Rishabha, Ṛṣabha, Ṛṣabhā: 40 definitions


Rishabha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Ṛṣabha and Ṛṣabhā can be transliterated into English as Rsabha or Rishabha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Rishabha in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—The son of Nābhi (by Merudevī), who was a son of Medhātithi, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Medhātithi was a son of Priyavrata, who was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being. Ṛṣabha had a son named Bharata to whom he gave the region called Bhārata (which lies south of Hemādri).

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ):—Son of Kuśāgra (son of Bṛhadratha, who was one of the sons of Uparicara Vasu). He had son named Satyahita. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.7)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Ṛṣabha: According to the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa he was a king of Śviknas and had performed an aśvamedha. He is also mentioned there as having probably been the source of a saying of gauravītiśāktyas. He is probably identical with the mantrakṛt Ṛṣabha of the Vāyu-purāṇa. But whether he can be identified with any of the Ṛṣabhas mentioned in the Purāṇic tradition is a moot point.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—A King of the Lunar dynasty. He was the great grandson of Uparicaravasu.

Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 20, Verse 12 says that he fought within the Garuḍavyūha formed by Droṇa. (See full article at Story of Ṛṣabha from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—A muni (sage) who was the grandson of King Agnīdhra. General information.

3) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—A Nāga born in the Dhṛtarāṣṭra family. In Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 57, Verse 11, we read that this nāga was burnt to ashes at Janamejaya’s Sarpasatra. (Snake sacrifice).

4) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—An Asura. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 227, Verse 51).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—A sage about whose welfare Arjuna is asked by Yudhiṣṭhira.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 14. 31.

1b) A follower of Vṛtra in his battle with Indra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 10. 19.

1c) A son of Indra and Paulomī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 7.

1d) A manifestation of Hari in Dakṣasāvarṇi epoch. Born of Āyuṣmat and Ambudhārā; engaged in dhyānamārga.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 20; Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 143, 146.

1e) A son of Kuśāgra, and father of Satyahita.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 6-7. Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 223.

1f) A playmate of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 22. 31.

1g) Identified with the sun.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 6. 68.

1h) The son of Nābhi and Sudevī (Merudevī according to vi., vā. & br. p.) An avatār of Viṣṇu, eldest of all Kṣatra. A paramahaṃsa. Had a hundred sons of whom Bharata was the eldest.1 Nine of these became rulers of the nine dvīpas of the world. Eightyone of them became addicted to karma tantra, and the remainder nine became sages.2 Indra grew jealous of him and stopped rains in his kingdom Ajanābha. But Ṛṣabha, invoked rains by yogic powers.3 As king, married Jayantī, bestowed on him by Indra, who gave birth to 100 sons. Under Ṛṣabha, his kingdom flowed with milk and honey. Once he went to control Brahmāvarta and proclaimed the importance of self-control and discipline to his sons and to the world at large. Installed Bharata on the throne, renounced life and became a wandering mendicant. Finding the world opposed to his yoga practice he adopted the vow of a python (ājagara) by which he ate, chewed, drank and passed water all lying down. By his yogic powers he wandered through Koṅka, Veṅka, Kuṭaka, S. Karnāṭa, and was consumed by forestfire. By listening to his story, devotion to Hari was increased. His path was followed by Sumati;4 took to the third āśrama at Pulaha's hermitage and lived there until his death.5

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 60-62; Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 10; XI. 4. 17; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 27; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 50-51.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 2. 15-20.
  • 3) Ib. V. 3 (whole); 4. 1-3.
  • 4) Ib. V. 4. 8-19; chap. 5 (whole); 6. 6-19; 15. 1; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 51.
  • 5) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 28-31.

1i) A son of Aṅgiras, and a sage of the Svārociṣa epoch; a mantrakṛt.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 36. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 100.

1j) A son of Sudhanvan.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 102.

1k) A dānava with manuṣya dharma.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 15.

1l) A ṛtvik at Brahmā's yājña.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 106. 37.

1m) A mountain on the north base of Meru but in Bhāratavarṣa; sacred to Hari and visited by Balarāma;1 entered the sea.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 26; 19. 16; X. 79. 15; Matsya-purāṇa 163. 78; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 30.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 121. 72; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 75.

1n) An elephant at one of the four cardinal points to maintain the balance of the worlds.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 39.

1o) svara (auspicious), when heard by a king starting on an expedition; the second of the seven notes of the Hindu gamut.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 243. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 34; 86. 37.

1p) The fifteenth kalpa; here came into being ṛṣabhasvara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 33-34.

