Akasha, Ākāśa, Ākāsa, Ākāsa, Ākaṣa: 44 definitions


Akasha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Ākāśa and Ākaṣa can be transliterated into English as Akasa or Akasha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Ākāśa (sky) : directed towards the sky, the pupil turned far back; indicating things moving above.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Ākāśa (आकाश, “ether”):—One of the five gross elements assigned as a zone (or sphere) to the human body (bhūtamaṇḍala), according the Yogatattva-upaniṣad. The element ether is seated between the eyebrows and the crown of the head. Ether is represented by a circle (vṛtta), a smoky or grey colour (dhūmra) and the syllable ha (ह). The deity presiding over this region is Sadāśiva.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Space (आकाश, ākāśa) is one of the five primary elements (pañcabhūta) forming the basic components of the world, according to Vāstu-śāstra literature. It is because of the presence and balance of these five elements that our planet thrives with life.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to one of the hundred types of Temples (in ancient Indian architecture), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—It is quite difficult to say about a definite number of varieties of Hindu temples but in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa hundred varieties of temples have been enumerated. For example, Ākāśa. These temples are classified according to the particular shape, amount of storeys and other common elements, such as the number of pavilions, doors and roofs.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Ākāśa (आकाश).—A god to be worshipped in housebuilding.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 253. 24; 265. 39.

1b) With dik; a sthāna of Rudra; son, Sarga.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 7-11.

1c) The ether, stands uncovered, formless, devoid of rasa, sparśa and gandha; its characteristic is śabda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 15, 17; Matsya-purāṇa 3. 23.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Ākāśa (आकाश) is the name of a gross element originates from Śabdatanmātra which originates from Bhūtādi (or Tāmasāhaṃkāra), through its spontaneous self-modification, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—[...] From this bhūtādi or tāmasa-ahamkara which is covered by the mahat, there springs through its spontaneous self-modification the śabda-tanmātra and by the same process there springs from that śabdatanmātra, the ākāśa the gross element. Again the bhūtādi covers up the śabda-tanmātra and the ākāśa differentiated form it as the gross element. The ākāśa being thus conditioned , produces spontaneously by self modification the sparśatanmātra which produces immediately and directly the gross vāyu . The bhūtādi again covers up the ākāśa, śabda-tanmātra, sparśa-tanmātra and the differentiated vāyu which then produces the rūpa-tanmātra which immediately produces the gross light (teja).

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Ākāśa (आकाश, “ether”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings. Ākāśa is also regarded as one of the five bhūtas (‘elements’) possessing a specific quality making it cognizable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)

Ākāśa (आकाश, “ether”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). Ākāśa (ether) is the fifth of the five physical elements. Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines ākāśa, as that which has śabda (sound) as the special quality. Śivāditya and Viśvanātha also maintains the same view. Govardhana Miśra points out in his commentary that the word guṇa is used in the definition in order to show the special quality of ākāśa and not to remove over-pervasiveness. By this word guṇa, ākāśa becomes different from other substances. Sometimes rūpa and other guṇas are found in different substances e.g. gandha, the special quality of earth is found in air and water. But sound is never found in other substances except ākāśa.

Ākāśa is only one and homogeneous. There are not different kinds of sound, so ether is one. We find different degrees of loudness but these are not kinds of sound. Therefore, it is proved that ether is one. Though ākāśa is one, the difference in the form of ghaṭākāśa, paṭākāśa, jārākāśa etc. are due to the upādhis. The assumption of difference in ākāśa is not acceptable, because all sounds can exist in only substratum only which is the ākāśa and as such assumption of different ākāśas will cause the cumbrousness of imagination. Therefore, ether is one.

