Hina, Hīna: 24 definitions

Introduction:

Hina means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Heen.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Hīna (हीन):—Son of Sahadeva (son of Haryabala). He had a son named Jayasena. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.17.17)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Hīna (हीन).—(Ahīna)—a son of Sahadeva and father of Jayasena.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 17. 17.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Hīna (हीन):—Diminished

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Hīna (हीन) or Hīnadanta refers to “deficient (or lacking in) teeth” representing one of various undesirable characteristics in horses (haya/aśva), according to Āyurveda sections in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—The treatment pertains to horses was described in detail in Garuḍapuraāṇa Ācārakhaṇḍa the chapter entitled Gajāśvāyurveda.There are many types of horses but the horse, which does not possess one of the various features [e.g., Hīnadanta (deficient or lacking in teeth)], is considered as healthy and fit one. Such type of horses only useful for riding, wars and other purposes.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Hīna (हीन) refers to “n. of an element of the capital § 3.19.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Hīna (हीन) (Cf. Rahita) refers to “without” (i.e., ‘being void of’), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The Goddess spoke]:—Tell me, O Maheśvara, how should the Yogin sexually approach the one who is called Māyā, who has neither form/beauty (rūpa-rahitā) nor a clan/noble family/body (kula-hīnā)? [Bhairava spoke]:—Listen to me, O Goddess, I shall teach you the extraordinary intercourse with Māyā. It is fruitful, O Maheśānī, and difficult to learn by others and Yogins without yogic Powers, O Suranāyakī”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

M (Bad, vile.)

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Hīna (हीन) refers to the “inferior” kind of discrimination, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then, the Lord went on to speak these verses: ‘(35) Giving a gift with the same thought (samacitta) and same mind (samamanas), they give without the three [kinds of discrimination of] superior, mediocre, and inferior (hīna-madhya-viśiṣṭa). Since their intentions (āśaya) are pure and undefiled, they do not expect any reward (vipāka). [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Hina in India is the name of a plant defined with Lawsonia inermis in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Rotantha combretoides Bak. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flora of West Pakistan (1975)
· Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (1890)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Indian J. Pharmacol. (2009)
· Harvard Papers in Botany (2005)
· Journal d’Agriculture Traditionelle et de Botanique Appliquée (1983)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Hina, for example chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, side effects, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

hīna : (pp. of hāyati) diminished; dwindled; wasted away. (adj.), low; inferior; base; despicable.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Hīna, (pp. of jahati) 1. inferior, low; poor, miserable; vile, base, abject, contemptible, despicable Vin.I, 10; D.I, 82, 98; S.II, 154 (hīnaṃ dhātuṃ paṭicca uppajjati hīnā saññā); III, 47; IV, 88, 309 (citta h. duggata); D.III, 106, 111 sq., 215 (dhātu); A.II, 154; III, 349 sq.; V, 59 sq.; Sn.799, 903 sq.; Nd1 48, 103, 107, 146; J.II, 6; Pv IV.127 (opp. paṇīta); Vv 2413 (=lāmaka VvA.116); Dhs.1025; DhsA.45; Miln.288; Vism.13; DhA.III, 163.—Often opposed to ukkaṭṭha (exalted, decent, noble), e.g. Vin.IV, 6; J.I, 20, 22; III, 218; VbhA.410; or in graduated sequence hīna (›majjhima)›paṇīta (i.e. low, medium, excellent), e.g. Vism.11, 85 sq., 424, 473. See majjhima.—2. deprived of, wanting, lacking Sn.725= It.106 (ceto-vimutti°); Pug.35.—hīnāya āvattati to turn to the lower, to give up orders, return to secular life Vin.I, 17; S.II, 231; IV, 191; Ud.21; A.III, 393 sq.; M.I, 460; Sn.p. 92; Pug.66; hīnāya vattati id. J.I, 276; hīnāy’āvatta one who returns to the world M.I, 460, 462; S.II, 50; IV, 103; Nd1 147.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hīṇa (हीण).—n (hīna S) Alloy. 2 fig. Meanness or baseness: also a mean trait or feature; a failing, foible, blemish, or imperfection. Pr. rīṇa phiṭēla paṇa hīṇa phiṭata nāhīṃ.