1q) Another name for the Sumanā hill of Plakṣadvīpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 42. 19; 49. 11.

1r) A class of people in Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 22.

2a) Ṛṣabhā (ऋषभा).—A river from Vindhya hills.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 27.

2b) A R. from the Ketumāla country.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 19.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.16, I.57) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Ṛṣabha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the name of one of the seven sages (saptarṣi) in the Svārociṣa-Manvantara: the second of the fourteen Manvantaras, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “In this second [Svārociṣa] Manvantara the deities are the Tuṣitas, Vipaścit is the name of the Indra, and Ūrja, Stambha, Prāṇa, Dānta, Ṛṣabha, Timira and Sārvarivān (Arvarīvān?) are the seven sages”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to the second of the seven “musical notes” (svara), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6, chapter 19 and chapter 28. These seven notes are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The seven notes (svara) are to be used in different sentiments (rasa). For example, ṣaḍja and ṛṣabha are to be used in the heroic (vīra) and the furious (raudra) sentiment.

The presiding deity of the ṛṣabha musical note (svara) is defined by various sources:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.13-14 mentions that the ṛṣabha note is sung by Brahmā.
Bṛhaddeśī 75-76 mentions Agni as the presiding deity of ṛṣabha.
Saṅgītaratnākara 1.3.57-58 mentions Brahmā as the presiding deity of ṛṣabha.
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.38, Idem.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja

The following animal sounds are associated with this note:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.3 assigns this note to the moo of the cow (go).
Bṛhaddeśī 64, p13, 2.1-5 assigns this note to the cātaka-bird (cuculus melanoleucus).
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.13, Idem.
Saṅgītaratnākara, Idem.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Google Books: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music [shiksha]

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to the second of six notes (svara) in Indian music.—Because the air, rising from the navel and striking the throat and the head, roars like a bull, it is called ṛṣabha. (Nāradīyā-śikṣā 1. 5.7-11)

context information

Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—Illustration of the ṛṣabha-svara according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of ṛṣabha-svara is green. He has a mouth and four hands. He holds lotus flowers in two upper hands and a vīṇā (Indian lute) with the other two hands. His vehicle is a bull. The colour of his scarf is rosy with a red design and the colour of the lower garment is green with a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Ṛṣabha) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Rishabha in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

1) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the name of a mountain and popular gathering place for Vidyādharas, according to the “story of the golden city”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 26. Accordingly, Candraprabhā (eldest of king Śaśikhaṇḍa’s four daughters) said to Śaktideva: “...  but now I am subdued by your wonderful arrival and by your handsome form, and I give myself to you; so I will go on the approaching fourteenth day of the lunar fortnight to the great mountain called Ṛṣabha to entreat my father for your sake, for all the most excellent Vidyādharas assemble there from all quarters on that day to worship the god Śiva, and my father comes there too, and after I have obtained his permission I will return here quickly; then marry me”.

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the mountain fit for Sūryaprabha’s coronation, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 50. Accordingly, as Śiva said to one of his Gaṇas: “... go and take this man [Sūryaprabha] to the Ṛṣabha mountain, in order that he may be crowned emperor, for that is the place appointed for the grand coronation of emperors such as he is”.

2) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the name of an ancient Vidyādhara Emperor, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 109. Accordingly, “... then one [Vidyādhara], Ṛṣabha by name, propitiated Śiva with austerities, and was appointed, by that god, emperor over both of them. But one day he was passing over Kailāsa, to go to the northern side, and lost his magic science owing to the anger of Śiva, who happened to be below, and so fell from the sky”.

Also, “... when the three-eyed god had made this decree, Ṛṣabha went on holding sway over the Vidyādharas, but in his pride made war on the gods, and was slain by Indra”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Ṛṣabha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ (Kāvya)

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) (or Usaha) refers to the first Tīrthaṅkara, as mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).—Accordingly, “While the other kings want to offer Ṛṣabha some jewels or other wonders to celebrate his arrival in Hastināpura, Sejjaṃsa is the only one who knows the appropriate gift: he offers him sugar cane juice to break his fast. Somewhat annoyed, the other characters ask Sejjaṃsa how he found out what the Master wanted. [...]”.

