Samasa, Samāsa, Samasha: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Samasa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Smas.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Samāsa (समास) refers to “compound words” (in Sanskrit grammar) and forms part of the “verbal representation” (vācika), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. Vācika itself represents one of the four categories of representation (abhinaya).

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Samāsa (समास, “compound words”).—The samāsa which combines many words to express a single meaning, and suppresses affixes, has been described by the experts to be of six kinds, such as Tatpuruṣa and the like.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Samāsa (समास).—The combination of two or more words so as to express a single composite sense.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Samāsa (समास).—Placing together of two or more words so as to express a composite sense ; compound composition; cf. पृथगर्थानामेकार्थीभावः समासः। (pṛthagarthānāmekārthībhāvaḥ samāsaḥ|) Although the word समास (samāsa) in its derivative sense is applicable to any wording which has a composite sense (वृत्ति (vṛtti)), still it is by convention applied to the समासवृत्ति (samāsavṛtti) only by virtue of the Adhikarasutra प्राक् कडारात् समासः (prāk kaḍārāt samāsaḥ) which enumerates in its province the compound words only. The Mahabhasyakara has mentioned only four principal kinds of these compounds and defined them; cf. पूर्वपदार्थ प्रधानोव्ययीभावः । उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः । अन्यपदार्थप्रधानो बहुव्रीहिः । उभयपदार्थप्रधानो इन्द्वः । (pūrvapadārtha pradhānovyayībhāvaḥ | uttarapadārthapradhānastatpuruṣaḥ | anyapadārthapradhāno bahuvrīhiḥ | ubhayapadārthapradhāno indvaḥ |) M.Bh. on P.II.1.6; cf. also M.Bh. on P.II.1.20, II.1.49,II.2.6, II.4.26, V.1.9. Later grammarians have given many subdivisions of these compounds as for example द्विगु, कर्मधारय (dvigu, karmadhāraya) and तत्पुरुष (tatpuruṣa) (with द्वितीयात-त्पुरुष, तृतीयातत्पुरुष (dvitīyāta-tpuruṣa, tṛtīyātatpuruṣa) etc.as also अवयवतत्पुरुष, उपपदतत्पुरुष (avayavatatpuruṣa, upapadatatpuruṣa) and so on) समानाधिकरणबहु-व्रीहि, व्यधिकरणबहुव्रीहि, संख्याबहुवीहि, समा-हारद्वन्द्व, इतरेतरद्वन्द्व (samānādhikaraṇabahu-vrīhi, vyadhikaraṇabahuvrīhi, saṃkhyābahuvīhi, samā-hāradvandva, itaretaradvandva) and so on.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Samāsa (समास) refers to a “brief explanation”, according to the Siddhayogeśvarīmata chapter 10.—Accordingly, “[The Goddess spoke]:—I have previously asked you about the Doctrine of the Yoginīs (Siddhayogeśvarīmata), O God, which helps to make mantras effective without any observances or worship. However, you have asserted, O God, that success depends on the ancillary mantras; therefore, tell me briefly (samāsa) about how to practise the observances associated with them. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

samāsa : (m.) compound; an abridgement.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Samāsa, (fr. saṃ+ās) 1. compound, combination Vism. 82; SnA 303; KhA 228. Cp. vyāsa.—2. an abridgment Mhvs 37, 244. (Page 686)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

samāsa (समास).—m (S) In grammar. Composition of words; formation of compound terms. 2 A compound word. 3 (Used ignorantly in the sense of vigraha) Explication of a compounded or derived word. 4 Margin (of a book or writing). 5 S Contraction or abridgment. 6 In arithmetic. Sum.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

samāsa (समास).—m A compound word. Margin. Contraction.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Samāsa (समास).—

1) Aggregation, union, composition.

2) Composition of words, a compound; (the principal kinds of compounds are four :-dvandva, tatpuruṣa, bahuvrīhi, and avyayībhāva q. q. v. v.).

3) Reconciliation, composition of differences.

4) A collection, an assemblage; यद्वविज्ञात- मिवाभूदित्येतासामेव देवतानां समासः (yadvavijñāta- mivābhūdityetāsāmeva devatānāṃ samāsaḥ) Ch. Up.6.4.7.

5) Whole, totality.

