The Garuda Purana

by Manmatha Nath Dutt | 1908 | 245,256 words | ISBN-13: 9788183150736

The English translation of the Garuda Purana: contents include a creation theory, description of vratas (religious observances), sacred holidays, sacred places dedicated to the sun, but also prayers from the Tantrika ritual, addressed to the sun, to Shiva, and to Vishnu. The Garuda Purana also contains treatises on astrology, palmistry, and preci...

Chapter CCXXVII - Different names of the Ayurvedic Drugs

Suta said:—Dhanvantari thus narrated the science of ayurveda to Sushruta. Now I shall briefly enumerate the different names of the ayurvedic drugs. Sthira, Vidarigandha, and Anshumati are the names of Shalaparni (Desmodium Gangeticum). Langali, Kalasi, and Krashtupuchchha are the names of Guha (Mucuna Pruriens). Varshabhu is called Punarnava (Spreading hogneed, Boerhaaria Diffusa). Karavellah is another name of Katillaka (Hairy Mordica-Momardica Charanteal. Eranda (castor-oil plant. Riconus Comamnis) Uruvaka, Amanda and Vardhamanaka are synonymous. Nagavala is called Jhasa (Sida Spinosa). Shvadanstra is called Gokshura (Tygophylleæ Tribulus terestris. Shatavari, Vara, Bhiru, Pivari, Vari and Indivari (Asparagus Racemosus) are synonymous. Vyaghri, Vrihati, Krishna, Hansapadi, Madhushrava, Dhamani, Kshudra, Simhi and Nidigdhika are the names of Kantakari (Solanum Janthocarpum). Vrischikali, Amrita, Kali, Vishaghni, Sarpadanshtrika, Markati, Atmagupta, and Arsheyi are the names of Kapikachchhuka (Mucuna Pruriens). Kshudra-Saha is Mudgaparni (Phaseolus Trilobus), while Mashaparni is called Maha-saha (Teramuns Labialis, Grangea Madraspatna). Nyagrodha is Vata (Banyan tree); Kapila is the name of Ashvattha (Ficus Religioasa). Parkati Gardhavanda, and Kapitana are the names of Plaksha (Tivaspesia Pahulnea). Partha, Kukubha, and Dhanvi are the names of Arjuna (Farminalia Arjuna). Prarohi, and Pushtikari are the names of Nandi-Vriksha (a species of figtree). Vanjula is Vetasa (calamus rotong), while Bhallataka is called Arushkara (Semecarpus Anacardium). Lodhra is called Saravaka, Dhrishta, or Tirita (Symplocas Racemosa). Vala-phala, and Vrihatphala are the names of Maha-Jamvu (Eugenia Jambolana).

Nadiyi and Tritiya are the names of Jala-Yamvu (wild Jamboline), Kana, Krishna, Upakulya, Shaundi and Magadhi are the names of Pippali (Piper Longum), while its roots are called Granthikam (Piper officinarum). Ushanam is Maricham (Piper Nigrum), while Vishvam and Mahaushadham are the names of Shunthi (dry gingiber). Vyosham is the name of Trikatu (Shunti, Pippali and Maricham) which is also called Tryushanam. Langali, Halini and Shreyasi are the names of Gajapippali (Pothes officinalis), Trayamana is called Trayanti (Thalictrum Faliolosum), and Utsa is Vahuvaha. Vanhi, Shiki, and terms signifying fire, are the names of Chitrakam (Plumbgo Zeylanica). Shadgrantha, Ugra, Shveta and Heimavatai are the names of Vacha (Sweet Flag). Vrikshaka, Shukra, Vatsaka and Girimallika are the names of Kutaja (Wrightia Anti-dysenterica), and Arishtam, Indrayava and Kalinga are the names of Kutaja-seeds. Kunti, Hareunka, and terms denoting cloud, are the names of Mustakah (Mariscus Cyprus). Ela (cardemon) is called Vahula, the smaller variety is called Truti. Padma, Bhargi, and Kanji are called Brahmana-Yashtika (clerodendron-Siphonanthus). Tejini, Tikta-balkala and Madhurasa are the names of Murva (Sansevieria Zeylanica). Mahanimva, Vriksha-nimva, and Dipyakas are the names of Jamani (Ptychotis) Vidanga (seeds of Embelia Ribus) and Hingu are called Amatham.