Cf. Kalpa Subodhikā Ṭīkā 441.11-442.11; Āvaśyakacūrṇi I 153.14-154.9: cf. Mette 1973 p. 10-11; Cauppaṇṇamahāpurisacariya 37.21-38.3: cf. Bruhn 1954 p. 54; Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra 1.2.v.893-912: Johnson I p. 148; See also 13 n.6.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) or Ṛṣabhagītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Ṛṣabha-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

Vedanta book cover
context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is another name for Ṛṣabhaka, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Microstylis muscifera Ridley which is a synonym of Malaxis muscifera (Lindl.) or “fly bearing malaxis” from the Orchidaceae or “orchid” family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.14-16 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Ṛṣabha and Ṛṣabhaka, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to the Gir breed of the Bullock (Bos Taurus), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to a country belonging to “Dakṣiṇa or Dakṣiṇadeśa (southern division)” classified under the constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā represent the southern division consisting of [i.e., Ṛṣabha] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Gitashastra (science of music)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (gita)

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to one of the Seven svaras (“notes of music”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The sound which has the quality of satisfying nature to please the listeners’ minds and also has śrutis immediately before it is called a svara. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa and the Saṃgītaratnākara, seven kinds of svara [e.g., ṛṣabha] are accepted. [...] It is seen that when two separate musical sounds occur at one time and both are gradually rising in one pitch following a particular direction, those sounds can be called as svaras.

context information

Gitashastra (गीतशास्त्र, gītaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of Music (gita or samgita), which is traditionally divided in Vocal music, Instrumental music and Dance (under the jurisdiction of music). The different elements and technical terms are explained in a wide range of (often Sanskrit) literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ, “excellence”):—One of the three sons of Indra and his wife Śacī. Indra is the king of the gods. He is the ruler of the storm and represents the all-pervading electric energy. As a major deity in the Ṛg-veda, he also represents the cause of fertility.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) The traditional founder of Jainism. He was the first of the twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras or "ford-makers", teachers who established the Jain teachings.

2) There is mention of Rishabha in Hindu scriptures, including the Purana. The Bhagavata Purana states that “The eighth incarnation was King Rishabha, son of King Nabhi and his wife Merudevi. In this incarnation the Lord showed the path of perfection, which is followed by those who have fully controlled their senses and who are honored by all orders of life.” (—Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.13)

3) In the Skanda Purana (chapter 37) it is stated that "Rishabha was the son of Nabhi, and Rishabha had a son named Bharata, and after the name of this Bharata, this country is known as Bharata-varsha."

4) Rishabha also finds mention in Buddhist literature. It speaks of several jaina tirthankara which includes Rishabha along with Padmaprabha, Chandraprabha, Pushpadanta, Vimalnatha, Dharmanatha and Neminatha. A Buddhist scripture named Dharmottarapradipa mentions Rishabha as an Apta (Tirthankara)

5) The Ādi purāṇa, a 10th-century Kannada language text by the poet Adikavi Pampa (fl. 941 CE), written in Champu style, a mix of prose and verse and spread over sixteen cantos, deals with the ten lives of Rishabha and his two sons. The life of Rishabha is also given in Mahapurana of Jinasena.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Lokottaravāda

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the name of a Buddha under whom Śākyamuni (or Gautama, ‘the historical Buddha’) acquired merit along the first through nine bhūmis, according to the Mahāvastu. There are in total ten bhūmis representing the ten stages of the Bodhisattva’s path towards enlightenment.

Ṛṣabha is but one among the 500 Buddhas enumerated in the Mahāvastu during a conversation between Mahākātyāyana and Mahākāśyapa, both principle disciples of Gautama Buddha. The Mahāvastu is an important text of the Lokottaravāda school of buddhism, dating from the 2nd century BCE.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to the “best (of men)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Lord spoke the following verses to the Bodhisattva Puṇyālaṃkāra: ‘[...] (238) If his merit has a material form, all the fields in ten direction would be filled up with it, and there would be no vessel [to contain that merit] except for the the knowledge of the best of men (puruṣa-ṛṣabha). Just as, even if one expresses the knowledge of the Buddha for ten thousand aeons, there will be no end, just so it is impossible to measure the merit of upholding the true dharma of the Tathāgata. [...]’”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the name of a Tathāgata (Buddha) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Ṛṣabha).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to a “bull”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] Songs of a jīvaṃjīvaka bird, peacock, kokila bird, parrot, cakrāṅka, haṃsa, and a bull (ṛṣabha) bring auspiciousness. If [these creatures] are seen, it brings prosperity. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of rishabha or rsabha in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ):—The first Tīrthaṅkara (Janism recognizes 24 such teachers or Siddhas). He is also known as Ṛṣabhanātha. His colour is gold (kāñcana), according to Aparājitapṛcchā (221.5-7). His height is 500 dhanuṣa (a single dhanuṣa (or, ‘bow’) equals 6 ft), thus, roughly corresponding to 914 meters. His emblem, or symbol, is a Bull.