The existence of ākāśa is proved by inference. The existence of ākāśa is inferred on ground of its being the substratum of sound which is its special quality. Sound cannot reside in pṛthivī, vāyu, tejas, kāla, dik etc. Viśvanātha points out that sound is a quality and not a substance. It proves the existence of ākāśa. Another prove for the existence of ākāśa is that stars and other heavenly bodies must have a substratum which is known as ākāśa.9

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Ākāśanṛsiṃha or Ākāśanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Ākāśa (आकाश):—1. A free or open space, the subtle and ethereal fluid (supposed to fill and pervade the universe and to be the peculiar vehicle of life and of sound). 2. One of the five basic elements (Paṅcamahābhūtas) that make up all matter in the universe.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to the “three voids”, according to the commentary on the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—These three Voids (ākāśa) (also) have other names. (These are) the Void of the Mind, the Void of Brahmā and the Void of the Yoni. The Void of the Mind (is so called) because it generates thought constructs, the Void of Brahmā because thought constructs are destroyed (within it), and the Supreme Void because it is a condition of oneness. The same is said here: The supreme abode is free from doubt. This is the Śāmbhava Path or the Path of Stillness (nirācāra).

2) Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to “space”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] The groups of six [i.e., ṣaṭka/ṣaṭprakārā], deployed and worshipped in the six corners of the hexagon in the core of the maṇḍala, are primary emanations of the goddess who ‘spreads herself out’ (vikāsikā, vikāsinī) from the centre of the Triangle. There, in the dimensionless point (bindu) in the centre, she abides formless (nirākārā) and undifferentiated (niṣkalā) as the genderless absolute (napuṃsakā) both as and within the transcendent which, as the very absence of phenomenal existence (abhāva), is void (śūnya) like space (ākāśa) or the sky (kha). [...]”.

3) Ākāśa (आकाश) or Ākāśatattva refers to the “space element”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—Accordingly, “Earth, Water, and Fire as well as Wind and Space—these are the five great sacred seats that give rise to Day and Night. (The seat named after) the syllable OṂ is the Earth Principle. Water is the venerable Pūrṇagiryaka. The Fire Principle is called Jāla. Wind is the venerable Kāmarūpaka. Space [i.e., ākāśa-tattva] is said to be Tisra. The seats that have arisen from the Kula (the matrix of energies) are five. [...] Fire is above. Water is below. Slanted (to the side) above is Wind. Earth, in the middle, is the immobile Vidyā and Space is everywhere”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to the “sky”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 5.27.—Accordingly: “Due to the power arisen from the sprinkling performed with mantras by Vasiṣṭha the course of his chariot was not blocked on the ocean, in the sky (ākāśa) and in the mountains, like that of a cloud helped by the wind”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Ākāśa (आकाश) represents the number 0 (zero) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 0—ākāśa] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āraṇyaka

Ākāśa (आकाश, “space, ether”) refers to one of the dravyapañcaka (fivefold substances), defined in the Taittirīya-āraṇyaka 7.7.1. The dravyapañcaka, and other such fivefold divisions, are associated with the elemental aspect (adhibhūta) of the three-fold division of reality (adhibhūta, adhidaiva and adhyātma) which attempts to explain the phenomenal nature of the universe. Adhibhūta denotes all that belongs to the material or elemental creation.

The Taittirīya-āraṇyaka is associated with the Kṛṣṇa-yajurveda and dates from at least the 6th century BCE. It is composed of 10 chapters and discusses vedic rituals and sacrifices (such as the mahāyajña) but also includes the Taittirīya-upaniṣad and the Mahānārāyaṇa-upaniṣad.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Akasha is the Sanskrit word meaning "aether" in both its elemental and metaphysical senses.

1) In Hinduism, Akasha means the basis and essence of all things in the material world; the first material element created from the astral world (Air, Fire, Water, Earth are the other four in sequence). It is one of the Panchamahabhuta, or "five elements"; its main characteristic is Shabda (sound). In Sanskrit the word means "space", the very first element in creation. In Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati, and many other Indian languages, the meaning of Akasha has been accepted as sky.

2) In Jainism, Akasha is space in the Jain conception of the cosmos. It falls into the Ajiva category, divided into two parts: Loakasa (the part occupied by the material world) and Aloakasa (the space beyond it which is absolutely void and empty). In Loakasa the universe forms only a part. Akasha is that which gives space and makes room for the existence of all extended substances.