Ajaji is the name of Jirakan (cumin seeds), Karavi is Upakanchika (Nigella Sativa or Indica). Katuka and Tikta are the names of Katu-rohin) (Black Hellibore.) Tagaram, Natam, Chakram, Chocham, and Tvacham are the names of Varanga-kam, (Cinnamon Bark.) Hriveram (Pavonia Odorata) is synonymous with Udichyam, and Valakam, and terms signifying water, are also used to denote this plant. Hemava, and terms denoting elephant, are the names of Nagakeshara (Mesuaferrea). Asrik, Kashmira, and Bahlikam are the names of Kumkum (saffron). Compounds signifying Iron denote Ayuguru. Yavishta, Prachina, Kalika, Sushabi, Toshanasha and Rambha are the names of Kadali (Plantain). Puram, Kutannat, Mahishaksha and Palankash are the names of Kutannat. Kashmari and Shriparni are the names of Katphala (Myrica Sapida). Patri, Sarabhi, Shrava and Gajabhakshya are the names of Shallaki (Bos Wellia Serrata). Dhatri is the name of Amalakam (Emblic Myrobalans) Aksha is the name of Vibhitaka (Terminalia Belirica). Pathya, Abhaya and Putana are the names of Haritaki (Indian Myrobalans).

The group of drugs, known as Triphala or Phalatrikam, consists of Haritaki, Bibhitaka and Amlakam (with their stones removed. Udakiri, and Dirgha-Vrinta, are the names of Karanja (Karanji of the Raja-Nighantam); and Yashti, Yashtahvayam, and Madhu-Yashti are synonymous with Madhukam (Liquorice-root, Glycyrrhiza glabra). Tamraparni, Samanga and Kunjara are the names of Dhataki (Woodfordia Floribondia). Sitam., Malayajam, Sheetam and Goshirsham, are the terms which signify white sandal wood (Santalamalbam), while the red species is called Rakta Chandanam. Vira, Vayasya, and Arkapushpika are the names of Kakoli, while Shringi is known by the names Karkata-Shringi and Mahaghosa (Rhus Succedanea). Tugakshiri, Shubha and Vanshi are the names of Vanshalochana (Manna of the Bamboo, and Grapes are called by the epithets of Draksha, Gostanika and Mridvika (Vitis Vinifera). Lamajjka are called by the names of Ushiram and Mrinalam (Juncus Odoratus), and Saram, Gopi, and Gopavalli are the names of Bhadra (Hemidesmus Indicus). Danti and Katankeri are the names of Daru-Haridra (Cascinium Fenestratum), and Rajani, Putaka, and terms signifying “Night,” are the synonymes of Haridra (turmeric). Vira-Vriksha is known by the epithets of Virataru and Varataru, while Rasa, Amrita, Nilavalli and Chchhinna-ruha are the epithets of Vrikshadani (Tinaspora Cordifolia). Kapota is another name of Suryabhakta (Cleome Viscosa, Polanisia Icosundra), while Katapam is called Kanthabhalla or Kantha-Shala, and Kampika, Vashira and Vasukota are all synonymous.

Arishta, Ashva-shmit and Katta-bhedaka are the names of Pashana-bheda (Coleus amboinicus). Ghantaka is known by the epithets of Shushaka, Vacha and Shuchaka. Sagandha, Chchhatradi and Chchhatra are the names of Kusumbha (Safflower Carthamul tenctarius), and Pitashala is known by the epithets of Sarasa and Vijaka (Indian Kino tree, Pentaptera tomentosa). Vajravriksha, Mahavriksha, Sudha, Guda, and Sruk are the names of Snuhi (Uphorbia Neraifolia). Shala (Shoria Robusta) tree is known by the epithet of Yakshavriksha, while Anisha is called by the name of Tinisha (Indian Jarula tree—Dalbergia Oujeineisis). Upastha, and Sarasa are the other names of Tulasi (Holy basil). The second variety of Tulasi is called Sita (Ocimum album). Another species of Tulasi is called Arjunaka, Parni, Saugandha. parnika and Kutheruka (Assimum Bajilicum). Nila, Nirgundi, Sugandhika, Sugandhaparini, Vasanti and Kulaja are the names of Sindhuvara (Vitex trifolium). Pita-Kastham and Katakakshya are the names of Kaliyakam (Yellow Sandalwood); Khadira is called Gayatri (Acacia Catechu), while the white variety is called Kandara (Kadara according to others).

