Dhira, Dhīra, Dhīrā: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Dhira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1a) Dhīrā (धीरा) is another name for Kākolī, a medicinal plant identified with Roscoea purpurea from the Zingiberaceae or “ginger family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.25-27 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Dhīrā and Kākolī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

1b) Dhīrā (धीरा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Tejovatī, a medicinal plant similar to Jyotiṣmatī Celastrus paniculatus (black oil plant or intellect tree) from the Celastraceae or “staff vine” or “bittersweet family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.82. The Raj Nighantu reads Jyotiṣmatī and Tejovatī together while Bāpālāl identifies Tejovatī with Zanthoxylum budrunga (cape yellowwood or Indian ivy-rue) from the Rutaceae or “rue” or “citrus” family.

2) Dhīra (धीर) is mentioned as a synonym for Ṛṣabhaka, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Microstylis muscifera Ridley which is a synonym of Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) or “fly bearing malaxis” from the Orchidaceae or “orchid” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.11-13. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Dhīra and Ṛṣabhaka, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Two Theris of this name are mentioned, both belonging to the Sakiyans of Kapilavatthu.

They were members of the Bodhisattas court, at the time when he became the Buddha.

They left home with Pajapati Gotami, entered the Order and became arahants. Thig.6, 7; ThigA.12.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Dhīra (धीर) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Dhīra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dhīra : (adj.) wise; the wise.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dhīra, (adj.) (combining in meaning 1. Sk. dhīra “firm” fr. dhārayati (see dharati & dhiti); 2. Vedic. dhīra “wise” fr. dīdheti (see dhi2). The fluctuation of connotation is also scen in the explains of Coms which always give the foll. three conventional etymologies, viz. dhikkitapāpa, dhiti-sampanna, dhiyā (=paññāya) samannāgata Nd144≈(see dhi2)) constant, firm, self-relying, of character; wise, possessing the knowledge of the Dhamma, often=paṇḍita & Ep. of an Arahant D.II, 128; S.I, 24 (lokapariyāyaṃ aññāya nibbutā dh.), 122, 221; Sn.45, 235 (nibbanti dhīrā), 913 (vippamutto diṭṭhigatehi dh.), 1052; It.68 (°upasevanā, opp. bāla), 122 (dh. sabbaganthapamocano); Dh.23, 28, 177 (opp. bāla); Th.1, 4; 2, 7 (dhammā=tejussadehi ariyamag‹-› gadhammehi ThA.13); J.III, 396; V, 116; Pv.II, 16; II, 945; Nd1 44, 55, 482; Nd2 324 (=jutimant); Miln.342; KhA 194, 224, 230; DhA.III, 189 (=paṇḍita). (Page 341)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ḍhirā (ढिरा).—m (Usually ḍirā) A new shoot or sprout; or the unexpanded end of a sprout. 2 fig. A pointed stick used by thatchers to toss up their bundles.

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dhirā (धिरा).—m (dhīra) A prop. 2 fig. Encouragement, countenance, support. 3 An upright (or inclined post) of a draw-well.

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dhirā (धिरा).—int dhirē or dhirēdhirē or dhiradhirē int Slowly! gently! carefully!

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dhīra (धीर).—m (S) The quality or power of expecting long, enduring long, or persisting long;--patience, calmness, forbearance, fortitude, resolution, steadiness, stanchness. v dhara, yē, suṭa, phuṭa, phāṭa, sōḍa, ṭāka. Pr. dhīra asēla pōṭīṃ tara barēṃ hōīla śēvaṭīṃ. 2 Power of retention, hold: as tōṇḍālā dhīra Hold upon one's inclination to speak or to eat; jibhēlā dhīra Hold upon the tongue; pāyāṃlā dhīra Power of standing, stopping, staying still &c.; śaucālā dhīra nāhīṃ Expresses diarrhœa or great looseness. 3 Permanence, continuance, abiding (bōlaṇyānta-kara- ṇyānta-cālaṇyānta). 4 Quality of lasting; holding together; holding fast (in animals, buildings &c. dhōḍyānta-gharānta-khāmbānta-gāḍyānta-kāpaḍānta-kāgadānta.) dhīra karaṇēṃ To make a bold attempt. dhīra cēpaṇēṃ g. of s. To get or have one's courage or assurance confirmed or established. dhīra dēṇēṃ To encourage, assure, fortify. dhīra nighaṇēṃ in. con. To get courage or resolution for or unto. dhirācā Patient, firm, determined, resolute.

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dhīra (धीर).—m (Commonly dhirā) A prop or shore. 2 fig. Patronage or support.