3) In Buddhist phenomenology Akasha is divided into limited space (ākāsa-dhātu) and endless space (ajatākasā). The Vaibhashika, an early school of Buddhist philosophy, hold Akasha's existence to be real. Ākāsa is identified as the first arūpa jhāna (arūpajhāna), but usually translates as "infinite space."

Etymology: Akasha (or Akash, Ākāśa, आकाश);

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'space', is, according to Com., of two kinds: 

  1. limited space (paricchinnākāsa or paricchedākāsa), 

  2. endless space (anantākāsa), i.e. cosmic space.

1. Limited space, under the name of ākāsa-dhātu (space element), belongs to derived corporeality (s. khandha, Summary I; Dhs 638) and to a six fold classification of elements (s. dhātu; M.112, M.115, M.140). It is also an object of kasina meditation. It is defined as follows: "The space element has the characteristic of delimiting matter. Its function is to indicate the boundaries of matter. It is manifested as the confines of matter; or its manifestation consists in being untouched (by the 4 great elements), and in holes and apertures. Its proximate cause is the matter delimited. It is on account of the space element that one can say of material things delimited that 'this is above. below, around that' " (Vis.M. XIV.63).

2. Endless space is called in Atthasālini ajatākāsa, 'unentangled', i.e. unobstructed or empty space. It is the object of the first immaterial absorption (s. jhāna), the sphere of boundless space (ākāsānañcāyatana). According to Abhidhamma philosophy, endless space has no objective reality (being purely conceptual), which is indicated by the fact that it is not included in the triad of the wholesome (kusalatika), which comprises the entire reality. Later Buddhist schools have regarded it as one of several unconditioned or uncreated states (asankhata dharma) - a view that is rejected in Kath. (s. Guide. p. 70). Theravāda Buddhism recognizes only Nibbāna as an unconditioned element (asankhata-dhātu: s. Dhs. 1084).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

s. Ākāsa (“space”).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Ākāśa (आकाश, “space”) refers to one of the ten comparisons (upamāna) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 11. These upamānas represent a quality of the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata. They accepted that dharmas are like space (ākāśa). In the Mahāyāna, the Buddha said to Subhūti: “Space (ākāśa) is beginningless, without middle and without end; and it is the same with dharmas”. This is why it is said that dharmas are like space. Space is always pure by nature, but when it is overcast and covered by clouds, people say that it is impure. In the same way, the dharmas are always pure by nature, but when they are obscured by desire (rāga), hatred (dveṣa) and delusion (moha), people declare them to be impure.

Space is just a name (nāmamātra) and not a real dharma. Space is invisible (adrśya) but, looking at it from afar, the eye perceives a light blue color. In the same way, dharmas are empty (śūnya) and non-existent (asat): the person who is still far away from pure true wisdom does not discover its true nature (satya-lakṣaṇa) but sees in it ātman, men (puṃs) and women (strī), houses (gṛha) and cities (nagara), all kinds of different things (dravya), and his mind clings to them. When a little child (bālaka) looks at the blue sky, he says that he sees a real color (varṇa); but those who fly up very high and come closer to the sky see nothing; it is when we look at it from a distance that we assert that we see a blue color. It is the same for dharmas. This is why the sūtra says that they are like space (ākāśa).

According to chapter XLIX, “[...] the Bodhisattva-Mahāsattva should practice the perfection of wisdom if he wants, by means of one single paryaṅka (by sitting cross-legged), to fill the entire space element (ākāśa) in the trisāhasramahāsāhasralokadhātu”. Why does the Bodhisattva sit cross-legged (paryaṅka) in this way? Answer.—Brahmā Devarāja, who rules the trisāharalokadhātu, had some wrong ideas (mithyādṛṣṭi) and considered himself to be great. But when he saw the Bodhisattva, sitting cross-legged and filling space, his proud thoughts (mānacitta) vanished. Moreover, by his skillful means (upāyakauśalya) coming from this magical superknowledge, being many, he becomes one, being small he becomes large, being large he becomes small and, if he wants to manifest extraordinary things (āścarya), he is able to sit and fill all of space (ākāśa).