Indivaram, Kuvalayam, Saugandhikam, Shatadalam, Kamalam and Avjam are the synonymes of Padma (Nelumbium speciosum), while the blue variety is called Nilotpalam (Nymphæa Stellata). Vajikarna and Ashvakarna are the names of Sarja (Indian Saltree—Shoria Robusta), while its another variety is known by the epithets of Urja and Ajakarna (Beng:—Jhanji Shal). Shelu and Vahuvara are the synonymes of Shleshmataka (Cordia myxa, narrow leaved Sepistun). Kulangana, and Mrigechchha are the synonymes of Alambusha. Sunandaka, Kukud, Bhadram and Chatraki are the names of Chhatra (Andropogon citratus). Kavari, Kumbhaka, Karila, Kamamana, and Dhanakrit are the synonymes of Krishnarjaka. Prachi, Vala, Nadi-Kranta and Vayasi are the names of Kaka-jangha (Leea hirta), while Dravanti is known by the epithets of Akhukarnika and Mushika-karna (croton Polyandrum). Keshamushti and Vishamushti are the names of Dravanam (Melia Azendarach). Kilihi is called Katuka black Hellebore, while Amla-vetasa is called Dantaka (country Sorrel-Acido Zeyfolia). Ashvattha and (Bhu)-amalaki are the names of Vahupatra (Phyllanthus niruri?). Arashukam, Patrashukam and Kshiri are the names of Rajadanam (Mimonsops Hexenbra). Dadimvam is called Mahapatram (pomegranate) which is also called Karakam. Vidali, Shashpa Kalindi Masuri, Kantakakshya, Maha-Shyama, Vrikshapadi, Vidya, Kunti, Nikumbha, Tribhangi, and Triputi are the names of Trivrit (Ipomea tarpethum.) Saptala is called Sankhini, Sukumari, Tiktakshi and Yavatikta (Kalmegh) and is also used to signify Charma, or Charmaksha (Origaum Vulgaris).

Gavakshi, Amrita, Shveta, and Girikarni are the names of Gavadani (Colocynth-Citrullus Colocynthus) while Raktanga, Gunda, and Rochanaka are the synonymes of Kampillaka (Kamila-Melloctus phillipinesis). The yellow species is called Hemakshiri (Gamboge thistle, while the black variety is called Kaladugdhika. Gangeruki is another name of Nagavala (Sida Spinosa), while Vishali is a synonym of Indra-varuni (colocynth.) Rasanjanam (extract of Indian Barbary) is known by the epithets of Arjanam and Tarksha-Shailam, while the extract of Shalmali (Bombax Malabaricum) is called Mocha-rasa. Pratyakpushhi is another name of Khara, while Mayurka is a synonyme of Apamarga (Achyranthis Aspera). Vasaka (Adhatoda Vasaca) is also called by the epithets of Simhasya, Vrisha, and Atarushakam. Jivaka, Jiva Shakha and Karchura are the names of Shati (Curcoma Gedoaria). Somavriksha (Somavalka?), Agnigandha, and Sugandhika are synonymous with Kat-phalatn (Myrica Sapida). Shatapushpa (Dillseed-Aurthum gravey-leus(?)) is also known by the epithets of Shatanga, Misi and and Madhurika.

Pushkaram and Pushkarahvayam are but the different names of Pushkaramulam (root of Alpotaxis auriculata). Yasa, Dhanvayasa and Dushparsha are the synonymes of Duralabha (Alhagimaurorun Fogonia Arabica) Vaguji and Somavalli are the names of Somaraji (Serratula Anthelmintica). Markara and Kesharaja are the synonymes of Bhringaraja (Wedelia Calendulacea). Edagaja is another name of Chakramarda (cassiatora). Sarangi, Tagara, Vayasi Vela, Tanduliya and Ghanastana are the names of Maha-kala. Tiktatumbi and Tiktalavu are synonymous with Ikshaku (Bottle gourd, wild variety of Langenaria Vulgaris,) Koshataki and Jaminy are but the different names of Dhamargava (Laffu Aegyptiaca), Vidyut, which is another species of Dhamargava is also called Kritabhedanam, Jimutaka, Khuddaka, and Devatadaka. Gridhradana is another name of Gidhranakhi, which is also called Kakadani and Hingu (caparis Sepiaria). Ashvari and Ashvamaraka are but the different names of Karavira (sweet scented Oleander-Nerrium odorum). Tarasi and Kushaja are the names of Kapithhapatri (Beng Elvalukh Sindhu, Saindhava, Sindhuttha and Manimuntha are the synonymes of Rocksalt. Ushara, Yavagra and Yavakshara are the terms which denote a kind of impure carbonate of potash (lit. ashes of burnt barley straw); Sarjika and Sarjkakshara (Sarjikakshara?) are the names of barilla. Shikhi-kanthabham, Chitrakam, Tuttham etc., are the terms which denote nitrate of Copper.

