Dirgha, aka: Dīrgha, Dīrghā; 18 Definition(s)

Introduction

Dirgha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ):—One of the persons joining Śiva during the preparations of the war between Śankhacūḍa and the Devas, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53). All persons attending were remained seated on beautiful aerial cars, built of jewels and gems. The war was initiated by Puṣpadanta (messenger of Śiva) who was ordered to restore the rights of the Devas. .

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Dirgha in Purana glossary... « previous · [D] · next »

Dīrgha (दीर्घ).—A king of Magadha. He was killed by Pāṇḍu. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 112, Verse 27).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Dīrghā (दीर्घा).—A Kalā of Viṣṇu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 95.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ).—One of the technical terms which have been used in the uṇādi-sūtras;—Dīrgha, “A term used in connection with the lengthened tone of a vowel described to be ‘dvimātra’ as contrasted with ‘hrasva’ having one ‘mātrā.” The terms, hrasva and dīrgha occur in as many as twenty-four sūtras.

Source: archive.org: Uṇādi-Sūtras In The Sanskrit Grammatical Tradition

Dīrgha (दीर्घ).—Long: a term used in connection with the lengthened tone of a vowel described to be dvimatra as contrasted with ह्रस्व (hrasva) having one matra and प्लुत (pluta) having three matras; cf. द्विस्तावान् दीर्घः (dvistāvān dīrghaḥ) V. Pr. I. 35, V. Pr. I. 57, also ऊकालोज्झ्रस्वदीर्घप्लुतः (ūkālojjhrasvadīrghaplutaḥ) P, I.2.27.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Dīrghanṛsiṃha or Dīrghanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Dirgha (दिर्घ) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Dirgha (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of a Krauñca. A flower is in his right hand and a viṇā in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Dirgha) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ, “long”).—A verse in Sanskrit is of four feet or quarters or pādas. Each pāda is regulated either by a number of syllables (akṣaras) or by a number of syllabic instant or measures (mātrās). A syllable is short or long i.e. hrasva or dīrgha according to its vowel is short or long. But short vowel becomes long in prosody, when it is followed by anusvāra, visarga or by a conjunct consonant. The last syllable of a pāda is optionally long or short according to the exigence of the metre, whatever be its natural length.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ, “long”) or Guru or Ga refers to long letter in a verse.—The whole chanda literature has several technical terms, by which it is controlled. Single letters are used to denote a specific instance. The letter ga stands for guru letter while the letter la stands for laghu letter. In a verse the letter which is guru is also known as dīrgha (long) and which is laghu is also known as hrasva (short). The dīrgha letter consists of two mātrās while the hrasva letter consists of one mātrā.

Guru symbols can be identified as the shape of tāṭaṅka, hāra or keyūra, and the laghu can be identified as menu, kāhāla (daṇḍa) or śara.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dīrghā (दीर्घा) is another name for Pṛśniparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Uraria picta Desv. from the Fabaceae or “legume” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.37-39 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Dīrghā and Pṛśniparṇī, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ) is mentioned as the general of the Yakṣas, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 36.—Accordingly, “one day the Buddha, apeaking to Tch’ang (Dīrgha), the general of the Yakṣas (yakṣasnānī), praised the three good disciples A-ni-lou-t’o (Aniruddha), Nan-t’i-kia (Nandika) and Tch’e-mi-lo (Kimbila). The Buddha said to Dīrgha: ‘If the entire world with its gods and men thinks about these three sons of noble family with faith, it will obtain immense benefits during the long night (dīrgharātra)’”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Dīrgha (दीर्घ, “long”) refers to one of the “twenty form objects” (rūpa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 34). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., dīrgha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

India history and geogprahy

Dīrghā.—(CII 1), distance or the distant future. Note: dīrghā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

dīrgha (दीर्घ).—a (S) Long;--whether in space or time. 2 Long--a vowel. 3 Deep, grave, weighty--a deliberation &c.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dīrgha (दीर्घ).—a Long; deep.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dīrgha (दीर्घ).—a. (Compar. drāghīyas, Superl. drāghiṣṭha)

1) Long (in time or space), reaching far; दीर्घाक्षं शरदिन्दुकान्ति वदनम् (dīrghākṣaṃ śaradindukānti vadanam) M.2.3; दीर्घान् कटाक्षान् (dīrghān kaṭākṣān) Me.37; दीर्घापाङ्ग (dīrghāpāṅga) &c.

2) Of long duration, lasting long, tedious; दीर्घयामा त्रियामा (dīrghayāmā triyāmā) Me.11; V.3.4; Ś.4.15.

3) Deep (as a sigh); Amaru.13; दीर्घमुष्णं च निश्वस्य (dīrghamuṣṇaṃ ca niśvasya).

4) Long (as a vowel), as the आ (ā) in काम (kāma).

5) Lofty, high, tall.

6) Dilated, expanded; तृष्णादीर्घस्य चक्षुषः (tṛṣṇādīrghasya cakṣuṣaḥ) U.3.46.

-rghaḥ 1 A camel.

2) A long vowel.

3) The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth signs of the zodiac.

4) A kind of grass or reed.

-rghā A long lake or oblong tank.

-rgham ind.

1) Long, for a long time.

2) Deeply.

3) Far.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dīrgha (दीर्घ).—(= Pali Dīgha), n. of a yakṣa: Māy 235.11; 237.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dīrgha (दीर्घ).—mfn.

(-rghaḥ-rghā-rghaṃ) Long, applied either to space or time. m.

(-rghaḥ) 1. The Sal tree. 2. A long vowel. 3. The 5th, 6th, 7th or 8th sign of the zodiac. E. dṝ to divide or send, affix ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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Dīrghapatra (दीर्घपत्र).—mfn. (-traḥ-trā-trī-traṃ) Long-leaved longifolium. m. (-traḥ) Garlic. ...
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