2) Ākāśa (आकाश) is the name of an ancient king from the Anutpāda universe, who is identified with Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī, according to the Mañjuśrībuddhakṣetraguṇavyūha (also see Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XLVII). Accordingly,—formerly—kalpas as numerous as the sands of 70 myriads of an incalculable number of Ganges—the Tathāgata Meghasvara appeared in the east, in the Anutpāda universe, separated from ours by 72 nayutas of Buddha fields. It was in the presence of this Buddha and in this universe that a religious king named Ākāśa produced the mind of enlightenment and formulated his vows and intentions in words the original of which appeared in Śikṣasamuccaya.

This king Ākāśa was none other than the actual Bodhisattva Mañjuśrī. Kalpas as numerous as the sands of 70 myriads of Ganges ago. he produced for the first time the mind of enlightenment; kalpas as numerous as the sands of 64 Ganges ago he obtained the conviction that dharmas do not arise and acceded thus to the eighth bhūmi. Now that he has become a great Bodhisattva of the tenth bhūmi, he has no thought of entering into parinirvāṇa.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to the “sky”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [while describing an offering manual] “[...] Having enchanted a pot twenty-one times, it should be offered at the time of lightning. The head of all harmful Nāgas burst. They will fall from the sky (ākāśa) to the ground. This dhāraṇī is unobstructed everywhere”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Ākāśa (आकाश) is the name of a Bodhisattva mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Ākāśa).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Ākāśa (आकाश, “space”) or Ākāśadhātu refers to “(the element of) space” and is associated with Padmajvālanī, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] Mohavajrī in the eyes. Dveṣavajrī in the ears. Īrṣyāvajrī in the nostrils. Rāgavajrī in the mouth. Sūryavajrī in touch. Aiśvaryavajrī in the seat of all senses. The element of earth, Pātanī. The element of water, Māraṇī. The element of fire, Ākarṣaṇī. The element of wind, Padmanṛtyeśvarī. The element of Space (ākāśa-dhātu), Padmajvālanī. Thus, the purity of the divinities in the seat of the elements”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Ākāśa (आकाश, “space”) refers to the first of the “three unconditioned things” (asaṃskṛta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 32). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., ākāśa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Ākāśa (“space”) also refers to one of the “five great elements” (mahābhūta) as well as one of the “six elements” (ṣaḍdhātu), defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 39 and 58 respectively).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Google Books: Outlines Of Jainism

Ākāśa (आकाश, “space”).—Things in the universe occupy each some place. That which gives things their places is space. Space has two divisions:

  1. the universe (loka),
  2. the non-universe or the beyond (aloka).

In the universe all the six dravyas (magnitudes and substances), soul, matter, space, time, principles of motion and stationariness, find their places. In the aloka there is only endless space.

Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism

Space (Akasha) substance possesses the specific attribute of accommodation-causation.

How many divisions of space are there?

Space substance is only one substance and as such it is indivisible (akhand). However, universe (lokakash) and non-universe (alokakash) are considered its two divisions.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Ākāśa (आकाश, “space”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.9.—Space (ākāśa) is a substance which provides space to all substances (dravya) to exist. How many sub divisions of space are there and which are they? There are two sub divisions of space namely cosmos (lokākāśa) and trans-cosmos (alokākāśa).

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.18, “(The function) of space (ākāśa) (is to) provide accommodation (avagāha)”.—The function of space substance is to provide place to exist (avagāha) to all substances (dravya). An entity which provides place to exist to all substances is space (ākāśa). It is one continuum spread throughout the cosmos (for existence of all substances) and beyond (where only it exists).

