Sandhi, Shandhi: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Sandhi means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sandhi is a medical term used in Ayurveda meaning “joints”.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume III

Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to that “which serve as lines of demarcation of the circles of the eye” and are six in number:—

  1. the first binding the eye-lashes (Paksha-mandala) with the eyelids (Vartma-mandala),
  2. the second the eye-lids and the Sclerotic coat (Sveta-mandala),
  3. the third binding the latter with the Krishna-mandala (choroid),
  4. the fourth situated between the latter and the Drishti-mandala,
  5. the fifth lying in the interior comer (Kaninakas)
  6. and the last (sixth) in the exterior (posterior) corner (Apāngas) of the eye.
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

1) Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to the “alliance”, as in, an alliance with an enemy king. Sandhi is considered to be one of the six constituents of state-craft that the King shall constantly ponder over. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra. (See the Manubhāṣya 7.160)

2) Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to “meeting point (junction)” of the boundaries between two villages. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.251)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

1) Sandhi is alliance, entering into a compact, such as we shall help each other with elephants, horses and so forth. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.160 et. seq.)

Sandhi (alliance) is of two kinds—

  1. the compact that ‘both of us should march against a common enemy’,
  2. and the compact that ‘you march this way, I march the other way’.

2) Sandhi, Peace, is that by which a powerful enemy becomes friendly.

Source: Shodhganga: Facts of society in the Manusamhita

Sandhi (सन्धि):—When the king knows that he can purchase his superiority in future, but at the present time, he shall suffer little pain or loss, then he must enter into alliance (sandhi) with an enemy king. When the king thinks all his subjects and allies fully contended and himself in a very exalted position in respect of his enemies, then he must declare war with his adversary.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)

Sandhi (सन्धि, “peace”) is known to be of two types; it is entered into by the king for achieving his aim (i.e., supremacy) at the proper time. (Similarly) when the enemy acts abnormally, the twofold war (vigraha) is to be resorted to (whether the time for it is improper or proper). Making peace either alone or (sandhi) with some king and their being together can be made instantly. (see the Nītiprakāśikā 8.80)

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to “euphonic combinations” (in Sanskrit grammar) and forms part of the “verbal representation” (vācika), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. Vācika itself represents one of the four categories of representation (abhinaya).

(Description of Sandhi): “where a separated vowel or a consonant sandhīyate (“combines with another”) by ‘coming together’ (yogata) in a word or words, it is called sandhi (“euphonic combination”)” and “as due to the combination of words and the meeting of two sounds (lit. letters) their ‘sound sequence’ (karma-saṃbandha) sandhīyate (“develops in a combination”), it is called sandhi (“euphonic combination”)”.

2) Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to the five “segments” of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21.

The five segments (sandhi), assigned to the principal plot (ādhikārika), are as follows:

  1. mukha (the opening),
  2. pratimukha (the progression),
  3. garbha (the development),
  4. vimarśa (the pause),
  5. nirvahaṇa (the conclusion).

The five segments (sandhi) give rise to the 64 limbs (aṅga) collectively known as the sandhyaṅga:

  1. mukhāṅga (the 12 limbs of the opening segment),
  2. pratimukhāṅga (the 12 limbs the progression segment),
  3. garbhāṅga (the 13 limbs of the development segment),
  4. vimarśāṅga (the 13 limbs of the pause segment),
  5. nirvahaṇāṅga (the 14 limbs of the conclusion segment).

There are also twenty-one sandhyantara (‘categories of contents’), which give the segments their distinction.

3) Sandhi (सन्धि, “junction”) refers to ‘the resurfacing of the original juncture’ in which the plot was germinated. Sandhi represents one of the fourteen nirvahaṇasandhi (concluding segment), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. Nirvahaṇasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the concluding part (nirvahaṇa)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

(Description of Sandhi): “the coming up of the opening (mukha) and the seed is called a juncture (sandhi)”.

4) Sandhi (प्रवृत्त) refers to one of the two limbs (aṅga) belonging to Antarā type of song (dhruvā) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.9-16. Accordingly, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Sandhi (सन्धि):—Son of Prasuśruta (son of Maru). He had a son named Amarṣaṇa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.12.7)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to the “period of conjunction”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.13, “The last yāma (3 hours) of the night is called uṣā and the latter half of it is sandhi (period of conjunction). A Brahmin shall get up at that hour and answer the calls of nature. It must be in a place far off from the house. It must be a covered place. He shall sit facing the north. If it is not possible due to any obstacle he can sit facing other directions”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Sandhi (सन्धि).—The inter-space between the foot of an altitude and the foot of the flank-side from whose tip the altitude is drawn, usually in a quadrilateral. Note: Sandhi is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Google Books: Indian Kāvya Literature