Kashisham, Pushpakashisham and Nétra-bhesajam (lit eye-cure) are the terms which signify green Sulphate of iron. Kashisha and Dhatu-Kashisha are also the different names of the foregoing substence (substance?). Tapyam and Tapyutha-sambhabam are synonymous with Makshika (iron pyrites). Naipali, Kulati and Shila are the different names of Manah-shila (red sulphate of arsanic), while the terms Alam and Manahstalam signify Haritalam (tri-sulphide of arsenic). Gandha pashana is but another name of Gandhaka (sulphar) while the term Rasa is used to signify Parada (Mercury—lit:—that which bears a person beyond death and disease).

Audumvaram, Shulvam, and Mlechcha-mukham are the different names of Tamram (copper), and the terms Adrisaram (lit: essence of rock) Ayas, and Tikshnam are used to denote iron (and steel). Kakshi, Panka-parpati, and Mritti-kaksharam are the names of Saurashtra Mrittika. Makshikam, Kshaudram and Pushparasam are the synonymes of Madhu (honey). Fermented barley-boilings are called Sauvirakam and Kanjikam. Sita, Sitopala, Matsandi are synonymes of Sharkar (sugar). A compound of Cinnamon, Cardemon, and leaves of Lourus Cassia, taken in equal parts, is technically known as Trijatakam or Trisugandhi. This compound, with one part of Naga-Kesharam added to it, constitutes what is technically known as Chaturjatam. A compound consisting of equal parts of Piphali, Pippalimulam, Chavya, Chitrakamulam and Nagar, and combindly weighing a Kolakam (Onetolla) is called Panchakolam, Bhutrilanga, Mahashali, and Nivara are the different species Shalika. Priyangu is another name of Kanguka (Panicum stalicum), and Kordusha is called Kodra (Paspalum Scrobiculatum). Kalapa, Langaka and Puta are the names of Triputa (Lathyrus Sativus). Satina, Vartula and Vena are the names of Satina (Pisum Sativium).

A Suvarmam or Kavala-graham is equal to one Karsha in weight. A Shuktim is equal to a half Palam or eight Mashakas in weight. A Vilvam, or Mushti is equal to a Palam weight. Two Palas make one Prasriti. Four Palas make one Anjali or Kudavam. Eight Palas make one Palam. Four Kudavas make one Prastha; four Prasthas make one Adakam or Kansapatrah. Four Adakas make one Drona. A hundred Palas make one Tula weight. Twenty Palas make one Bhara. The erudite ones have laid down these measures in respect of dry weight, while in respect of fluid weight these measures should be taken as double.

Valam is another name of Turashkakam, Daru is another name of Devadaru (Pinus Deodara). Granthi is another name of Sthauneyakam. Vasakam is also called Bhumikam-trinam, Kushtham is also called Amayam, and Nala-danshanam is but another name of Manshi. Shukti is also called Shuktinakha and Shankha; Byaghri is also called Vyaghra-nakha. Puram, Palankasham and Mahishakshya are but the different names of Guggalu (bdellium). Rasa and Gandharasa are the different names of Volam (Myrrh), while Sarja is called Sarjarasa (resin). Kundarakam is also called Kundam (Olibanum), and Shunistakam is also called Davam (Gomeopal Sandazack). Priyangu is also known by the epithets of Phalini, Shyama and Gaurikanti. Artagala is also known by the epithets of Arta, Bhisana and Vahukantaka. Sahachara and Vana are the synonymes of Saireyakah, (Balaria Crastata). Naktamala, Putika, and Chira-Vilvaka are the names of Karanja (Pongamia Glabra). Shobanjana, Jvala and Mansa are the different epithets of Shigru (Horse radish tree—Moringaptery Gooperma).

Jaya, Jayanti Sharani, Nirgundi are the names of Sindhuvara. Moratha is another name of Pippali-parni, while Tundi is also called Tundikerika. Galava, Vodha, Ghota and Ghoti are the different names of Madana tree (Randia Denmetorum). Sampaka is known by the names of Chaturangula and Vyadhighataka (Kamila). Know that Aragvadham is also called Rajavriksha and Raivata (Cassia Fistula), Vashtaka is Atitikta, Kantaki is also called Vikankata (Flacourtia romontchi). Nimva is also called Arishta (Melio Azadirachta). Vayastha, Vishva, Chchhinna, Chchhinna-ruha, Vatsadani and Amrita are the names of Guduchi (Tinaspora Cordifolia). Kirata-tikta, and Bhunimva are synonymous with Kandatiktaka (plant Agathotes Chirayta.) These are the names, of vegetable drugs that are obtained in the forest. Now I shall deal with Grammar, O Shaunaka, as formerly narrated by Kumara.

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