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ākāśa (आकाश) refers to the “atmosphere”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Sentient beings, inflamed by very intense pleasure [and] unsteady from affliction by wrong faith, wander about in a five-fold life that is difficult to be traversed. It has been stated at length that the cycle of rebirth which is full of suffering is five-fold on account of combining substance , place [com.—place (kṣetraṃ) is the size of the area of the universe and the atmosphere (lokākāśapradeśamātraṃ)], right time, life and intention”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ākāśa.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘cypher’. Note: ākāśa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Akasha in India is the name of a plant defined with Terminalia bellirica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Myrobalanus laurinoides (Teijsm. & Binn.) Kuntze (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1791)
· Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique (1856)
· Plants of the Coast of Coromandel (1805)
· Flora of the British India (1878)
· Novae Plantarum Species (1821)
· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1996)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Akasha, for example chemical composition, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ākāsa : (m.) the sky; space.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Ākāsa, 2 (nt.?) a game, playing chess “in the air” (sans voir) Vin.II, 10 = D.I, 6 (= aṭṭhapada-dasapadesu viya ākāse yeva kiḷanaṃ DA.I, 85). (Page 93)

2) Ākāsa, 1 (Sk. ākāśa fr. ā + kāś, lit. shining forth, i. e. the illuminated space) air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the concept see Cpd. 5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etym. of ākāsa (fr. ā + kassati of kṛṣ) at DhsA.325 see Dhs.trsl. 178. ‹-› D.I, 55 (°ṃ indriyāni saṅkamanti the sense-faculties pass into space); III, 224, 253, 262, 265; S.III, 207; IV, 218; V, 49, 264; J.I, 253; II, 353; III, 52, 188; IV, 154; VI, 126; Sn.944, 1065; Nd1 428; Pv.II, 118; SnA 110, 152; PvA.93; Sdhp.42, 464. —ākāsena gacchati to go through the air PvA.75 (āgacch°), 103, 105, 162; °ena carati id. J.II, 103; °e gacchati id. PvA.65 (cando). — Formula “ananto ākāso” frequent; e. g. at D.I, 183; A.II, 184; IV, 40, 410 sq.; V, 345.

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

akasa (अकस).—m f ( A) Spite, grudge, malice.

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ākāśa (आकाश).—n m (S) The sky. Pr. ā0 jara phāṭalēṃ tara tyāsa ṭhigaḷa kāya? 2 The atmosphere. 3 The empty space. 4 The fifth element considered as a subtil or etherial fluid pervading space, and forming the vehicle of sound and life. ā0 pātāḷa ēka with of s. Used of an exceedingly proud man. ā0 pātāḷa ēka hōṇēṃ Expresses the commingling of heaven and earth (under torrents of rain). ā0 pātāḷacā bhēda Difference great as the interval betwixt heaven and hades. ākāśālā ghērā ghālaṇēṃ or dēṇēṃ To achieve prodigies, exploits, feats. 2 To perform or to attempt an impossibility, 3 To be ambitious, aspiring, grasping, comprehensive &c. ākāśīṃ rāhaṇēṃ To dwell in the garret or top-room; to live in the attics.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

akasa (अकस).—m Malice, spite, grudge.

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ākāśa (आकाश).—n m The sky. The empty space; the atmosphere. The fifth element supposed to be an ethereal fluid per- vading space. ākāśa pātāḷa ēka karaṇēṃ To indulge in loud uproar that would bring the very heavens down.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ākaṣa (आकष).—A touch-stone,

Derivable forms: ākaṣaḥ (आकषः).

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Ākāśa (आकाश).—[samantādākāśante sūryādayo'tra Tv.]

1) The sky आकाशभवा सरस्वती (ākāśabhavā sarasvatī) Kumārasambhava 4.39; °ग, °चारिन् (ga, °cārin) &c.

2) Ether (considered as the fifth element).

