Tatpurusha, Tatpuruṣa, Tad-purusha: 17 definitions


Tatpurusha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Tatpuruṣa can be transliterated into English as Tatpurusa or Tatpurusha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—Name of a class of compounds in which generally the second member plays the role of the principal.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—Name of an important kind of compound words similar to the compound word तत्पुरुष (tatpuruṣa) i.e. (तस्य पुरुषः (tasya puruṣaḥ)), and hence chosen as the name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before Panini. Panini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term तत्पुरुष (tatpuruṣa) in II.1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.2.22 be called तत्पुरुष (tatpuruṣa). No definite number of the sub-divisions of तत्पुरुष (tatpuruṣa) is given;but from the nature of compounds included in the तत्पुरुष-अधिकार (tatpuruṣa-adhikāra), the sub-divisions विभक्तितत्पुरुष (vibhaktitatpuruṣa) cf. P.II.1.24 to 48, समानाधिकरणतत्पुरुष (samānādhikaraṇatatpuruṣa) cf. P. II.1.49 to 72 (called by the name कर्मधारय (karmadhāraya); acc.to P.I. 2. 42), संख्यातत्पुरुष (saṃkhyātatpuruṣa) (called द्विगु (dvigu) by P.II.1.52), अवयत्रतत्पुरुष (avayatratatpuruṣa) or एकदेशितत्पुरुषं (ekadeśitatpuruṣaṃ) cf. P.II.2.1-3, ब्यधिकरणतत्पुरुष (byadhikaraṇatatpuruṣa) cf. P. II 2.5, नञ्तत्पुरुष (nañtatpuruṣa) cf. P.II.2.6, उपप-दतत्पुरुष (upapa-datatpuruṣa) cf. P. II.2.19, प्रादितत्पुरुष (prāditatpuruṣa) cf. P.II.2 18 and णमुल्तत्पुरुष (ṇamultatpuruṣa) cf.P.II.2.20 are found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurusa compound mentioned by'Panini in II.1.72, is popularly called मयूरव्यंसकादिसमास (mayūravyaṃsakādisamāsa). Panini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. द्विगु (dvigu) as संख्यापूर्वो द्विगुः (saṃkhyāpūrvo dviguḥ) P.II. 1.23, and कर्मधारय (karmadhāraya) as तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः (tatpuruṣaḥ samānādhikaraṇaḥ karmadhārayaḥ) P. I.2.42. The Mahabhasyakara has described तत्पुरुष (tatpuruṣa) as उत्तरपदार्थप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषःः (uttarapadārthapradhānastatpuruṣaḥḥ) cf. M.Bh. on II.1.6, II.1.20, II.1.49, etc., and as a consequence it follows that the gender of the tatpurusa compound word is that of the last member of the compound; cf. परवल्लिङ द्वन्द्वतत्पुरुषयोः (paravalliṅa dvandvatatpuruṣayoḥ) P. II.4. 26; cf also तत्पुरुषश्चापि कः परवल्लिङं प्रयोजयति । यः पूर्वपदार्थप्रधानः एकदेशिसमासः अर्धपिप्पलीति । यो ह्युत्तरपदार्थप्रधानो दैवकृतं तस्य परवल्लिङ्गम् (tatpuruṣaścāpi kaḥ paravalliṅaṃ prayojayati | yaḥ pūrvapadārthapradhānaḥ ekadeśisamāsaḥ ardhapippalīti | yo hyuttarapadārthapradhāno daivakṛtaṃ tasya paravalliṅgam), M. Bh. on II.4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; cf. P.II.4.19-31, The tatpurusa compound is optional as generally all compounds are, depending as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tatpurusa compounds such as the प्रादितत्पुरुष (prāditatpuruṣa) or उपपदतत्पुरुष (upapadatatpuruṣa) are called नित्य (nitya) and hence their constitutent words, with the case affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; cf. P.II.2.18,19, In some cases अ (a) as a compound-ending (समासान्त (samāsānta)) is added: e.g. राजघुरा, नान्दीपुरम् (rājaghurā, nāndīpuram) ; cf. P. V.4.74; in some cases अच् (ac) (अ) is added: cf. P.V-4 75 o 87: while in some other cases टच् (ṭac) (अ) is added, the mute letter ट् () signifying the addition of ङीप् (ṅīp) (ई) in the feminine gender; cf.P.V.4. 91-1 12. For details See p.p. 270-273 Mahabhasya Vol.VII published by the D. E. Society, Poona.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

1) Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष):—One of the five aspects of Śiva, known collectively as the Pañchabrahmās. They are emanations from the niṣkala-Śiva. According to the Rūpamaṇḍana, the colour of the garment and the yajñopavīta of Tatpuruṣa is to be yellow and in his left hand there is to be a mātuluṅga fruit and in the right one an akṣamālā

The Śrītatvanidhi gives somewhat different descriptions. Tatpuruṣa should have, according to this work, four faces; each of these faces should have three eyes; the colour of Tatpuruṣa, should be golden-yellow. This face ought to point towards the eastern direction. In two out of the four hands of Tatpuruṣa there should be kuṭhāra (a sort of axe) and vidyā (jñāna-mudrā or a book) and the remaining two should be held in the abhaya and the varada poses;

2) Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष):—First of the twelve emanations of Rudra, according to the Rūpamaṇḍana.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Shaivism glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष) refers to one of the five faces of Sadāśiva that revealed the Āgamas (sacred texts).—According to the sṛṣṭikrama method mentioned in the Uttarakāmikāgama, “Dīptāgama, Sūkṣmāgama, Sahasrāgama, Aṃśumān and Suprabhedāgama are to be from the face called Tatpuruṣa”. According to the saṃhārakrama mentioned in the Pūrvakāraṇāgama, “Rauravāgama, Makuṭāgama, Vimalāgama, Candrajñānāgama and Bimbāgama are said to be emanated from Tatpuruṣa face”.