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dhīra (धीर).—a (S) Patient. Pr. dhīra tō gambhīra utāvaḷā tō bāvaḷā. 2 Firm, enduring, steady, stanch: also determined, resolute, intrepid.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ḍhirā (ढिरा).—m A sprout. ḍhirī f A young sprout.

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dhirā (धिरा).—m A prop. Encouragement, countenance, support. m A prop. A support or stay; encouragement, reassurance. v .

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dhirā (धिरा).—int dhirē or dhirēdhirē or dhirādhira int Slowly! gently! carefully!

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dhīra (धीर).—m Patience, calmness, resolution. Power of retention, hold. dhīra karaṇēṃ To make a bold attempt. dhīra cēpaṇēṃ To get or have one's courage or as- surance confirmed or established. dhīra dēṇēṃ To encourage, assure, fortify. dhīra nighaṇēṃ in. con. To get courage or reso- lution for or unto. dhirācā Patient, firm, determined, resolute.

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dhīra (धीर).—a Patient. Pr. dhīra tō gambhīra utāvaḷā tō bāvaḷā. Firm, resolute.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dhīra (धीर).—a. [dhiyaṃ rāti rā-ka, dhiyamīrayati īra-aṇ vā upa° sa Tv.] Brave, bold, courageous; धीरोद्धता गतिः (dhīroddhatā gatiḥ) U.6.19.

2) Steady, steadfast, firm, durable, lasting, constant निषेदुषीमासनबन्धधीरः (niṣeduṣīmāsanabandhadhīraḥ) R.2.6.

3) Strong-minded, persevering, self-possessed, resolute, of firm resolve or purpose; धीरा हि तरन्त्यापदम् (dhīrā hi tarantyāpadam) K.175; विकारहेतौ सति विक्रियन्ते येषां न चेतांसि त एव धीराः (vikārahetau sati vikriyante yeṣāṃ na cetāṃsi ta eva dhīrāḥ) Ku.1.59.

4) Composed, calm, collected.

5) Sedate, sober, grave, solemn; सागरधीरचेताः (sāgaradhīracetāḥ) R.18.4.

6) Strong, energetic.

7) Wise, prudent, intelligent, sensible, learned, clever; तमेव धीरो विज्ञाय प्रज्ञां कुर्वीत ब्राह्मणः (tameva dhīro vijñāya prajñāṃ kurvīta brāhmaṇaḥ) Bṛ. Up.4.4.21. धृतेश्च धीरः सदृशीर्व्यधत्त सः (dhṛteśca dhīraḥ sadṛśīrvyadhatta saḥ) R.3.1;5.38; 16.74; U.5.31.

8) Deep, grave, loud, hollow (as sound); स्वरेण धीरेण निवर्तयन्निव (svareṇa dhīreṇa nivartayanniva) R.3.43,59; U.6.17.

9) Well-conducted, well-behaved.

1) Gentle, soft, agreeable, pleasing (as a breeze); धीरसमीरे यमुनातीरे वसति वने वनमाली (dhīrasamīre yamunātīre vasati vane vanamālī) Gīt.5.

11) Lazy, dull.

12) Daring.

13) Headstrong.

-raḥ 1 The ocean.

2) An epithet of Buddha.

3) The thinking principle, the soul (cidātman).

4) An epithet of king Bali.

-ram Saffron.

-ram -ind. Boldly, firmly, steadfastly. steadily; धीरं विलोकयति (dhīraṃ vilokayati) Bh.2.31; Amaru. 13.

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Dhīrā (धीरा).—The heroine of a poetic composition who, though jealous of her husband or lover, suppresses all outward manifestation or expression of her resentment in his presence or as the Rasamañjarī puts it, व्यङ्ग्यकोपप्रकाशिका धीरा (vyaṅgyakopaprakāśikā dhīrā); see S. D. 12-15 also.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhīra (धीर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Wise, sensible, learned. 2. Firm, steady, consistent, determined. 3. Cool, collected. 4. Head-strong, self-willed, uncontrollable. 5. Lazy, dull, slow. 6. Strong, powerful. 7. Wellbehaved, decorous, decent. 8. Gentle, steady, (as a breeze.) 9. Deep, (as a sound) m.

(-raḥ) 1. A name of Bali, a celebrated prince. 2. The ocean. mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) Saffron. f.