Ṛṣabha’s father is Nābhi and his mother is Marudevī. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).

2) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) is the name of a kulakara (law-giver) according to Śvetāmbara sources. The kulakaras (similair to the manus of the Brahmanical tradition) figure as important characters protecting and guiding humanity towards prosperity during ancient times of distress, whenever the kalpavṛkṣa (wishing tree) failed to provide the proper service.

These law-givers (e.g., Ṛṣabha) are listed in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) refers to the first of the twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras praised in the first book (ādīśvara-caritra) [chapter 1] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] we worship the Arhats, who at all times and all places purify the people of the three worlds by their name, representation, substance, and actual existence. [...] We praise Ṛṣabha Svāmin, who was the first king, the first ascetic, the first head of a congregation”.

Ṛṣabha’s name is explained in chapter 1.2:

“[...] Then the Lady Marudevā awakened and related to Nābhi this meeting with the gods like a dream at night. Since a bull was the mark on the thigh of the Lord of the World, and since a bull was seen first by his mother in her dream, the delighted parents named him Ṛṣabha, with a festival on an auspicious day. Then the parents gave a suitable purifying name also, Sumaṅgalā, to the daughter born as his twin. [...]”.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Ṛṣabhanātha or Lord Ṛṣabha is the first of the 24 Jinas of the present cycle of time. There are many versions of his name but he is commonly called Ādinātha – First Lord. The name Ṛṣabha means ‘bull’.

The word Jina means 'victor' in Sanskrit. A Jina is an enlightened human being who has triumphed over karma through practising extreme asceticism and teaches the way to achieve liberation. A Jina is also called a Tīrthaṃkara or 'ford-maker' in Sanskrit – that is, one who has founded a community after reaching omniscience.

Ṛṣabha’s symbolic colour is gold and his emblem the ox or bull. Unusually in depictions of Jinas, statues and paintings of Ṛṣabha often show long locks of hair falling on his shoulders that help identify him. Like all Jinas, Ṛṣabha has a pair of spiritual attendants, often shown in art. His yakṣa is Gomukha and his yakṣī is Cakreśvarī.

Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

Rishabha, also known as Adinatha, is the traditional founder of Jainism. He was the first of the twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras or "ford-makers", teachers who established the Jain teachings. According to legends, he belonged to the Ikshvaku dynasty of ancient Ayodhya. His son was believed to be the first chakravartin. Rishabha is also known as Rikhava and is sometimes called Rishabha of Kosala.

Source: Shodhganga: A cultural study on the jain western Indian illustrated manuscripts

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ, “Bull”).—The second of “fourteen dreams” of Triśalā.—The Bull manifested as benign, strong and well built, with fine proportions. His calm attitude would not provoke fear or agitation. He was adorned with symmetrically curved horns.

Source: academia.edu: The epoch of the Mahavira-nirvana

Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara.—Shrutavatara of Indranandi mentions about 14 Kulakaras lived before the date of Rishabhadeva. The 14 th Kulakara, King Nabha was the father of Rishabhadeva. Kalpasutra does not mention about Kulakaras. Kalpasutra tells us that Rishabha was born to King Nabha and Marudevi. King Nabha belonged to Ikshvaku dynasty and ruled over Kosala kingdom.

Most probably, Rishabhadeva was the son of Ikshvaku King Nabhaga, an ancestor of Dasharatha and Rama because later Jain texts tell us that Bharata was the son of Rishabha but Puranas and Valmiki Ramayana mention that Bharata was the son of Dhruvasandhi. In all probability, Rishabhadeva lived in pre-Ramayana period.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—[ṛṣ-abhak; Uṇ 3.123]

1) A bull.

2) (With names of other animals) the male animal, as अजर्षभः (ajarṣabhaḥ) a goat.

3) The best or most excellent (as the last member of a comp.); as पुरुषर्षभः, भरतर्षभः (puruṣarṣabhaḥ, bharatarṣabhaḥ) &c.

4) The second of the seven notes of the gamut; (said to be uttered by cows; gāvastvṛṣabhabhāṣiṇaḥ); श्रुतिसमधिकमुच्चैः पञ्चमं पीडयन्तः सततमृषभहीनं भिन्नकीकृत्य षड्जम् (śrutisamadhikamuccaiḥ pañcamaṃ pīḍayantaḥ satatamṛṣabhahīnaṃ bhinnakīkṛtya ṣaḍjam) Śiśupālavadha 11.1; ऋषभोऽत्र गीयत इति (ṛṣabho'tra gīyata iti) Āryā S.141.