According to the Ajitāgama, “Lalita, Āgneya and Vātula are from the Tatpuruṣa face of Sadāśiva”. According to the Rauravāgama, “Aṃśumān, Suprabheda, Kiraṇa, Niśvāsa, Svāyambhuva, Anala and Vīra are from the face called Tatpuruṣa of Sadāśiva”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष) is used as an epithet for Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.41.—Accordingly, as Viṣṇu and others eulogized Śiva:—“[...] obeisance to Vāma, Vāmarūpa, Vāmanetra, Aghora, the great lord and the Vikaṭa. Obeisance to Tatpuruṣa, to Nātha, the ancient Puruṣa, the bestower of the four aims of life, Vratin, and Parameṣṭhin. Obeisance to you, Īśānas, Īśvara, Brahman, of the form of Brahman, the Supreme Soul”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Hinduism glossary
Source: Universal Yoga: The Five Faces of Shiva

Tatpurusha is the eastern face. This face represents the parātman or supreme soul behind the physical being. This form is Ānānda Shaktī, the power of bliss. Connected with the Annamaya kosha, tatpurusha in its higher manifestation is bliss; in the lower manifestation it is the concealing power of Shiva. This face is associated with the earth element, muladhara chakra and is considered beneficial for increasing focus.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) Tatpuruṣa : Represents Ānānda Śaktī. East direction. Kāmagiri Pīṭham. Manorūpa. It represents structure of soul. The individual merges with infinite. Two billion (200,00,000) mantras are trying to describe this face of Śiva. Yellow in color. Pṛthvī (Earth) Tattva. Svambhuva liṅga. If you have severe difficulty in focusing on any subject, you should meditate this face of Śiva. Śiva in this face meditates. Direction is East.

2) (fourth face of Shiva) - Tatpuruṣa - Concealing Grace. East. Vāyu. Air.

According to Śaiva Agama, Lord Shiva performs five actions - creation, preservation, dissolution, concealing grace, and revealing grace. Each of the five actions corresponds to a name and form of Shiva with varying attributes.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—m S One of the forms of grammatical composition. See ex. under sambhava.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—m One of the forms of grammatical composition.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—

1) the original or Supreme Spirit.

2) Name of a class of compounds in which the first member determines the sense of the other member, or in which the last member is defined or qualified by the first, without losing its original independence; as तत्पुरुषः (tatpuruṣaḥ); तत्पुरुष कर्मधारय येनाहं स्यां बहुव्रीहिः (tatpuruṣa karmadhāraya yenāhaṃ syāṃ bahuvrīhiḥ) Udb. उत्तरपदप्रधानस्तत्पुरुषः (uttarapadapradhānastatpuruṣaḥ)

Derivable forms: tatpuruṣaḥ (तत्पुरुषः).

Tatpuruṣa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms tad and puruṣa (पुरुष).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. That or a certain person. 2. A form of composition, (in Grammar,) usually consisting of two nouns, the first of which was in any case except the nominative or vocative; sometimes the inflection of the case is retained. E. tat that, and puruṣa man or person.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष).—[masculine] his servant; a class of compounds ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष):—[=tat-puruṣa] [from tat] m. the original or supreme spirit (one of the 5 forms of Īśvara [also ṣa-vaktra] [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha vii]), [Kāṭhaka xvii, 1; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka, x, 1, 5 f.; Liṅga-purāṇa i, 13]

2) [v.s. ...] the servant of him, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra vii, 1, 8]

3) [v.s. ...] Name of a Kalpa period, [Matsya-purāṇa liii, 41]

4) [v.s. ...] a class of compounds (formed like the word tat-puruṣa, ‘his servant’) in which the last member is qualified by the first without losing (as the last member of Bahu-vrīhi compounds) its grammatical independence (whether as noun or [adjective (cf. [masculine, feminine and neuter; or adjective])] or p.)

5) [v.s. ...] two subdivisions of these compounds are called Karma-dhāraya and Dvi-gu (qq.vv.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tatpuruṣa (तत्पुरुष):—[tat-puruṣa] (ṣaḥ) 1. m. A compound noun.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tatpurusha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tatpurusha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Tatpuruṣa (ತತ್ಪುರುಷ):—

1) [noun] the Supreme Lord.

2) [noun] one of the five faces of Śiva.

3) [noun] (gram.) a class of compounds in which the second of the two words compounded being prominent and qualified by the first one without losing its grammatical independence and literary meaning.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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