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hīna (हीन).—a (S) Deficient or defective; that wants or is without (in a measure or utterly). Used abundantly in comp.--as dravyahīna, sampattihīna, buddhi- hīna, sāmarthyahīna, tējahīna, krauryahīna. Of such only the most current are inserted in order. 2 Base, low, vile, mean. hīna forms compounds of another class, very valuable, but not suitable to appear in order. Ex. hīnakula Of low family; hīnakauśalya Of poor or mean skill; hīnacāturya Of poor capacity; hīnadātṛtva Of scanty munificence or liberality; hīnabuddhi Of feeble understanding or judgement; hīnabhāgya Of poor fortune or destiny; hīnadravya, hīnavaktṛtva, hīnaśakti, hīnasāmarthya, hīnā- vasthā &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

hīṇa (हीण).—n Alloy. Meanness; a failing.

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hīna (हीन).—a Deficient; that wants or is with- out. Base. f Emulation.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hīna (हीन).—p. p. [hā-kta tasya naḥ ītvam]

1) Left, abandoned, forsaken &c.; यो वैश्यः स्याद् बहुपशुर्हीनक्रतुरसोमपः । कुटुम्बात् तस्य तद् द्रव्यमाहरेद्यज्ञसिद्धये (yo vaiśyaḥ syād bahupaśurhīnakraturasomapaḥ | kuṭumbāt tasya tad dravyamāharedyajñasiddhaye) || Manusmṛti 11.12.

2) Destitute or deprived of, bereft of, without; (with instr. or in comp.); तया (tayā) (saṃtatyā) हीनं विधातर्मां कथं पश्यन्न दूयसे (hīnaṃ vidhātarmāṃ kathaṃ paśyanna dūyase) R.1.7; गुणैर्हीना न शोभन्ते निर्गन्धा इव किंशुकाः (guṇairhīnā na śobhante nirgandhā iva kiṃśukāḥ) Subhāṣ.; so द्रव्य°, मति°, उत्साह° (dravya°, mati°, utsāha°) &c.; अन्नहीनो देहद्राष्ट्रं मन्त्रहीनस्तु ऋत्विजः । दीक्षितं दक्षिणाहीनो नास्ति यज्ञसमो रिपुः (annahīno dehadrāṣṭraṃ mantrahīnastu ṛtvijaḥ | dīkṣitaṃ dakṣiṇāhīno nāsti yajñasamo ripuḥ) Manusmṛti 11.4 (v. l.)

3) Excluded, shut out from (with abl.).

4) Decayed, wasted.

5) Deficient, defective; हीनातिरिक्तगात्रो वा तमप्यपनयेत्ततः (hīnātiriktagātro vā tamapyapanayettataḥ) Manusmṛti 3.242.

6) Subtracted.

7) Less, lower; हीनान्नवस्त्रवेषः स्यात् सर्वदा गुरु- संनिधौ (hīnānnavastraveṣaḥ syāt sarvadā guru- saṃnidhau) Manusmṛti 2.194; हीना हीनान् प्रसूयन्ते (hīnā hīnān prasūyante) 1.31.

8) Low, base, mean, vile.

9) Defeated (in a low-suit).

1) Lost, strayed from (a caravan).

-naḥ 1 A defective witness.

2) A faulty respondent; (Nārada enumarates five kinds:-anyavādī kriyādveṣī nopasthāyī niruttaraḥ | āhūtaprapalāyī ca hīnaḥ pañcavidhaḥ smṛtaḥ ||).

3) Substraction.

-nā A female mouse; cf. दीना (dīnā).

