Apara, Apāra, Aparā: 28 definitions


Apara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Upper.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Aparā (अपरा).—One of the thirteen wives of Vāsudeva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 160.
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā

Aparā (अपरा) refers to the thirteenth of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (e.g., Aparā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Aparā (अपरा) refers to “not transcendental, inert matter, material nature”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Aparā (अपरा):—Placenta - The oval or discoid spongy structure in the uterus through which the foetus derives its nourishment.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Apara (अपर) refers to “second” (i.e., after the first), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Bhādrapada year of Jupiter, the produce of creepers will thrive as well as the first crops; but the second crops [i.e., apara-sasyaaparaṃ sasyaṃ] will fail and there will be prosperity in some places and fear here and there”.

2) Apara (अपर) refers to the “west”.—Accordingly, “Vasā Ketu is a comet which lies with its head towards the north; it is of large size, glossy and appears in the west [apara-adayī]. When it appears there will be immediate deaths in the land but prosperity in the end. Asthi Ketu resembles the Vasā Ketu; but if it appears of sharp rays, there will be fear in the land. Śastra Ketu also resembles the Vasā Ketu but is glossy and appears in the west; and when it appears, there will be wars and deaths in the land”.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Apara (अपर) refers to “(contact of) another (atom)”, according to Utpaladeva’s Vivṛti on Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā 1.5.6.—Accordingly, “[...] To explain: a second atom that is connected with the atom considered as the first [one] must be one with this [first atom]; for if [these atoms] devoid of parts are in contact, how much [of them could] remain that might not be in contact? And [if they are thus entirely] in contact, their natures must be immersed in each other, therefore [they] can only be manifest as one [single] atom; and if [they are] in contact with yet another atom (apara-paramāṇu-saṃsparśa), the same [consequence follows]—therefore even if an infinite number of atoms were connected, they should be manifest as having the size of one [single] atom; or [rather], even this [manifestation] would not exist, because atom[s], [taken] one by one, are beyond the realm of the sense organs”.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

1) Apara (अपर) refers to “others”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Further, the so-called ‘insight (prajñā)’ is a word for calm because it is free from the flame of false discrimination; [...] a word for cultivation because it is the entering into the way of non-duality; a word for awakening because of the remarkable perfect awakening; a word for the dharma because it is free from desire. Since the light of knowledge is the entrance into such a word, and not dependent on others (apara-pratyaya), it is called insight. Since it is in accordance with the sky-like teaching among all the teachings of the Buddha, he accordingly does not produce thought-constructions or fiction even concerning the smallest dharma. That is the perfection of insight of the Bodhisattva becoming like the expanse of the sky. [...]”.

2) Apara (अपर) refers to the “end (of the night)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā.—Accordingly, as Gaganagañja said to Ratnapāṇi: “Son of good family, those sixty-four dharmas are included in one hundred twenty-eight dharmas. What are those one hundred twenty-four? [...] (59) the lightness of body is included in knowing the proper time for eating and making an effort at practicing vigilance in the beginning (pūrva-rātra) and end of the night (apara-rātra); [...]’”.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: SOAS Research Online: Prekṣā meditation: History and Methods

Apara (अपर) or “ alone” refers to one of the 46 qualities of the soul to be meditated on in the “Practice of Meditation on Liberated Souls (Siddhas)”, according to Jain texts like Ācārāṅga (5.6.123-140), Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama ( and Samayasāra (1.49).—The pure soul can be recognised by meditation on its true nature, represented by the liberated souls of the Siddhas. The practice which leads to this realisation is meditation on the fact that attachment, aversion, passions and the influx of karmas, are ‘not mine’, that I am separate from them and consist of infinite knowledge, perception, conduct, spiritual energy, that I am the pure, enlightened, and everlasting soul. The qualities of the soul to be meditated on as truly mine are: [e.g., My soul is alone (apara)] [...] The meditation on such extended fourty-five qualities of the pure soul presents the niśacaya-naya, which is aligned with Kundakunda’s approach.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Apara in Central African Republic is the name of a plant defined with Pentaclethra macrophylla in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Harpalyce macrocarpa Britton & P. Wilson.