3) The subtle and ethereal fluid pervading the whole universe; one of the 9 dravyas or substances recognized by the Vaiśe- ṣikas. It is the substratum of the quality 'sound'; शब्दगुणमाकाशम् (śabdaguṇamākāśam); cf. also श्रुतिविषयगुणा या स्थिता व्याप्य विश्वम् (śrutiviṣayaguṇā yā sthitā vyāpya viśvam) Ś.1.1; अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं (athātmanaḥ śabdaguṇaṃ guṇajñaḥ padaṃ) (scil. ākāśam) विमानेन विगाहमानः (vimānena vigāhamānaḥ) R.13.1.

4) Free space or vacuity; यश्चायमन्त- रात्मन्नाकाशः (yaścāyamanta- rātmannākāśaḥ) Bṛ. Up.

5) Space, place in general; सपर्वत- वनाकाशां पृथिवीम् (saparvata- vanākāśāṃ pṛthivīm) Mb.; भवनाकाशमजायताम्बुराशिः (bhavanākāśamajāyatāmburāśiḥ) Bv.2.165. open space (not covered or surrounded by anything); मुनयः सलिलाहारा वायुभक्षास्तथापरे । आकाशनिलयाश्चैव तथा स्थण्डि- लशायिनः (munayaḥ salilāhārā vāyubhakṣāstathāpare | ākāśanilayāścaiva tathā sthaṇḍi- laśāyinaḥ) || Rām.3.6.4.

6) Brahman (as identical with ether); आकाशस्तल्लिङ्गात् (ākāśastalliṅgāt) Br. Sūt.1.1.22; यावानयमाकाश- स्तावानयमन्तर्हृदयाकाशः (yāvānayamākāśa- stāvānayamantarhṛdayākāśaḥ) Ch. Up.8.1.3.

7) Light, clearness.

8) A hole.

9) A dot, zero (in Math.). आकाशे (ākāśe) in the air; आकाशे लक्ष्यं बद्ध्वा (ākāśe lakṣyaṃ baddhvā) fixing the look on some object out of sight. आकाशे (ākāśe) in the sense of 'in the air' is used in dramas as a stage-direction when a character on the stage asks questions to some one not on the stage, and listens to an imaginary speech supposed to be a reply, which is usually introduced by the words किं ब्रवीषि, किं कथयसि (kiṃ bravīṣi, kiṃ kathayasi) &c.; दूरस्थाभाषणं यत्स्यादशरीरनिवेदनम् । परोक्षान्तरितं वाक्यं तदाकाशे निगद्यते (dūrasthābhāṣaṇaṃ yatsyādaśarīranivedanam | parokṣāntaritaṃ vākyaṃ tadākāśe nigadyate) || Bharata; cf. आकाशभाषितम् (ākāśabhāṣitam) below; (ākāśe) प्रियंवदे, कस्येदमुशीरानुलेपनं मृणालवन्ति च नलिनीपत्राणि नीयन्ते (priyaṃvade, kasyedamuśīrānulepanaṃ mṛṇālavanti ca nalinīpatrāṇi nīyante) | (śrutimabhinīya) किं ब्रवीषि (kiṃ bravīṣi) &c. Ś.3. This is a contrivance used by poets to avoid the introduction of a fresh character, and it is largely used in the species of dramatic composition called भाण (bhāṇa) where only one character conducts the whole play by a copious use of आकाशभाषित (ākāśabhāṣita).

Derivable forms: ākāśaḥ (आकाशः), ākāśam (आकाशम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ākāśa (आकाश).—(m.), (1) region, place: Mahāvastu ii.49.3—4 kahiṃ… ākāśe pravṛttajīvo ti mṛto ti, in what region (lit. under what sky?) is his life taking place, or is he dead?; (2) in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 124.11 according to Kern voidness: (dharmam) ākāśagatikam, placed in voidness (as if synonym of śūnyatā; but Burnouf qui a pour étendue l'espace); compare under dhātu 1 b, where it is made clear that ākāśa, as the fifth of six elements (dhātu), means absolutely empty space; (3) short for ākāśānantya, in [compound] ākāśa-vijñānā° (etc.), Bodhisattvabhūmi 49.17—18, see s.v. naivasaṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatana; (4) emptiness, implying vanity (? compare 2 above): Kāśyapa Parivarta 111.1 dvāv imau…pravrajita- syākāśapaligodhau (see paligodha, and godha); katamau dvau? lokāyatamantraparyeṣṭitā ca, utsadapātracīvara- dhāraṇatayā (read °tā?) ca. In verse, l. 6: ākāśabodhe (see 2 bodha) imi dve pratiṣṭhite.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākaṣa (आकष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) A touchstone. E. āṅ, kaṣa to injure, and ac aff.

