by Manmatha Nath Dutt | 1908 | 245,256 words | ISBN-13: 9788183150736
The English translation of the Garuda Purana: contents include a creation theory, description of vratas (religious observances), sacred holidays, sacred places dedicated to the sun, but also prayers from the Tantrika ritual, addressed to the sun, to Shiva, and to Vishnu. The Garuda Purana also contains treatises on astrology, palmistry, and preci...
Kumara said:—O Katyayana, I shall briefly expound the rules of Grammar which will enable infants to easily comprehend that subject and to understand the formation of words and their derivatives. Terms are either Sup (substantive) or Ting (verb). A Sup has seven cases. The forms of singular dual and plural inflexions of the subjective case are respectively called Su, Au, Jas. The subjective case-endings are added to the subject of a sentence, to the object in the passive voice, and are used in the case of address, in Pratipadikam, and in cases where the subjective sense is implied even in the absence of any verb (Lingartha). A term, that expresses a complete sense even in the absence of a verb or any case-inflexion, is called a Pratipadikam.
“Am,” “Au,” and “Shas” are respectively the singular, dual and plural inflexion-forms of the objective case (Dvitiya). That which is done by the subject of a sentence is called its object (Karma). Dvitiya case-endings are used in the objective case, and are added to terms in association with the terms “Antara” and “Antaréna,”
“Ta,” “Bhyam,” and “Bhis” are respectively the singular, dual and plural inflexion-forms of the Tritiya (accusative case). Tritiya inflexions are used in Karanam (accusative.) The instrument or agency through which a subject performs an act is called its Karanam (lit. instrument), and he who performs an act is called its Karta (doer).
“Em,” “Bhyam,” and “Bhyas” are respectively the singular dual and plural inflexional forms of Sampradanam (Dative case,) Dative case-endings are added to persons to which something is intended to be given, or to which something is owed, or to whom something appears likeable or delectable.
“Nangsi,” “Bhyam” and “Bhyas” are respectively the singular, dual and plural inflexion-forms of Apadanam (Ablative case). Ablative case-endings are added to a term from which anything is meant to be fallen or disloged, or from which any fear is apprehended. “Nas,” “Us,” and “Am” are respectively the singular, dual, and plural inflexion forms of the Shasthi (possessive case). Shasthi implies possession, ownership relationship, or prominence of one among many.
“Unga,” “Usa,” and “Sup” are respectively the singular, dual, and plural inflexion-forms of the Adhikaranam (locative case). Adhikaranam implies the location of a thing in another substance, and its inflexions are added to terms signifying that something is contained in them, or denoting agents under the protection of some body.
Ablative case-endings are added to terms which signify objects that are either coveted or disliked, as well as to those used in combination with the prefixes Pari, Apa, and am, or in connection with the terms Itara (other) and those which denote the names of the quarters of the heaven.
The objective case endings are added to terms used in combination with “Ena,” as well as to the objects of a verb. Terms which are used in connection with the terms Saha (with), Hina (without) or are coupled with the prefixes “Anu,” “Pan,” “Prati” always have the objective case-endings. Likewise adverbs and terms denoting road are always used with the objective inflexions. Terms implying attempt at going or efforts of locomotion may either have the objective or dative case-endings. The object of the verb “Mana,” implying an act of light or disrespectful comparison, gets the dative inflexion, if it denotes an inanimate object; denoting an animate object, or a sentient creature, it retains its true objective inflexion. Terms used in combination with Namas (obeisance), “Svasti” (blessing to), Svadha, Svaha “Vashat” (obeisance) and Alam (capable) get the dative case endings. Used to denote a sense like “for reason,” or “for that purpose” they are likewise used in the dative case.
Accusative case is used in combination with the term Saha (denoting accompaniment), as well as in respect of objects denoting the loss or defect of any bodily organ. Terms denoting the progress or course of time as well as the happening or contingency of an event are used in the locative case.
Possessive case endings maybe as well used in respect of the foregoing terms. Both possessive and locative case-endings may be added to terms coupled with “Svami,” “Adhipali” “Ishvara” (lords or master), “Dayada” (heirs), and “Sutakas”. Either the locative or possessive case may be used where the predominence of one object amongst many (Nirdhara), is desired. Possessive case endings are added to terms used with “Hetu” (for that reason). Objects of the root Smri (to remember) always get the possessive inflexion. Similarly, subjects of verbs formed by Krit, as well as substantives used in connection with verbs denoting the import of killing or envying, get the possessive inflexion. Subjects or objects do not get the possessive inflexion in connection with Nishtha suffixes (such as Ta. etc.)
“Tip, Tas” “Anti” are the inflexions of third person singular, third person dual, and third person plural, in the present tense (Lat). Sip, Thas, Tha are respectively the forms of inflexion of the second person singular, dual and plural in the present tense; and “Mi” “Vas” and “Mas” are respectively the forms of inflexion of the first person singular, dual and plural in the present tense. These forms are used only in the Parasmai-Padi form. In the Atmanepadi form they are respectively. Te, Ate, Ante; Sé, Athe, Dhvé; and A, Vahe, and Mahé. “I” and its plural denote first person, “You” and its plural indicate second person, names other than these are third person. Bhu (to be) etc., are called Dhatus.
Lat means the present tense. A verb having the form of present tense signifies the import of a past tense if used in combination with “Sma.” Lang is past perfect tense. The tense Ling is used in conferring blessings or making benediction. In cases of direction, permission, advice, prayer, invitation, request, bene, diction and asking of wellbeing, Lot is the tense in which a verb is generally used. Lit signifies the past tense, and is used to denote events which have happened in the absence of the speaker (lit, not under the eyes of the speaker, Paroksha). Loong (Lung?) is the name of the tense which is used to denote an event in the past which did not occur at the time of speaking. Lrit indicates simple future. Loot (Lut?) is used to denote a future event which will take place in the presence of the speaker.