2) Apara in Nigeria is also identified with Hexalobus salicifolius It has the synonym Hexalobus mbula Exell (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Histoire Physique, Politique et Naturelle de l’Ile de Cuba … Botanique. — Plantes Vasculaires (1845)
· Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment (2004)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2007)
· Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1825)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1986)
· Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club (1920)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Apara, for example chemical composition, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, extract dosage, side effects, have a look at these references.

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

apara : (adj.) 1. another; other; 2. western. || apāra (adj.), limitless; without a further shore. (nt.), the near bank.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Apara, (adj.) (Vedic apara, der. fr. apa with compar. suffix —ra = Idg. *aporos “further away, second”; cp. Gr. a)pwtέrw farther, Lat. aprilis the second month (after March, i. e. April). Goth. afar = after) another, i. e. additional, following, next, second (with pron. inflexion, i. e. Nom. pl. apare) D.III, 190 (°pajā another, i. e. future generation); Sn.791, 1089 (n’); J.I, 59 (aparaṃ divasaṃ on some day following); III, 51 (apare tayo sahāyā “other friends three”, i. e. three friends, cp. similarly Fr. nous autres Franc˚ais); IV, 3 (dīpa); PvA.81 (°divase on another day), 226; with other part. like aparo pi D III 128. — nt. aparaṃ what follows i. e. future state, consequence; future Vin.I, 35 (nâparaṃ nothing more); Sn.1092 (much the same as punabbhava, cp. Nd2 61). Cases adverbially; aparaṃ (Acc.) further, besides, also J.I, 256; III, 278; often with other part. like athâparaṃ & further, moreover Sn.974; and puna caparaṃ It.100; Miln.418 (so read for puna ca paraṃ) and passim; aparam pi Vism.9. — aparena in future D.III, 201. — Repeated (reduplicative formation) aparâparaṃ (local) to & fro J.I, 265, 278; PvA.198; (temporal) again and again, off & on J.II, 377; Miln.132 VvA.271; PvA.176 (= punappunaṃ).

— or —

Apāra, (nt.) (a + pāra) 1. the near bank of a river J.III, 230 (+ atiṇṇaṃ, C. paratīraṃ atiṇṇaṃ). — 2. (fig.) not the further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opp. pāraṃ = Nibbāna) Sn.1129, 1130; Nd2 62; Dh.385 (expld. as bāhirāni cha āyatanāni DhA.IV, 141). See pāra & cp. avara. (Page 54)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

apara (अपर).—a (S) Other. 2 In comp. Farther, latter, the one beyond or after: as aparārdha The other or farther half; apararātra The end of the night; aparāṇha The afternoon; pūrvāpara The first and the latter part.

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apāra (अपार).—a (S) Endless or boundless. 2 fig. Exceedingly much, many, great &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

apara (अपर).—a Other. Farther, latter.

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apāra (अपार).—a Boundless, unlimited. Inexhaustible, immense.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Apara (अपर).—a. (treated as a pronoun in some senses)

1) Having nothing higher or superior, unrivalled. matchless; without rival or second (nāsti paro yasmāt); स्त्रीरत्नसृष्टिर- परा प्रतिभाति सा मे (strīratnasṛṣṭira- parā pratibhāti sā me) Ś.2.1; cf. अनुत्तम, अनुत्तर (anuttama, anuttara).

2) [na pṛṇāti saṃtoṣayati pṛ ac] (a) Another, other (used as adj. or subst.). वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि (vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya navāni gṛhṇāti naro'parāṇi) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.22. (b) More, additional; कृतदारोऽपरान् दारान् (kṛtadāro'parān dārān) Manusmṛti 11.5. (c) Second, another Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.37; स्वं केशवोऽपर इवाक्रमितुं प्रवृत्तः (svaṃ keśavo'para ivākramituṃ pravṛttaḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 5.2 like another (rival) Keśava. (d) Different; other; अन्ये कृतयुगे धर्मास्त्रेतायां द्वापरेऽपरे (anye kṛtayuge dharmāstretāyāṃ dvāpare'pare) Ms. 1.85; Kathāsaritsāgara 26.235; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.6 (with gen.). (e) Ordinary, of the middle sort (madhyama); परितप्तोऽप्यपरः सुसंवृतिः (paritapto'pyaparaḥ susaṃvṛtiḥ) Śi. 16.23.

