Paroksha, Parokṣa, Parokṣā, Pārokṣa: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Paroksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Parokṣa and Parokṣā and Pārokṣa can be transliterated into English as Paroksa or Paroksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Paroksh.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—Knowledge though another’s senses. The second of the five stages of Vedic knowledge.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Paroksha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—A King of Candravaṃśa. (9th Skandha, Bhāgavata).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—A son of Anu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 1.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Parokṣa (परोक्ष, “invisible”) refers to a statement within a sentence which treats an act as “invisible”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Parokṣa is a classification of statements, defined according to vācika (verbal representation).

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—Used as an adjective of the word भूत (bhūta) meaning 'past tense'; lit. behind the eyes, unnoticed by the eyes. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. For the alternative explanation of the word परोक्ष (parokṣa), cf. कथंजातीयकं पुनः परोक्षं नाम । केचित्तावदाहुः वर्षशतवृत्तं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुः क्रटान्तरितं परोक्षमिति । अपर आहुर्ह्याहवृत्तं त्र्यहंर्वृत्तं चेति । (kathaṃjātīyakaṃ punaḥ parokṣaṃ nāma | kecittāvadāhuḥ varṣaśatavṛttaṃ parokṣamiti | apara āhuḥ kraṭāntaritaṃ parokṣamiti | apara āhurhyāhavṛttaṃ tryahaṃrvṛttaṃ ceti |) M.Bh. on परोक्षे लिट् (parokṣe liṭ) P. III.2.115.

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Parokṣā (परोक्षा).—lit. behind the eyes; remote; । (|) the term is found used by ancient grammarians and also referred to in the Mahaabhaasya as referring to the perfect tense called लिट् (liṭ) in Paanini's grammar: cf. ज्ञापकात्परोक्षायां (jñāpakātparokṣāyāṃ) (लिटि (liṭi)) न भविष्यति । (na bhaviṣyati |) M.Bh. on P. I. 2.28: cf. also न व्यथतेः परोक्षायाम् (na vyathateḥ parokṣāyām) Kaat. III.4.21.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Parokṣa (परोक्ष) means “out of sight”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is a Siddha: “[...] (Such a man) does not feel fear (even if) there is terrible cold or heat outside or he suffers a bad accident. He is very intelligent and his accomplishment is close at hand. He is not greedy or sick and is forbearing. (His) urine is good and sweet smelling and (he passes) little stool. (He possesses) a serene beauty and the first sign of success in Yoga (that he displays) is its fine profundity. [??] and (instead of criticizing, he) praises the good qualities (of people) when they are out of sight [i.e., parokṣa]”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Parokṣa (परोक्ष) or Parokṣārtha refers to an “imperceptible object”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] Thus some propound the theory of the six elements while not taking the sense organs into account in any way, [and] others defend the theory of the two [sorts of combinations of four elements—namely, the sort that produces consciousness and the one that does not—without taking imperceptible sense organs into account either]. And exactly in the same way, ordinary human practice [can] be entirely accounted for without any investigation about an absolutely imperceptible object (parokṣa-artha-anveṣaṇa) [considered as] something more than phenomena. Therefore speculating about this [absolutely imperceptible object] is [nothing but] air. [...]”

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: The Treasury of Knowledge: Book six, parts one and two

Parokṣa (परोक्ष) refers to “appraisable objects that are indirectly evident” representing one of the three types of prameya (“appraisable objects”).—Accordingly, “The terms ‘object’ (viṣaya; yul), ‘knowable’ (jñeya; shes bya), and ‘appraisable’ (prameya; gzhal bya) are all essentially equivalent, [...] it is the defining characteristic of the ‘appraisable’ that it is to be understood through valid cognition”. When objects to be appraised (prameya) are analyzed in terms of the processes of understanding, they are said to include both specifically characterized phenomena and generally characterized phenomena. Alternatively, they fall into three [categories]—[i.e., appraisable objects that are indirectly evident (parokṣa; lkog gyur), ...]”.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Parokṣa (परोक्ष, “indirect”) refers to a kind of Pramāṇa (“means of acquiring knowledge”), according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—There are 2 kinds of pramāṇa in this sense: parokṣa, indirect, i.e., it depends on other things; and pratyakṣa, direct. [...] Mati and Śruta are parokṣa-pramāṇa.—(See Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 1.10ff).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Parokṣa (परोक्ष, “indirect”) refers to one of the two types of approved knowledge (pramāṇa).—What is meant by acquired and approved knowledge (parokṣa)? Indirect valid knowledge is the cognition by the soul of all objects with the assistance of external media like sense organs etc.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Parokṣa (परोक्ष) in Sanskrit (Parokkha in Prakrit) refers to “indirect knowledge”, as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—The heart of the Nandī-sūtra deals with the concept of cognition or knowledge in its various divisions and subdivisions. This is also an appropriate topic for a text that transcends all categories in the Śvetāmbara canon, for it can be regarded as a prerequisite to the scriptures. First comes the list of the five types of knowledge, known from other sources as well, such as the Tattvārtha-sūtra I. 9-33. [...] The first two types of knowledge [viz., abhinibodhika-jñāna (or mati-jñāna) and śruta-jñāna] are achieved indirectly – parokkha in Prakrit, parokṣa in Sanskrit – that is, through the five sense-organs and through the mind.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parōkṣa (परोक्ष).—ad (S para & akṣi Eye.) Behind one's back; in the absence of. Used by the ignorant in the sense In the presence of; and aparōkṣa is created to express In the absence of.

