Mandukyopanishad, Mandukya Upanishad, Māṇḍukyopaniṣad: 2 definitions


Mandukyopanishad means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Māṇḍukyopaniṣad can be transliterated into English as Mandukyopanisad or Mandukyopanishad, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

General definition (in Hinduism)

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Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The Mandukya Upanishad; consisting of just twelve verses expounding the mystic syllable Aum, the three psychological states of waking, dreaming and deep sleep, and the transcendent fourth state of illumination.

The Mandukya Upanishad describes four states of consciousness, namely waking (jagrat), dreaming (svapna), and deep sleep (sushupti), which correspond to the three bodies:

  1. (gross body) The first state is the waking state, in which we are aware of our daily world. "It is described as outward-knowing (bahish-prajnya), gross (sthula) and universal (vaishvanara)".
  2. (subtle body) The second state is the dreaming mind. "It is described as inward-knowing (antah-prajnya), subtle (pravivikta) and burning (taijasa)".
  3. (causal body) The third state is the state of deep sleep. In this state the underlying ground of concsiousness is undistracted, "the Lord of all (sarv'-eshvara), the knower of all (sarva-jnya), the inner controller (antar-yami), the source of all (yonih sarvasya), the origin and dissolution of created things (prabhav'-apyayau hi bhutanam)".
  4. (Turiya) The fourth factor is Turiya, pure consciousness. It is the background that underlies and transcends the three common states of consciousness.

In this consciousness both absolute and relative, Saguna Brahman and Nirguna Brahman, are transcended. It is the true state of experience of the infinite (ananta) and non-different (advaita/abheda), free from the dualistic experience which results from the attempts to conceptualise ( vipalka) reality. It is the state in which ajativada, non-origination, is apprehended.

Gaudapadacharya was the author of Māṇḍukya Kārikā, a commentary on Mandukya Upanishad. It was written in 8th century, and is one of the earliest works on Advaita Vedanta.

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