3) Belonging to another, not one's own (opp. sva); यदि स्वाश्चापराश्चैव विन्देरन् योषितो द्विजाः (yadi svāścāparāścaiva vinderan yoṣito dvijāḥ) Manusmṛti 9.85 of another caste.

4) Hinder, posterior, latter, later, (in time space) (opp. pūrva); the last; पूर्वां सन्ध्यां जपंस्तिष्ठेत्स्वकाले चापरां चिरम् (pūrvāṃ sandhyāṃ japaṃstiṣṭhetsvakāle cāparāṃ ciram) Manusmṛti 4.93; रात्रेरपरः कालः (rātreraparaḥ kālaḥ) Nir.; oft. used as first member of a genitive Tatpuruṣa comp. meaning 'the hind part,' 'latter part or half'; °पक्षः (pakṣaḥ) the latter half of a month; °हेमन्तः (hemantaḥ) latter half of a winter; °कायः (kāyaḥ) hind part of the body &c.; °वर्षा, °शरद् (varṣā, °śarad) latter part of the rains, autumn &c.

5) Following, the next.

6) Western; पयसि प्रतित्सुरपराम्बुनिधेः (payasi pratitsuraparāmbunidheḥ) Śiśupālavadha 9.1. पूर्वापरौ तोयनिधी वगाह्य (pūrvāparau toyanidhī vagāhya) Ku. 1.1; Mu.4.21

7) Inferior, lower (nikṛṣṭaḥ); अपरेयमि- तस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् (apareyami- tastvanyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 7.5.

8) (In Nyāya) Non-extensive, not covering too much, one of the two kinds of सामान्य (sāmānya), see Bhāṣā P.8. (paraṃ = adhikavṛtti higher aparam = nyūnavṛtti lower or adhikadeśavṛttitvaṃ paraṃ, alpadeśavṛttitvaṃ aparam Muktā.)

9) Distant; opposite. When अपर (apara) is used in the singular as a correlative to एक (eka) the one, former, it means the other, the latter; एको ययौ चैत्ररथप्रदेशान् सौराज्य- रम्यानपरो विदर्भान् (eko yayau caitrarathapradeśān saurājya- ramyānaparo vidarbhān) R.5.6; when used in pl. it means 'others', 'and others', and the words generally used as its correlatives are एके, केचित्-काश्चित् (eke, kecit-kāścit) &c., अपरे, अन्ये (apare, anye); केचिद् रक्तपटीकृताश्च जटिलाः कापालिकाश्चापरे (kecid raktapaṭīkṛtāśca jaṭilāḥ kāpālikāścāpare) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.34; एके समूहुर्बलरेणुसंहतिं शिरोभिराज्ञामपरे महीभृतः (eke samūhurbalareṇusaṃhatiṃ śirobhirājñāmapare mahībhṛtaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 12.45 some-others; शाखिनः केचिदध्यष्ठुर्न्यमाङ्क्षुरपरेऽम्बुधौ । अन्ये त्वलङ्घिषुः शैलान् गुहास्त्वन्ये न्यलेषत ॥ केचिदासिषत स्तब्धा भयात्केचिदघूर्णिषुः । उदतारिषुरम्भोधिं वानराः सेतुनापरे (śākhinaḥ kecidadhyaṣṭhurnyamāṅkṣurapare'mbudhau | anye tvalaṅghiṣuḥ śailān guhāstvanye nyaleṣata || kecidāsiṣata stabdhā bhayātkecidaghūrṇiṣuḥ | udatāriṣurambhodhiṃ vānarāḥ setunāpare) Bk. 15.31.33.

-raḥ 1 the hind foot of an elephant; बद्धापराणि परितो निगडान्यलावीत् (baddhāparāṇi parito nigaḍānyalāvīt) Śiśupālavadha 5.48 (Malli. caramapādāgrāṇi).

2) An enemy (na pṛṇāti santoṣayati).

-rā 1 Western direction, the west अपरां च दिशं प्राप्तो वालिना समभिद्रुतः (aparāṃ ca diśaṃ prāpto vālinā samabhidrutaḥ) Rām.4.46.18.