Sandhi.—As a rule the refrain verses in a sandhi are all in the same metre. The sandhi has an opening verse in that same metre. Thus a sandhi has a certain unity conferred by this refarin metre ‘entwining’ it.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Sandhi (सन्धि) refers to the intersection of two yāma periods, where a single yāma equals to three hours.—A day consists of eight yāma (24 hours), or sixty ghaṭikā (1 ghaṭikā = 24 minutes). The intersection of two yāma periods is called sandhi, thus there are eight sandhi in a day. A single nityapūjā session should be performed within a sandhi period. The Kāmikāgama specifies that pūjā should start from the beginning and end with nṛtta, and be completed before the sandhi period is over, to avoid doṣa or error. Hence a pūjā session is commonly called “sandhipūjā”. The three sandhis at early morning, mid-afternoon and night are considered mahāsandhi. The others are called upasandhi.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sandhi.—(EI 4; SITI), literally, ‘twilight’; but actually, ‘service in the temple in the morning and evening’; daily wor- ship in temples; special worship offered in the names of persons who arrange for it by creating endowments, etc. Note: sandhi is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sandhi : (f.) union; junction; joint; connection; agreement; euphonic combination.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sandhi, (m. & f.) (fr. saṃ+dhā) 1. union, junction Miln. 330 (of 2 roads); Bdhgh on S. II, 270 (between 2 houses). ‹-› 2. breach, break, hole, chasm D. II, 83=A. V, 195; Th. 1, 786; J. V, 459. āloka° a window Vin. II, 172; sandhiṃ chindati to make a break, to break into a house D. I, 52; DA. I, 159.—3. joint, piece, link J. II, 88; Vism. 277 (the 5, of kammaṭṭhāna); Mhvs 33, 11; 34, 47; applied to the joints of the body Vism. 185 (the 14 mahā°); DhsA. 324.—4. connection, combination VbhA. 191 (hetuphala° & phalahetu° etc.).—5. euphonic junction, euphony, “sandhi” SnA 76. See pada°.—6. agreement Mhvs 9, 16.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sandhi (संधि).—m pop. f (S) Junction, union, unitedness, joined or united state. 2 Joint, juncture, commissure, seam, line or point of junction. 3 A cleft, chink, fissure, cranny, chap, crack, chasm, breach, gap, slit, any interruption of continuity. 4 An interval, intermediate time or space. 5 A joint, knuckle, knot, an articulation generally. 6 Union or coalition of letters at the end or beginning of words entering into composition;--in obviation of dissonance or hiatus. 7 Aim; the mind as directed or applied, as attent or intent. v ṭhēva. Ex. bhikṣuka paikyāvara sandhi ṭhēvūna yajamānācēṃ ārjava karitō. 8 A period at the expiration of a Yuga or age, equaling one sixth of its duration, intervening between it and the succeeding Yuga: also a period of the same length as the Satya Yuga occurring at the end of each Manwantara and each Kalpa. 9 A hole made in a wall or underneath it, to enter a building for hostile or felonious purposes; a breach, a mine &c. 10 fig. The exactly opportune or suitable period or point of time; the critical juncture; the time and tide; the nick: also conjuncture or juncture generally. Ex. tukā mhaṇē aiśā sandhīṃ || ālī vaiṣṇavācī māndī ||. 11 fig. Connection or combination under the amicable or social relation, but, especially, the renewal of interrupted connection,--re-union, reconciliation, peace.

--- OR ---

sāndhī (सांधी).—f Joint, juncture: also chink, cranny &c. See sāndha.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sandhi (संधि).—f Junction. An arrival. Union. Aim. The nick, opportunity.

--- OR ---

sāndhī (सांधी).—f Joint. Chink.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sandhi (सन्धि).—m.

(-ndhiḥ) 1. Union, junction, connection, combination. 2. Peace, making peace, pacification. 3. A hole, a chasm. 4. A hole made in a wall or underneath it to enter a building for hostile or felonious purposes, a breach, a mine, &c. 5. Breaking, dividing. 6. The vulva. 7. A division of a drama, apparently applicable to each subject represented or sentiment excited, as considered severally and detached from the rest, though contributing to the connection of the whole; contrast of incident, change of situation, transition of passion or emotion, &c. 8. An interval, a pause or rest. 9. A joint, an articulation of the body. 10. The union of letters, either at the end and beginning of different words, or in the middle of compound terms, to avoid dissonance or hiatus. 11. A period at the expiration of each Yuga or age, or one-sixth of its duration, intervening before the commencement of the next; a Sandhi, also, of the same length as the Satya-Yuga, occurs at the end of each Manwantara and each Kalpa. 12. Critical juncture, opportune moment. 13. (In mensuration,) The connecting link of a perpendicular. E. sama together, dhā to have or hold, aff. ki of either the act, condition or instrument; whence the word becomes applicable to a chasm, &c., as to an interval, which whilst it divides, also connects, two parts or places.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṣaṇḍhī (षण्ढी):—[from ṣaṇḍha] f. (with yoni) the vulva of a woman that has no menstrual periods and no breasts, [Suśruta]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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