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parōkṣa (परोक्ष).—a S Invisible or unseen.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parōkṣa (परोक्ष).—ad Behind one's back.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—a.

1) Out of or beyond the range of sight, invisible, escaping observation.

2) Absent; स्थाने वृता भूपतिभिः परोक्षैः (sthāne vṛtā bhūpatibhiḥ parokṣaiḥ) R.7.13.

3) Secret, unknown, stranger; परोक्षमन्मथो जनः (parokṣamanmatho janaḥ) Ś.2.19; 'a stranger to the influence of love'; परोक्षार्थस्य दर्शकम् (parokṣārthasya darśakam) H. Pr.1.

-kṣaḥ An ascetic.

-kṣam 1 Absence, invisibility.

2) (In gram.) Past time or tense (not witnessed by the speaker); परोक्षे लिट् (parokṣe liṭ) P.III.2.115. Note:-The acc. and loc. singulars of परोक्ष (parokṣa) (i. e. parokṣaṃ, parokṣe) are used adverbially in the sense of 'in one's absence', 'out of sight', 'behind one's back', with or without a gen.:-परोक्षे च खलीकर्तुं शक्यते न ममाग्रतः (parokṣe ca khalīkartuṃ śakyate na mamāgrataḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 2; परोक्षे कार्यहन्तारं प्रत्यक्षे प्रियवादिनम् (parokṣe kāryahantāraṃ pratyakṣe priyavādinam) (tyajet) Chāṇ.18; नोदाहरेदस्य नाम परोक्षमपि केवलम् (nodāharedasya nāma parokṣamapi kevalam) Manusmṛti 2.119

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Pārokṣa (पारोक्ष).—a. (-kṣī f.) Unintelligible, mysterious, secret, obscure; also पारोक्ष्य (pārokṣya); त्वं नूनमसुराणां नः पारोक्ष्यः परमो गुरुः (tvaṃ nūnamasurāṇāṃ naḥ pārokṣyaḥ paramo guruḥ) Bhāgavata 8.22.5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—mfn.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) 1. Invisible, imperceptible. 2. Absent. 3. Past. m.

(-kṣaḥ) An ascetic, a religious hermit. n.

(-kṣaṃ) 1. Invisibility, absence, secrecy. 2. (In Grammar,) Past time or tense. E. para before, ukṣ to sprinkle, aff. ka; or para away, akṣi the eye, form irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—i. e. paras-akṣa, I. adj., f. ṣā. 1. Being beyond sight, invisible, imperceptible, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 1, 12. 2. Unknown, strange, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 108, 17. Ii. kṣam, acc. and loc. kṣe, 1. In one’s absence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 199. 2. Imperceptibly, [Pañcatantra] 46, 7. 3. Surreptitiously, 112, 22. Iii. m. A proper name.

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Pārokṣa (पारोक्ष).—i. e. parokṣa + a, adj. Unintelligible, obscure, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 13, 26.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष).—[adjective] beyond the eye, out of sight, invisible, imperceptible, unintelligible, obscure. Loc. behind one’s back, in one’s absence; °— & [instrumental] secretly, mysteriously; [accusative] & [ablative] in the absence or without the knowledge of ([instrumental] or [genetive]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parokṣa (परोक्ष):—[=paro-kṣa] [from paro > para] mf(ā)n. (ro-) beyond the range of sight, invisible, absent, unknown, unintelligible, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] past, completed (in a [particular] sense cf. below and, [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 3-2, 115])

3) [v.s. ...] ([in the beginning of a compound]) in an invisible or imperceptible manner (cf. below)

4) [=paro-kṣa] [from paro > para] m. an ascetic, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Anu, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) Parokṣā (परोक्षा):—[=paro-kṣā] [from paro-kṣa > paro > para] f. (sc. vṛtti) a past or completed action, [Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya]

7) [v.s. ...] (sc. vibhakti) a termination of the perfect tense, [Kātantra]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

9) Pārokṣa (पारोक्ष):—mf(ī)n. ([from] parokṣa) undiscernible, mysterious ([varia lectio] for next), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष):—[paro-kṣa] (kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) a. Invisible, absent; past. m. An ascetic.

[Sanskrit to German]

Paroksha in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Paroksha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parokṣa (परोक्ष) [Also spelled paroksh]:—(a) indirect; implicit; invisible, imperceptible; latent; secret; ~[ta:] indirectly, in an indirect, implicit manner; hence ~[] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parōkṣa (ಪರೋಕ್ಷ):—[adjective] not seen; that cannot be seen or perceived; imperceptible; invisible.

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Parōkṣa (ಪರೋಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] the quality or fact of being invisible or beyond the power of sight; invisibility.

2) [noun] that which cannot be seen.

3) [noun] end of life; death.

4) [noun] the condition of being secret or concealed; secrecy.

5) [noun] (jain.) knowledge derived through the mind and sensual organs.

6) [noun] (Viśiṣṭādvaita phil.) knowledge that cannot be perceived through sensual organs.

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Pārōkṣa (ಪಾರೋಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] the quality or fact of being invisible or beyond the power of sight; invisibility.

2) [noun] that which cannot be seen.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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