2) The hind part of an elephant.

3) Sacred learning, learning the four Vedas with the 6 Aṅgas.

4) The womb; the outer skin of the embryo.

5) Suppressed menstruation in pregnancy.

-rī Ved. The future, future times; उतापरीभ्यो मघवा विजिग्ये (utāparībhyo maghavā vijigye) Ṛgveda 1.32.13.

-ram 1 The future, any thing to be done in future (kārya); तदेतद्ब्रह्मापूर्वमपरमनन्तम् (tadetadbrahmāpūrvamaparamanantam) Bṛ. Ār. Up. (nāsti aparaṃ kāryaṃ yasya).

2) The hind quarter of an elephant.

-ram adv. Again, moreover, in future, for the future; अपरं च (aparaṃ ca) moreover; अपरेण (apareṇa) behind, west of, to the west of (with gen. or acc.). [cf. Goth. afar; Germ. aber, as in aberglauben].

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Apāra (अपार).—a.

1) Shoreless.

2) Boundless, unbounded, unlimited; अपारस्याप्रमेयस्य परं पारमुपाश्रिते (apārasyāprameyasya paraṃ pāramupāśrite) Rām. unfathomable, of great length

3) Inexhaustible, immense, great (adhika); अपारो वो महिमा (apāro vo mahimā) Ṛgveda 5.87.6.

4) Out of reach.

5) Difficult to be crossed; difficult to be surmounted or overcome (as an enemy); रावणश्च महाशत्रुर- पारः प्रतिभाति मे (rāvaṇaśca mahāśatrura- pāraḥ pratibhāti me) | Rām.

-raḥ An ocean; कर्णधार इवापारे भगवान्पारदर्शकः (karṇadhāra ivāpāre bhagavānpāradarśakaḥ) Bhāgavata 1.13.39.

-ram 1 A kind of mental satisfaction or acquiescence; or, reverse of mental acquiescence, non-acquiescence.

2) The opposite bank of a river.

-rā the earth.

-pāra a. Carrying over the boundless sea.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Apara (अपर).—adj. (used like anyatara 1, q.v.), a certain: Mahāvastu ii.234.19 aparo ca nīlako nāma lubdhako, and there was a certain hunter named N. (no hunter has been men- tioned, only a deer); 244.6 apara-mālākārasya, of a certain garland-maker; 251.2 aparo śakuntako.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apara (अपर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Other. 2. Opposite, contrary. 3. Posterior, (in place or time.) 4. Similar, same. 5. Friendly, not adverse. n.

(-raṃ) The hind quarter of an elephant. f.

(-rā) 1. The womb. 2. Suppressed menstruation in pregnancy. 3. The west. E. a neg. and para from pṛ to nourish or fill, and ac affix; or a neg. and para other.

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Apāra (अपार).—n.

(-raṃ) The opposite bank of a river. mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) Unbounded, boundless, interminable. E. a neg. pāra shore.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apara (अपर).—[apa + ra] [I.], adj., f. . 1. Posterior, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 278; with sandhyā, Evening-twilight, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 93. 2. Following, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 65, 1. 3. Western, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 1. 4. Other, [Pañcatantra] 55, 13.

— acc. ram, adv. Moreover, [Pañcatantra] 71, 1. Ii. a-para, adj. 1. Inferior, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 7, 5. 2. Relative, Bhāṣāp. 7; 9. 3. Modern, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 99.

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Apāra (अपार).—adj., f. , boundless. Duṣpāra, i. e. dus-pṛ10 + a, adj. 1. difficult to be sailed across. 2. difficult to be overcome. 3. difficult to be performed.

Apāra is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a and pāra (पार).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apara (अपर).—1. [adjective] hinder, farther, later, inferior, posterior, western; following (in [space and time]); different from, another than ([ablative] or [genetive]), foreign ([opposed] sva), particular, strange, extraordinary. [masculine] apara hind-foot of an elephant. [neuter] aparam [adverb] in future (also aparam); further, moreover (±ca); west of ([ablative]). apareṇa behind, west of ([accusative]).

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Apara (अपर).—2. [neuter] [feminine] the future.