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Ākāśa (आकाश).—mn.

(-śaḥ-śaṃ) 1. The fifth element, æther, the sky or atmosphere. 2. Brahm as indentical with æther. 3. Space, vacuity. E. āṅ and kāśṛ to shine, ghañ affix; every where shining; Akash is the subtle and æthereal fluid, supposed to fill and pervade the universe, and to be the peculiar vehicle of life and sound.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākāśa (आकाश).—[ā-kāś + a], m. 1. The fifth element, æther, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 75. 2. Sky. [Pañcatantra] 47, 14. 3. The open air, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 90; [Nala] 14, 10. 4. The loc. sing. śe denotes in dramatic language that which is spoken off the stage, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 32, 18.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ākāśa (आकाश).—[masculine] [neuter] free or open space, sky; [especially] the atmosphere or sky as the fifth element. śe behind the scene or into the air ([drama]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ākaṣa (आकष):—[=ā-kaṣa] m. (√kaṣ, ‘to rub’), a touchstone, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] ([varia lectio] for ākarṣa, [Pāṇini 4-4, 9; Siddhānta-kaumudī] and v, 2, 64 [Siddhānta-kaumudī])

3) Ākāśa (आकाश):—[=ā-kāśa] [from ā-kāś] m. ([Vedic or Veda]) or (later) n. (ifc. f(ā). ) a free or open space, vacuity, [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] the ether, sky or atmosphere, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] n. (in philos.) the subtle and ethereal fluid (supposed to fill and pervade the universe and to be the peculiar vehicle of life and of sound), [Vedāntasāra] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] Brahma (as identical with ether), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] = ākāśa-bhāṣita below [commentator or commentary] on [Śakuntalā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ākaṣa (आकष):—[ā-kaṣa] (ṣaḥ) 1. m. A touch-stone.

2) Ākāśa (आकाश):—[ā-kāśa] (śaḥ-śaṃ) 1. m. n. Sky, atmosphere, æther; space; Brahm.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ākāśa (आकाश) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Āgāsa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Akasha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ākāśa (आकाश) [Also spelled akash]:—(nm) the sky; the space; ~[kusuma] lit. a flower of the sky, meaning an impossibility, a fanciful thing; ~[gaṃgā] the milky way; ~[gāmitā] levitation; sky-faring; ~[gāmi/cārī] sky-faring; ~[dīpa] a beacon light; ~[bhāṣita/vacana] (in theatrical language) speaking off the stage (to someone out of sight); ~[maṃḍala] the celestial sphere; ~[yāna] aircraft;—[chunā] to be sky high; -[pātāla eka karanā] to move heaven and earth, to leave no stone unturned, to put in Herculean efforts; -[pātāla kā aṃtara] as wide asunder as the sky and the nether world, a tremendous difference; —[se bāteṃ karanā] to be sky high, to be as lofty as the sky.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ākasa (ಆಕಸ):—[noun] the apparent blue canopy over our heads; the sky.

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Ākāśa (ಆಕಾಶ):—

1) [noun] space or ether, one of the five basic elements which form material reality.

2) [noun] the apparent blue canopy over our heads; the sky.

3) [noun] an absolutely empty space or vacuum; total emptiness.

4) [noun] (phil.) the subtle and ethereal fluid pervading the whole universe, regarded as one of the nine substances recognised by the vaiṣeṣikas (which is the substratum of the quality 'sound').

5) [noun] an empty space.