(-rā) 1. A drug; also kākolī. 2. A woman who, although jealous of a husband or lover, suppresses all expression of resentment in his presence. E. dhī understanding, to possess, ka affix; or dhī with īra to go to, affix aṇ; or dhī to possess, ktan Unadi aff. dhiyaṃ rāti rā-ka . dhiyamīrayati īraaṇ vā . upa0 sa .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhīra (धीर).—i. e. I. dhṛ + a, adj. 1. Lasting, Cāṭ. 7. 2. Firm, resolute, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3755; [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 72; [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 167; courageous, Kāthas. 18, 297. 3. Solemn, grave, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 26. 4. Deep (as a sound), [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 16, 13. Ii. dhī + ra, adj. Sensible, wise, Mahābhārata 5, 1076; [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 19 13; Chr. 290, 1 = [Rigveda.] i. 64, 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhīra (धीर).—1. ([feminine] dhīrī & dhīrā) intelligent, skilful, clever, wise; [abstract] † [feminine], tva [neuter]†

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Dhīra (धीर).—2. [adjective] firm, steady, grave, deep (sound); insisting on (—°), constant, persevering, resolute, courageous; °— & [neuter] [adverb]; [abstract] [feminine], tva [neuter]

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Dhīra (धीर).—3. [neuter] saffron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dhīra (धीर):—[from dhī] 1. dhīra mf(ī or ā)n. intelligent, wise, skilful, clever, familiar with, versed in ([locative case]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. ([Comparative degree] dhīra-tara, [Atharva-veda; Rāmāyaṇa])

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a Buddha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] of sub voce men with the [patronymic] Śātaparṇeya, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

4) 2. dhīra mf(ā)n. (√dhṛ or dhā? cf. [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 24]) steady, constant, firm, resolute, brave, energetic, courageous, self-possessed, composed, calm, grave, [Harivaṃśa; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa]

5) deep, low, dull (as sound), [Kālidāsa; Amaru-śataka] etc.

6) gentle, soft, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) well-conducted, well-bred, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) m. the ocean, sea (as an image of constancy?)

9) Name of Bali, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) of other men, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

11) Dhīrā (धीरा):—[from dhīra] f. Name of sub voce [medicine] plants (kākolī, kṣīra-kāk, mahā-jyotiṣmatī, medā, śveta-vacā, Rosa Glandulifera), [Bhāvaprakāśa; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] an intoxicating beverage, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] a woman who keeps down all expression of resentment or jealousy, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a woman, [Catalogue(s)]

15) Dhīra (धीर):—n. saffron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (not always, [especially] in [compound], separable from 1. dhīra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhīra (धीर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Wise, cautious; firm; strong; sedate; headstrong; lazy; deep (sound). m. Bāli; the ocean. f. () A drug. m. n. Saffron.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Dhīra (धीर):—1. (von dhar; vgl. u. [22]) [Uṇādisūtra 2, 24.] adj. f. ā

1) anhaltend, beständig, fest [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 433.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 51.] dhīranīranikaraiḥ [Gedicht vom Vogel Cātaka 7.] samīra [Gītagovinda 5, 8.] dhīrayā dṛśā [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 90.] smaradhīrakīrti [Dhūrtasamāgama 92, 1.] dhīram adv.: prayayau festen, entschlossenen Schrittes [Harivaṃśa 3755.] gajapuṃgavastu dhīraṃ vilokayati mit unverwandtem Blicke [Bhartṛhari 2, 26.] Häufig von Personen in der Bed. fest auf Etwas bestehend, beharrlich, standhaft, charakterfest, entschlossen, beherzt: āsanabandha [Raghuvaṃśa 2, 6.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1.2, 35.] na niścitārthādviramanti dhīrāḥ [Bhartṛhari 2, 72. 41. 81.] alpasattveṣu dhīrāṇāmavajñaiva hi śobhate [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 131.] na śikṣitaḥ prayatno hi dhīrāṇāṃ hṛdaye bhiyā [150. 137. 272. 359. 1, 42. 7, 88.] dhīrā hi dustaramapi vyasanaṃ taranti Cit. bei [UJJVAL.] zu [Uṇādisūtra 2, 24.] vināpyarthairdhīraḥ (v. l. vīraḥ) spṛśati bahumānonnatipadam . samāyukto pyarthaiḥ paribhavapadaṃ yāti kṛpaṇaḥ .. [Hitopadeśa I, 167.] [Cāṇakya 106.] gatasvārthamimaṃ dehaṃ virakto muktavandhanaḥ . avijñātagatirjahyātsa vai dhīra udāhṛtaḥ .. [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 13, 24. 3, 5, 46.] [Vetālapañcaviṃśati 3, 20. 4, 1. 2.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 34, 17.] dhīracetas beherzt [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 297.] sāgaradhīracetas wohl dessen Herz so beständig wie das Meer ist [Raghuvaṃśa 18, 3.] [STENZLER] übersetzt das Wort durch profundus, der Schol. in der Calc. Ausg. umschreibt es gleichfalls durch gambhīra . Das Meer erscheint wohl in der Regel als Bild der Tiefe, aber auf der anderen Seite kann es auch gar wohl als Bild der Beständigkeit und Unveränderlichkeit verwendet werden, da seine Wassermasse trotz aller Zuflüsse und aller Hitze unveränderlich erscheint. Die Bedeutung tief kommt dem Worte nur in übertragenem Sinne (s. w. u.) zu. dhīra in der zu cetas passenden Bed. klug aufzufassen verbietet das vorangehende sāgara. dhīrodātta, dhīroddhata, dhīralalita und dhīrapraśānta vier Arten von Helden [Sāhityadarpana 65. fgg.] dhīrā, adhīrā und dhīrādhīrā von Heroinen [102. fgg.] An der zweiten Stelle übersetzt [BALLANTYNE] das Wort durch possessend of self-command, sich in der Gewalt habend; dem entsprechen die Bedeutungen svaira und svacchanda in [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] und [Medinīkoṣa] —

