 9. A snake. 10. An army in column. 11. (In arithmetic,) The numerator of a fraction. 12. Food. 13. A repost. 14. Food offered to an idol. 15. Gain. 16. Rule, government. 17. Experiencing. 18. Advantage. 19. The use of a deposit. E. bhuj to eat, &c. aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhoga (भोग).—i. e. 1. and 2. bhuj + a, m. 1. A snake’s body, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 43, 4. 2. A snake. 3. A snake’s expanded hood, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 131; feasting, [Hitopadeśa] army in column. 5. Nourishing, cherishing, food, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 5. 6. Pleasure, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 3. 7. Enjoyment, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 35; [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 131; feasting, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 99. 8. Adverse enjoyment (usufruct), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 149. 9. Possession. 10. Wealth. 11. Hire. 12. The hire of dancing girls.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhoga (भोग).—1. [masculine] winding, curve, coil.

--- OR ---

Bhoga (भोग).—2. [masculine] enjoyment, fruition, use, application, possession, dominion, government; feeling, perception, gain, advantage, pleasure, joy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhoga (भोग):—1. bhoga m. (√1. bhuj) any winding or curve, coil (of a serpent), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the expanded hood of a snake, [Harivaṃśa; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra; Pañcatantra]

3) a [particular] kind of military array, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

4) a snake, [Suparṇādhyāya]

5) the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) 2. bhoga m. (√3. bhuj) enjoyment, eating, feeding on [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (with Jainas ‘enjoying once’, as opp. to upa-bhoga, q.v.)

7) use, application, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra] etc.

8) fruition, usufruct, use of a deposit etc., [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya]

9) sexual enjoyment, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

10) enj° of the earth or of a country id est. rule, sway, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

11) experiencing, feeling, perception (of pleasure or pain), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

12) profit, utility, advantage, pleasure, delight, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

13) any object of enjoyment (as food, a festival etc.), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

14) possession, property, wealth, revenue, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

15) hire, wages ([especially] of prostitution), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) (in [astronomy]) the passing through a constellation, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

17) the part of the ecliptic occupied by each of the 27 lunar mansions, [Sūryasiddhānta]

18) (in [arithmetic]) the numerator of a fraction (?), [Horace H. Wilson]

19) Name of a teacher, [Catalogue(s)]

20) Bhogā (भोगा):—[from bhoga] f. Name of a Surāṅganā, [Siṃhāsana-dvātriṃśikā or vikramāditya-caritra, jaina recension]

21) Bhoga (भोग):—n. [wrong reading] for bhogya or bhāgya.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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