Paramatman, Parama-atman, Paramātman: 14 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Paramatman means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Samkhya glossary
Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (samkhya)

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—This puruṣa, called also paramātman, is beginningless and it has no cause beyond itself. The self is in itself without consciousness. Consciousness can only come to it through its connection with the sense organs and manas. By ignorance, will,antipathy, and work, this conglomeration of puruṣa and the other elements takes place. Knowledge, feeling, or action, cannot be produced without this combination.

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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Yoga glossary
Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (yoga)

Paramātman (परमात्मन्, “higher self”).—The duality involved in this conception of a friend and a foe, of conqueror and conquered, of an uplifting power and a gravitating spirit, naturally involves a distinction between a higher self (paramātman) and a lower self (ātman). It is only when this higher self conquers the lower that a self is a friend to itself. In a man who has failed to conquer his own passions and self-attachments the self is its own enemy. The implication, however, is that the lower self, though it gravitates towards evil, has yet inherent in it the power of self-elevation.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Vedanta glossary
Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (vedanta)

Paramātman (परमात्मन्, “highest soul”).—It is just and proper that the scriptures should command the individual souls to seek knowledge so as to attain liberation; for it is the desire for the highest soul (paramātman) or God or Brahman that is the cause of liberation, and it is the desire for objects of the world that is the cause of bondage.

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (vaishnavism)

Paramātman (परमात्मन्, “supreme soul”).—The realization of the nature of ultimate reality may again be of a twofold nature: abstract, i.e., as Brahman, and concrete, i.e., as personal God or the supreme soul (paramātman). In the latter case the richness of the concrete realization is further increased when one learns to realize God in all His diverse forms. In this stage, though the devotee realizes the diverse manifold and infinite powers of God, he learns to identify his own nature with the nature of God as pure bliss.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Shaivism glossary
Source: A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 5: The Śaiva Philosophy in the Śiva-mahāpurāṇa

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—In the paramātman there is both the Śiva-aspect and the śakti- aspect. It is by the connection of Śiva and Śakti that there is ānanda or bliss. The Atman is pure consciousness and this consciousness holds within it all knowledge and all energy; it is independent and free, and that is its nature.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Paramātman (परमात्मन्) or Paramātmā refers to the “[greatest] supreme soul”, and represents an epithet of Śiva used in Sandhyā’s eulogy of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.6. Accordingly:—“[...] Directly perceiving the lord of Durgā she [viz., Sandhyā] eulogised the lord of the worlds: [...] Thou art, the greatest (paras) supreme soul (paramātman). Thou art Śiva, the various lores, the pure Brahman, the supreme Brahman and the utmost object of deliberation”.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Paramātman (परमात्मन्) is the ultimate goal of Yogins, resulting in Ātyantika-Pralaya (“liberation of the individual soul”), according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Ātyantika-Pralaya is the result of the knowledge of God, that is to say when Yogins lose themselves in paramātman, then occurs the Ātyantika-pralaya. Thus liberation of the individual soul as a result of right knowledge and his absorption in The Supreme Soul is called Ātyantika-pralaya. [...]

2) Paramātman (परमात्मन्) refers to one of the names for the “sun” [viz., Sūrya], according to the eulogy of the Sun by Manu in the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, the Saurapurāṇa which is purely a Śaivite work, though it purports to be revealed by the Sun, contains some references to practices of Saura Sects, and here and there it identifies Śiva with the Sun. From the eulogy of the Sun by Manu it appears that the sun is the Supreme deity. He is [viz., Paramātman] [...] In another passage Manu while eulogizing the Sun god expresses that the Sun is another form of Lord Śiva. [...]

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Hinduism glossary
Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—The individual soul exists in the paramātman in an undifferentiated state in the sense that the paramātman is the essence or ground-cause of the jīvas ; and the texts which emphasize the monistic side indicate this nature of paramātman as the ground-cause. This does not imply that the individual souls are identical with Brahman.

Since paramātman is always the same and does not undergo any change or transformation or dissolution, He is more real than the prakṛti or puruṣa or the evolutes of prakṛti. This idea has also been expressed in the view of the Purāṇas that the ultimate essence of the world is of the nature of knowledge which is the form of the paramātman. It is in this essential form that the world is regarded as ultimately real and not as prakṛti and puruṣa which are changing forms.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Jainism glossary
Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—In Jainism, each ātman or individual self is a potential Paramātman or God, both are essentially the same. It remains as atman only because of its binding “karmic” limitations, until such time as those limitations are removed. As Paramātman, the atmand represents the ultimate point of spiritual evolution.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Paramatman in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—m. the Supreme Spirit or Brahman; न च योगविधेर्नवेतरः स्थिरधीरा परमात्मदर्शनात् (na ca yogavidhernavetaraḥ sthiradhīrā paramātmadarśanāt) R.8.22; स्वर्गापवर्गयो- र्मार्गमामनन्ति मनीषिणः । यदुपास्तिमसावत्र परमात्मा निरूप्यते (svargāpavargayo- rmārgamāmananti manīṣiṇaḥ | yadupāstimasāvatra paramātmā nirūpyate) || Kusum.

Paramātman is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms parama and ātman (आत्मन्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—m.

(-tmā) The Supreme Being, considered as the soul of the universe. E. parama first, ātman spirit or soul.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—m. the universal soul.

Paramātman is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms parama and ātman (आत्मन्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paramātman (परमात्मन्).—[masculine] the supreme spirit, the soul of the universe; [abstract] tmatva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paramātman (परमात्मन्):—[from parama > para] m. all the heart (only [instrumental case] = parameṇa cetasā, [column]1), [Mahābhārata]

2) [v.s. ...] the Supreme Spirit, [Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 37]).

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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