2) vom Tone lange nachtönend, tief, dumpf: stanitavacanaiḥ [Meghadūta 96.] mṛdaṅgadhīradhvani [Raghuvaṃśa 16, 13.] avocadenaṃ gaganaspṛśā raghuḥ svareṇa dhīreṇa nivartayanniva [3, 43.] dhīraṃ vāridharasya vāri kirataḥ śrutvā niśīthe dhvanim [Amaruśataka 11.] tāradhīratūryāravapratiravaiḥ [Kathāsaritsāgara 20, 226.] dhīrapraśāntasvaraistapasvibhirbhavitavyam [Śākuntala 27, 10.] paridhīrarava [Ghaṭakarpara 4.] adv.: pramathyamānārṇavadhīranādinī [Raghuvaṃśa 3, 59.] —

3) Die Lexicographen kennen noch folgende Bedeutungen: balayuta kräftig, stark [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] manda gelind u.s.w. (auch Gegens. von dhīra klug) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 357.] vinīta wohlgezogen u.s.w. [UṆĀDIVṚ. im SAṂKṢIPTAS. Śabdakalpadruma] — Nicht ohne Widerstreben haben wir 1. dhīra von 2. dhīra getrennt, aber eine ungekünstelte Vermittelung der Bedeutungen wollte uns nicht recht gelingen. Vgl. adhīra .

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Dhīra (धीर):—

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Dhīra (धीर):—3. (= 1. oder 2. dhīra)

1) m. a) Meer (vgl. u. 1. dhīra [1.]) [ŚABDĀRTHAK. ] bei [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] — b) Beiname eines Buddha (der Weise) [Vyutpatti oder Mahāvyutpatti 2.] — c) Beiname des Fürsten Bali [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] — d) Nomen proprium verschiedener Männer, mit dem patron. śātaparṇeya [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 10,3,3,1. -] [Rājataraṅgiṇī.5,26.] [Oxforder Handschriften 148,a,8.] — e) eine best. Arzeneipflanze, = ṛṣabha [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

2) f. dhīrā a) ein berauschendes Getränk [Hārāvalī 63.] — b) Name verschiedener Arzeneipflanzen, = kākolī (auch [NIGH. PR.]) und mahājyotiṣmatī [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] = kṣīrakākolī, śvetavacā, medā, Rosa glandulifera [NIGH. PR. -] Nach [Medinīkoṣa] ist das f. = śravaṇatulyā (?). —

3) n. Saffran [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 3, 26.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 357.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 645.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 433.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 51. fg.]

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Dhīra (धीर):—1.

1) tvadānanamadhīrākṣam mit den beweglichen Augen [Spr. 4150. Z. 5] lies sieht ruhigen Auges vor sich hin; vgl. [Spr. 2663.] [Sp. 967, Z. 8. fgg.] vgl. [Spr. 5317] und acalapratiṣṭha ( [Spr. 362]) und maryādin als Beiww. des Meeres. [Z. 17. fg.] vgl. [Bharata] [NĀṬYAŚ. 34,5. 6.] [DAŚAR.2,3. fgg. 8.] [PRATĀPAR.4,a.]

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Dhīra (धीर):—2. von Personen [Spr. 2587. 2782. 4066. 5057.]

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Dhīra (धीर):—3.

2) c) Nomen proprium eines Frauenzimmers [HALL 66.]

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Dhīra (धीर):—2. sich auf Etwas (nom. act. im loc.) verstehend [Spr. (II) 6110.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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