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Apāra (अपार).—[adjective] unbounded, immeasurable.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Apara (अपर):—[=a-para] 1 mfn. having nothing beyond or after, having no rival or superior.

2) 2. apara mf(ā)n. ([from] apa), posterior, later, latter (opposed to pūrva; often in [compound])

3) following

4) western

5) inferior, lower (opposed to para)

6) other, another (opposed to sva)

7) different (with [ablative])

8) being in the west of

9) distant, opposite. Sometimes apara is used as a conjunction to connect words or sentences e.g. aparaṃ-ca, moreover

10) m. the hind foot of an elephant, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

11) Aparā (अपरा):—[from apara] f. the west, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] the hind quarter of an elephant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] the womb, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) Apara (अपर):—(am) ([Ṛg-veda vi, 33, 5]) n. the future, [Ṛg-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

15) cf. [Gothic] and Old [German] afar, and the [modern] [German] aber, in such words as Aber-mal, Aber-witz.

16) also (e), m. [plural] others (= anye, used to indicate a various reading), Hāla, [Scholiast or Commentator]

17) Aparā (अपरा):—[from apara] f. (with vidyā) the exoteric Vedānta doctrine (as opp. to parā v°, `the esoteric`), [Indische Studien by A. Weber]

18) Apāra (अपार):—[=a-pāra] mfn. not having an opposite shore, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

19) [v.s. ...] not having a shore, unbounded, boundless (applied to the earth, or to heaven and earth, [rodasī], etc.), [Ṛg-veda] etc.

20) [v.s. ...] difficult to be got at, [Rāmāyaṇa]

21) [v.s. ...] m. ‘not the opposite bank’, the bank on this side (of a river), [Mahābhārata viii, 2381]

22) [v.s. ...] n. (in Sāṅkhya [philosophy]) ‘a bad shore’, ‘the reverse of pāra’, a kind of mental indifference or acquiescence

23) [v.s. ...] the reverse of mental acquiescence, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) [v.s. ...] the boundless sea.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Apara (अपर):—I. 1. m. f. n. (is sarvanāman q. v.—except as the latter part of Dwandwa and [bahuvrihi compound] compounds in general, as the latter part of [tatpurusha compound] the former part of which has the sense of an instrum., optionally as the latter part of [bahuvrihi compound] which have the sense of a region of the compass and as the latter part of a Dwandwa in the nom. plur. m., optionally too in general in the abl. and loc. sing. m. and n., and in the nom. plur. m.—sing. nom. -raḥ-rā-ram, abl. -rasmāt or -rāt-rasyāḥ-rasmāt or -rāt, dat. -rasmai-rasyai-rasmai, gen. -rasya-rasyāḥ-rasya, loc. -rasmin or -re-rasyām-rasmin or -re; plur. nom. -re or -rāḥ -rāḥ-rāṇi, gen. -reṣām-rāsām-reṣām). The converse of pūrva.

1) Distant, remote; e. g. sa viśvācīrabhicaṣṭe ghṛtācīrantarā pūrvamaparaṃ ca ketum (comm.: pūrvamimaṃ lokamaparamamuṃ lokaṃ ca); aparaṃ kūlam, the opposite shore (opposed to pūrvaṃ kūlam the nearer i. e. this side of the shore).

2) Posterior, following, later; e. g. prāṅmuhūrtātprabhātehaṃ bhaviṣyāmi dhruvaṃ sukhī . āgāmini tataḥ kāle yo dvitīyaḥ kṣaṇoparaḥ . tatra jetuṃ gamiṣyāmi tridaśendraṃ sahāmaram .; aparā saṃdhyā, the eveningtwilight (opposed to pūrvā saṃdhyā, the morning-twilight). In this sense the word may be the first part of [karmadharaya compound] compounds, e. g. aparapakṣa q. v.—aparam is used adv. in the sense ‘further, moreover’ to connect different sentences; for its sense ‘in future’ see I. 3. 2. and compare aparī. Comp. also pūrvāpara.