In cases in which the occurrence of an event or the performance of an act is being completed, the tense Lring is used. Sometimes the past tense (Lit) is used in the place of Lot and vice versa. The Krit affixes may be added to a root in either of the three forms or voices, such as the active, passive and neuter. Trin, Tabya Ghang, Aniya, Shatri, etc., are the affixes which are usually affixed to the roots.
Kumar said:—Now I shall enumerate the illustrations of Sandhis (unions of words) etc., as are found to occur in the Samhitas. Vipra and Agram make Vipragram, “Sa” and agata make Sagata. “Vi” combined with “Idam” makes Vidam, “Su” and “Uttamam” Suttamam. Pitri and Rishabha make Pitrirshabha, Langala and isha(?) make Langa, leesha, Mana and ishaya(?) make “Manishaya” “Ganga” and “Udakam” make “Gangodakam.” To and Likara make Tavalkara. Rina and Rinam make Rinarnam, Pri and Arnam make Prarnam, Sheeta and Arta make Sheetarta. Tau and likara make Tavalkara. Sa and Indri make Sanidri, Sa and Okara make Saukara. Iti and Api make Atyapi. Vadhu and asanam make Vadhvasanam. Pitri and Artha make Pitrartha, Li and Anabandha make Lanubandha. Nayé and Jayet make Naye Jayet. Lu and Anam make Lavanam. Gau and Ava make Gava. Te united with Ishvara ma Ta Ishvara. Athah and Atra make Atho Atro. Shat united with Iman make Shat Iman. Amih and Ashvah make Ami Ashva. Shat and Ashya make Shadasya, Tat and Navak make Tannavak. Tat and Charet make Tachcharet. Tat and Lunati make Tallunati. Tat and Jalam make Tajjalam. Tat and Shmashanakam make Tat-Shmashanakam. Sugan and Atra make Sugannatra. Pachan and Atra make Pachannatra. Bhavan and Chadayati-Bhavamshchhadayati. Bhavan and Jhanatkar make Bhavan Jhanatkara. Bhavan and Tarati make Bhavamstarati. Sam and Smritam combinedly make Samsmritam. Bhavan and Likhati unitedly make Bhavamllikhati. Tan and Shété unitedly make Tamschchhété. Bhavan, Shete Api, Ami and Idrisham combinedly make Bhavang Shetepyamidrisham. Tvam and Karoshi combinedly make Tvamkaroshi. Tvan and Tarasi make Tvantarasi, Sat and Archanam make Sadar Chchanam, Kah and Ihatra make Ka Ihatra.
There are six forms of Samasas, such as (1) the Karmadharaya etc., of which the term Shaddvija forms an illustration. The term Trivedi furnishes the example of Dvigu Samasa. Tatkritascha, Tadarthascha, and Vrikabhiti, etc., are the illustrations of Tatpurusha Samasa, whereas the terms Tattvajna, Jnana-dasksha, etc., illustrate the forms of Vahubrihi Samasa. Examples of the Avyayibhava Samasa always commence with the interjectional prefixes of Adhi, etc., while the terms such as Devarshi-Manava, etc., furnish the instances of the Dvanda Samasa. The terms such as Pandavas, Shaiva, Vrahma, and Brahmata are the illustrations of the applied Taddhita.
The terms Devagni, Sakhi, Pati, Anshu, Krashtu, Svayambhu, Pita (Pitri), Nri (Na), Prashasta (Prashastri) Ra, Gau, and Glau, though included within the group of Adajanta words belong to the masculine gender. Similarly, the group of Halanta words consisting of the terms Ashra, Juk, Kshabhuk, Kravyad, Mrigabedh, Atman, Rajan, Yuvan, Pathin, Pushan, and Brahmahan, Shashin, Vedhas, Ushanas, Anudvan, Madhulit and Kashthatat belongs to the masculine gender. The terms Vanam (wood), Vari (water), Asthi (bone) Vastu (thing), Jagat (universe), Saman (the verses of that Veda), Ahan (day), Karma, (act) Sarpis (clarified butter) Bapus (body) and Tejas (energy) belong to the neuter gender. The terms Jaya (wife), Jara (old age), Nadi (river), Lakshmi (goddess of fortune), Shri (beauty), Stri (woman), Bhumi (land), Vadhu (bride), Bhru (eye-brows), Punarbhu (a remarried widow), Dhenu (cow), Svasa (sister), Mata (mother) Nau (boat), Bak (speech), Srag (garland of flowers), Dik quarter of the heaven), Krudh (anger), Yuvati (maiden) Kukubh, (quarters of the skies), Dyau (effulgence), Dhrite (comprehension), Pravrish (rainy reason), Ushnik (metre) and Sumanas (flowers) belong to the feminine gender.
Now I shall narrate to you the terms which are respectively included within the masculine, feminine and neuter groups according to the nature of their imports, or the nature of the act they signify. Shukla (white), Kilala, Shuchi (pure) Gramani (the master of a village), Sudhi (intelligent one) Vahu (arms), Kamalabhu (the lotus-sprung deity), Karta (master or doer), Vahu (many), Satya (truth), Madhutaksha and Dirgha-pat belong to the masculine gender. The terms Sarva (all), Vishva (all), Ubha (both), Anya (other), Anyatara (other than that) are terms that are used both in the masculine and feminine genders. Purva, Apara, Uttara, Dakshina, Apara, Antara, Tad, Yad, Idam, Ashmad, and Yushmad are the terms that are used in all the genders.
Here follows declensions of several words and rules of prosody identical with those enumerated in our English translation of the Agni Puranam.