6) Contraction, conciseness, brevity; एष समासः । सर्वथा प्रवेष्टव्यं कुन्तिभोजस्य कन्यापुरम् (eṣa samāsaḥ | sarvathā praveṣṭavyaṃ kuntibhojasya kanyāpuram) Avimārakam 2; एष समासः, अद्यास्मि महासेनः (eṣa samāsaḥ, adyāsmi mahāsenaḥ) Pratijñā.2.

7) Euphonic combination (saṃdhi).

8) Completion, end; L. D. B. (samāsena, samāsataḥ means 'in short', 'briefly', 'succinctly'; eṣā dharmasya vo yoniḥ samāsena prakīrtitā Manusmṛti 2.25;3.2; iti kṣetraṃ tathā jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ coktaṃ samāsataḥ Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 13.18; samāsataḥ śrūyatām V.2.)

Derivable forms: samāsaḥ (समासः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Samāsa (समास).—(m.?), time, occasion, juncture: tasmin samāsi …Lalitavistara 415.21 (verse), certainly means on this occasion; so Tibetan de tshe; Foucaux would em. to samāyi, see samāya; it is curious that, according to [Paia-sadda-mahaṇṇavo] and [Ardha-Māgadhī Dictionary], AMg. samāsa = sāmāyika, a Jain religious exercise (see H.Māhārāṣṭrī Johnson, Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra I p. 81 n. 122), which appears to be derived from samāya = Sanskrit samaya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samāsa (समास).—m.

(-saḥ) 1. Contraction, abridgment, conciseness. 2. Composition of words, formation of compound terms, (in grammar.) 3. Composition of differences, reconciling quarrels. 4. Aggregation. assemblage, collection. 5. Whole. E. sam together, as to throw or direct, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samāsa (समास).—i. e. sam- 2. as + a, m. 1. Aggregation. 2. Composition of words, [Pāṇini, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] ii. 1, 3. 3. Composition of differences. 4. Contraction, conciseness; ºsena, instr. Succinctly, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 25; [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 49, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samāśa (समाश).—[masculine] common meal, repast.

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Samāsa (समास).—[masculine] putting together, conjunction, composition, a compound word; condensation, abridgment. Instr. on the whole, also = [ablative], samāsa++tas & °— summarily, succinctly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Samāsa (समास):—[=sam-āsa] [from sam-as] 1. sam-āsa m. (for 2. See sam-√ās) throwing or putting together, aggregation, conjunction, combination, connection, union, totality (ena, ‘fully, wholly, summarily’), [Brāhmaṇa; ???; Manu-smṛti] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] succinctness, conciseness, condensation ([in the beginning of a compound] and -tas, ‘concisely, succinctly, briefly’), [Kauṣītaki-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) composition of words, a compound word (of which there are [according to] to native grammarians, 6 kinds, viz. Dvaṃdva, Bahu-vrīhi, Karma-dhāraya, Tat-puruṣa, Dvigu, and Avyaya or Avyayī-bhāva [qq. vv.]; an improper compound is called asthāna-samāsa), [Prātiśākhya; Pāṇini] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] euphonic combination (= saṃdhi), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya]

5) [v.s. ...] (in [astronomy]) a [particular] circle, [Sūryasiddhānta]

6) [v.s. ...] composition of differences, reconciliation (-samarthana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] the part of a Śloka given for completion (= samasyā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) Samāśa (समाश):—[=sam-āśa] m. (√2) a common meal

9) [v.s. ...] eating, a meal, [Pāṇini 6-2, 71 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

10) Samāsa (समास):—[=sam-āsa] [from sam-ās] 2. sam-āsa (for 1. See under sam-√as) m. abiding together, connection, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Samāsa (समास):—(saḥ) 1. m. Contraction; formation of compound words; reconciling; collection; whole.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Samāsa (समास) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Samāsa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samasa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Samāsa (समास) [Also spelled smas]:—(nm) a compound (word); abridgement; concision, terseness; [bahula] abounding in compound words; -[śailī] terse style.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Samāsa (समास) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Samās.

2) Samāsa (समास) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Samās.

3) Samāsa (समास) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Samāsa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Samāsa (ಸಮಾಸ):—

1) [noun] the act of joining two or more things together.

2) [noun] a number of people gathered together; a throng of people; a multitude.

3) [noun] the act of abridging, condensing; abridgement; condensation.

4) [noun] the total or aggregate.

5) [noun] (gram.) a combination of of two are more words.

6) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech in which the intention is indirectly expressed using a metaphor.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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