-nam Deficiency, want.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Hīna (हीन).—nt. (rare in Sanskrit and not in this precise meaning), the low; hīnāya, with āvartati (mss. vartati; = Pali hīnāya āvattati, once vattati according to text Jātaka (Pali) i.276.16), returns to the low = gives up monkish life, returns to the world: hīnāyāvartanti (mss. °yaṃ vart°) kāmehi Mahāvastu iii.47.14 (prose). Cf. hīnāyāvarta.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hīna (हीन).—mfn.

(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Deficient, defective. 2. Blamable, mean, base, vile, bad. 3. Left, abandoned, quitted. 4. Wasted, worn, decayed. 5. Void of, free from. 6. Lower, less. m.

(-naḥ) An insufficient or objectionable witness. E. to quit, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hīna (हीन).—[adjective] left, forsaken; excluded or shut out from, fallen short of ([ablative]); devoid or bereft of, free from, without ([instrumental], [ablative], [locative], °— or —°); inferior, less ([opposed] adhika); low, base, mean; incomplete, deficient, wanting. Abstr. † [feminine], tva† [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hīna (हीन):—[from ] a mfn. left, abandoned, forsaken, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] left behind, excluded or shut out from, lower or weaker than, inferior to ([ablative]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] left out, wanting, omitted, [Mahābhārata]

4) [v.s. ...] defeated or worsted (in a lawsuit), [Yājñavalkya]

5) [v.s. ...] deficient, defective, faulty, insufficient, short, incomplete, poor, little, low, vile, bad, base, mean, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

6) [v.s. ...] bereft or deprived of, free from, devoid or destitute of, without ([instrumental case] [ablative] [locative case] [accusative], or [compound]; prāṇair hīnaḥ, ‘bereft of breath or life’; mantrād or mantrato h, ‘devoid of sacred knowledge’), [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] lost or strayed from (a caravan), [Pāṇini i, 4, 23; Kāśikā-vṛtti]

8) [v.s. ...] brought low, broken down in circumstances, [???]

9) [v.s. ...] m. a faulty or defective witness (of five kinds, viz. anya-vādin, kriyā-dveṣin, nopasthāyin, nir-uttara, āhūta-prapalāyin), [Yājñavalkya [Scholiast or Commentator]]

10) [v.s. ...] subtraction (= = vyavakalana), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) [v.s. ...] Mesua Ferrea, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) Hīnā (हीना):—[from hīna > hā] f. a female mouse ([wrong reading] for dīna), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) Hīna (हीन):—[from ] n. deficiency, want, absence (velā-hīne ‘before the right time’, ‘unseasonably’), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Yājñavalkya]

14) Hina (हिन):—[from hi] a ind. for, because (= 2. hi), [Ṛg-veda vi, 48, 2.]

15) b See under 2. hi p. 1297, [column] 3.

16) Hīna (हीन):—b etc. See p. 1296, col. 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hīna (हीन):—[(naḥ-nā-naṃ) a.] Forsaken, bereft; abandoned, vile; deserted; wasted; defective.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Hīna (हीन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Hīṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hina in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Hinā (हिना):—(nf) myrtle.

2) Hīna (हीन) [Also spelled heen]:—(a) inferior, worthless, deficient; used as the second member in compound words to mean devoid or divested of; ~[karma/~karmā] one involved in low deeds, vicious; ~[kula] low-born; —[granthi] inferiority complex; ~[carita] vicious, wicked, immoral; ~[tā/~tva] inferiority; deficiency; •[granthi] see —[graṃthi; —pakṣa] weak side; weak aspect; ~[bala/vīrya] emasculated, impotent; feeble; ~[buddhi/mati] a stupid, nitwit; —[bhāvanā] inferiority complex, feeling of inferiority.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Hīṇa (हीण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Hīna.

2) Hīṇa (हीण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Hrīṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Hīna (ಹೀನ):—

1) [adjective] vulgar; coarse; debased; undignified; low.

2) [adjective] morally base or evil; wicked; depraved; sinful; vile.

3) [adjective] not having; bereft.

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Hīna (ಹೀನ):—

1) [noun] a wicked thing or act.

2) [noun] a depraved, wicked man.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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