3) Last, behind, in space and time; e. g. kīrtitastrividhastveṣa (viz. saṃyogaḥ) ādyonyatarakarmajaḥ . tathobhayakriyājanyo bhavetsaṃyogajoparaḥ ... In this sense it may form with a noun depending on it in the genitive a [tatpurusha compound] (not a [karmadharaya compound]) compound of which it is the former part; e. g. aparakāya, the hind part of the body (= aparaṃ kāyasya); apararātra, the last part of the night; aparāhla, the last part of the day qq. vv.; if the latter part of such a compound is a name of a season and a derivative is formed of it by means of a taddh. aff. which has a ñ, ṇ or k as anubandha, the first syllable of this latter part receives Vṛddhi, not that of apara; thus from aparavarṣā, the last part of the rainy season, comes aparavārṣika (taddh. aff. ṭhak); from aparahemanta comes aparahaimana (taddh. aff. aṇ); from aparanidāgha, aparanaidāgha (taddh. aff. aṇ) &c. qq. vv.

4) Western (opp. to pūrva eastern); in this sense it may be the first part of [karmadharaya compound] compounds, [a.]) if the compound expresses a conventional term (e. g. a proper name); e. g. apareṣukāmaśamī, aparapāṇinīya qq. vv.; such compounds have the udātta accent on the third syllable, if the latter part is the name of a village, a country, a legend, or the word cānarāṭa, or if it implies the meaning pupil, being itself a derivative of the name of a teacher; if the latter part of such a compound is the name of a country—except madra—or that of a village or town of an eastern country and a derivative is formed of it by means of a taddh. aff. which has a ñ, ṇ or k as anubandha, the first syllable of this latter part receives Vṛddhi, not that of apara, e. g. aparapāñcālaka (from aparapañcāla, taddh. aff. vuñ)—but āparamadra (from aparamadra, taddh. aff. )—, aparaiṣukāmaśama (from apareṣukāmaśamī, taddh. aff. aṇ), aparakārṣṇamṛttika (from aparakṛṣṇamṛttikā, taddh. aff. aṇ) qq. vv. &c.; such derivatives have the udātta accent on the third syllable; [b.]) if a derivative is to be made of such a compound by means of a taddh. aff.; e. g. apara and śālā become aparaśālā, the western hall, for the sake of deriving āparaśāla; or [c.]) if such a compound is to become the former part of a compound; e. g. if apara and śālā are to form a [bahuvrihi compound] with priya (aparaśālāpriya); otherwise apara (western) is not allowed to form a [karmadharaya compound] with another noun.—The instrum. apareṇa q. v. (which however is considered by Pāṇ. as a deriv. of apara by means of a taddh. aff. enap) governs in the sense ‘western of’ and with the implied sense ‘not far, near’ the accus. or genit., e. g. apareṇa grāmam or grāmasya; it is used then in the sense of the nom., viz. ‘the western region which is near’, or in that of the locat., viz. ‘in the near west’. [The notion ‘western’—as has been observed already by Wilson—is derived from the meaning ‘behind’, as that of pūrva ‘eastern’ from its meaning ‘before’; comp. Viṣṇupurāṇa p. 219, note 7.] Comp. avara.