6) [noun] a metre regulated by the number of syllables, having two long ones followed by a short one (—υ).

7) [noun] (Jain.) one of the six elements.

8) [noun] (math.) the symbol 0, indicating the value of naught; zero; cipher.

9) [noun] ಆಕಾಶಕ್ಕೆ ಏಣಿಹಾಕು [akashakke enihaku] ākāśakke ēṇi hāku (fig.) to try to do something which is absolutely impossible; to square a circle;ಆಕಾಶಕ್ಕೆ ಏರಿಸು [akashakke erisu] ākāśakke ērisu (fig.) to praise very highly; to praise to the skies; ಆಕಾಶಕ್ಕೆ ಏರು [akashakke eru] ākāśakke ēru (fig.) (price of a commodity) to increase abnormally; 2. (fig.) to be elated by success, praise, etc.ಆಕಾಶ ತಲೆಯಮೇಲೆ ಬೀಳು [akasha taleyamele bilu] ākāśa taleya mēle bīḷu (fig.) a catastrophe to happen; ಆಕಾಶ ತೂತು ಬೀಳು [akasha tutu bilu] ākāśa tūtu bīḷu (fig.) to rain heavily and incessantly; ಆಕಾಶದಲ್ಲಿ ಹಾರಾಡು [akashadalli haradu](ತೇಲು [telu]) ākāśadalli hāru (tēlu) (fig.) to be excited with joy; to be over the moon; ಆಕಾಶದಿಂದ ಇಳಿದುಬಂದಿರು [akashadimda ilidubamdiru] ākāśadinda iḷidubandiru (sarcastic) to be endowed with divine qualities; ಆಕಾಶ ನೋಡಿಕೊಂಡು ಭಾವಿಗೆ ಉಚ್ಚೆ ಹೊಯ್ಯಿ [akasha nodikomdu bhavige ucce hoyyi] ākāśa nōḍikoṇḍu bhāvige ucce hoyyi to have a laudable aim, but act in a mean way; ಆಕಾಶ ನೋಡುವುದಕ್ಕೆ ನೂಕುನುಗ್ಗುಲೇಕೆ [akasha noduvudakke nukunugguleke]? ākāśa nōḍuvudakke nūkunuggalēke? When there is ample opportunities why rush like a mad man for it? why cause a stampede to look at the sky? ಆಕಾಶ ನೋಡುತ್ತಿರು [akasha noduttiru] ākāśa nōḍuttiru to be empty of thought; to look at lacking ideas; ಆಕಾಶಭೂಮಿಗಳನ್ನು ಒಂದುಮಾಡು [akashabhumigalannu omdumadu] ākāśa bhūmigaḷannu ondumāḍu (fig.) to do every thing possible; to move the haven and the earth; 2. to indulge in loud uproar that would bring the very heavens down; to make the welkin ring; ಆಕಾಶ ಹರಿದುಬೀಳುವಾಗ ಅಂಗೈ ಒಡ್ಡಿದರೆ ನಿಂತೀತೆ [akasha haridubiluvaga amgai oddidare nimtite]? ākāśa haridu bīḷuvāga aŋgai oḍḍidare nintīte you cannot prevent a great calamity with a casual effort; umbrella is not a shield against the thunderbolt; ಆಕಾಶ ಹರಿದು ಹೋಗುವ ಹಾಗೆ ಕಿರಿಚು [akasha haridu hoguva hage kiricu] ākāśa haridu hōguva hāge kiricu (fig.) to scream very loudly; to scream the place down; ಆಕಾಶಕ್ಕೆ ಉಗಿದರೆ ಉಗಿದವರ ಮೇಲೆಯೇ ಬೀಳುತ್ತದೆ [akashakke ugidare ugidavara meleye biluttade] ākaśakke ugidare ugidavara mēleyē bīḷuttade he who blows in the dust fills his eyes with it.

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Ākāsa (ಆಕಾಸ):—[noun] = ಆಕಾಶ [akasha].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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