5) The hollow of the ear.

6) A boar's tail.

7) A crocodile's tail.

8) A dried plant, one of the 8 principal medicaments. (Mar. bailaghāṭī, kākaḍaśiṃgī)

9) Name of an antidote.

1) An incarnation of Viṣṇu; नाभेरसावृषभ आस सुदेविसूनुः (nābherasāvṛṣabha āsa sudevisūnuḥ) Bhāg. 2.7.1.

11) A sacrifice (to be performed by kings).

-bhāḥ m. The inhabitants of क्रौञ्चद्वीप (krauñcadvīpa); Bhāgavata 5.2.22.

-bhī 1 A woman with masculine features (as a beard &c.).

2) A cow.

3) A widow.

4) The plant Carpopogon Pruriens (śūkaśiṃbī); also another plant (śirālā) (Mar. kuyalī)

Derivable forms: ṛṣabhaḥ (ऋषभः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu i.137.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—m.

(-bhaḥ) 1. (In composition,) best, excellent. 2. A bull. 3. A dried plant, one of the eight principal medicaments. 4. The second of the seven notes of the Hindu gamut, in abbreviation, Ri. 5. The first of the twenty-four principal Jinas or Jaina saints. 6. The hollow of the air. 7. The name of a mountain. 8. A croco- dile’s tail. 9. A boar’s tail. f. (-bhī) 1. A masculine woman, a woman with a beard, &c. 2. A widow. 3. Cowach, (Carpopogon pruriens.) E. ṛṣ to go, abhac Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—i. e. ṛṣ + an-bha (vb. bhā), m. 1. A bull, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 14, 19. 2. Chief, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 4, 22; especially as latter part of compound words, ‘best, excellent,’ e. g. pārthivar- ṣabha, i. e. pārthiva-, m. An excellent king, Chr. 55, 4. puruṣa-, m. An excellent man, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 11. bharata-, m. A noble descendant of Bharata, Chr. 24, 48. siṃha-, m. A fierce lion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ).—[masculine] bull, male animal i.[grammar]; the best, first, chief of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ):—[from ṛṣ] m. ([from] √2. ṛṣ, [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 123]), a bull (as impregnating the flock; cf. vṛṣabha and ukṣan), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] any male animal in general, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] the best or most excellent of any kind or race (cf. puruṣarṣabha, etc.), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] the second of the seven notes of the Hindū gamut (abbreviated into Ṛ)

5) [v.s. ...] a kind of medicinal plant, [Suśruta; Bhāvaprakāśa]

6) [v.s. ...] a particular antidote, [Suśruta ii, 276, 7]

7) [v.s. ...] a particular Ekāha (q.v.), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

8) [v.s. ...] the fifteenth Kalpa

9) [v.s. ...] Name of several men

10) [v.s. ...] of an ape

11) [v.s. ...] of a Nāga

12) [v.s. ...] of a mountain

13) [v.s. ...] of a Tīrtha

14) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the 24 Jaina saints or Jinas

15) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] the inhabitants of Krauñca-dvīpa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 20, 22]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

17) [from ṛṣ] cf. [Zend] arSan; [Greek] ἄρσην.

18) Ṛṣabhā (ऋषभा):—[from ṛṣabha > ṛṣ] f. a masculine (bullish) girl unfit for marriage, [Āpastamba-gṛhya-sūtra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ):—(bhaḥ) 1. m. A bull; a sage; a note; a medicine; a mountain; hollow of the ear; a tail. f. bhī Bearded woman; widow; cowach. In comp. best.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ṛṣabha (ऋषभ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Usabha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rishabha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ṛṣabha (ಋಷಭ):—

1) [noun] an adult, domesticated bull (Bos taurus).

2) [noun] he who or that which is superior in his or its class; the best or most excellent man or thing.

3) [noun] the first of the twenty four Jaina spiritual teachers.

4) [noun] the second of the seven gross notes in the ascending scale of Indian music corresponding to the 'D' in the scale C major.

5) [noun] the plant Carpopogon pruriens.

6) [noun] the tail of a crocodile.

7) [noun] the tail of a wild-boar.

--- OR ---

Riṣabha (ರಿಷಭ):—

1) [noun] a male cattle that is not castrated; a bull.

2) [noun] the second tone or note in the ascending scale of Indian music, corresponding to 'ḍin C major.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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