5) Other (in general), different, opposed; used in this sense in the same manner as anya; e. g. mātaraṃ bhrātaraṃ jyeṣṭhaṃ kaniṣṭhamaparānapi . parityajeta ko nvadya &c.; also with a noun in the abl. (like other synonymes of anya), ‘different from’; e. g. yallābhānnāparo lābho yatsukhānnāparaṃ sukham . yajjñānānnāparaṃ jñānaṃ tadbrahmetyavadhārayet; comp. also Iii. When it occurs as opposed to ‘the one’ (the one…the other) the correlative term is apara or eka, anya, kiṃcit, kiṃcana; e. g. of two: cāturbhautikamityeke . ekabhautikamityapare; or śākhinaḥ kecidadhyaṣṭhurnyamāṅkṣuraparembudhau; of three: saṃceruḥ sahasāḥ kecidasvanāḥ kecidāṭiṣuḥ . saṃyāmavanto yativannigadānaparemucan; of four: kecinninindurnṛpamapraśāntaṃ vicukruśuḥ kecana sāsramuccaiḥ . ūcustathānye bharatasya māyāṃ dhikkekayīmityaparo jagāda ..; of five: anye tvalaṅghiṣuḥ śailāṃguhāsvanye nyaleṣata . kecidāsiṣata stabdhā bhayātkecidaghūrṇiṣuḥ . udatāriṣurambhodhiṃ vānarāḥ setunāpare .. &c.; (these combinations of the correlative terms vary according to the authors, but the last term is usually apara). Sometimes apara is also opposed to sva ‘own’, when it assumes the sense of ‘foreign, not belonging to one’s self’, e. g. samīhitaṃ tasya nācetaṃsve na cāpare (comm.: sve ātmīyāḥ…apare parakīyāḥ).— In this sense (5.) the word may form [karmadharaya compound] compounds of which it is the first part; e. g. aparapuruṣa, aparādhyāpaka q. v. [In the Vedas the feminine occurs also in the form aparī with the udātta on the last syllable, although apara is otherwise udātta on the first syllable; e. g. utāparībhyo maghavā vi jigye; the present edition of Pāṇ. Iv. 1. 30. notices this fact, but represents aparī as udātta on the first syllable; a Ms. of the Kāśikā (E. I. H. 2440) reads in this Sūtra instead of aparī the word avarī, but the instance alleged in this Ms. is rather of doubtful correctness: ‘avarī kanyā maghavā vi jigye . avareti bhāṣāyām’. Comp. Ṛgv. I. 32. 13. Patanjali gives no comment on this word, nor his commentators. 2. m.

(-raḥ) The hind foot of an elephant (scil. pādaḥ). 3. n. f.


(-ram-rā) The hind quarter of an elephant.


(-ram-rī) (ved.) Future time. [It may be doubtful whether the word is not a masc. instead of a neuter in this sense, since it occurs only in an oblique case, when the dative aparāya is explained by Sāyaṇa with the ellipsis of kālaḥ = aparasmiṃkāle ‘in future’, and the accus., which is also used adverbially: ‘in future’, with the same ellipsis (= aparasmiṃkāle) or with that of dina (= aparasmindine). In the femin. the ellipsis is a word meaning night, as rātri. In either gender the word is udātta on the last syllable; see the remark under I. 1. 5.] Comp. aparaja. 4. f.

(-rā) 1) The hind quarter of an elephant.

2) The womb.

3) Suppressed menstruation in pregnancy.

4) The west; comp. avarā.—E. Probably apa, taddh. aff. ra. Comp. apama. Ii. [tatpurusha compound] m. f. n.

(-raḥ-rā-ram) The reverse of para (superior, in its literal and figur. acceptations) and always contrasted with it:

1) Inferior, subordinate; e. g. dve vidye veditavye iti ha sma brahmavido vadanti parā caivāparā ca . tatrāparā ṛgvedo yajurvedo sāmavedotharvavedaḥ śikṣā kalpo vyākaraṇaṃ niruktaṃ chando jyotiṣamiti . atha parā yayā tadakṣaramadhigamyate (Śaṅkara: parā ca paramātmavidyā . aparā ca dharmādharmasādhanatatphalaviṣayā); comp. with this definition of the ‘superior and inferior wisdom’ in the Muṇḍaka Upan., the definition given in the Viṣṇupurāṇa p. 494, where Wilson observes (note 9): ‘the first (parā) is knowledge of Parabrahman, of spirit abstractly considered, perfect knowledge derived from abstraction, the second (aparā) is knowledge of Śābdabrahman, of spirit as described and taught in the Vedas or their supplementary branches’. In the same manner paraṃ and aparaṃ brahma (of the Praśnopan.) are the ‘superior and inferior’ i. e. the transcendental and the mundane Brahman, the one indefinable and incomprehensible, the other the reverse.—In a passage of the Śvetāśv. Upan. brahma… yasmātparaṃ nāparamasti kiṃcit, Śaṅkara explains aparam = anyat, but it is more probable that the words mean: ‘than which there is nothing superior nor inferior’ and merely express the incomparability of Brahman.

2) In the Vaiśeṣika philosophy the two correlative terms para and apara (superior and subordinate) express the notion of [a.]) absolute (para) and relative (apara), when applied to the notion of sāmānya or generality (Bhāṣāp. sāmānyaṃ dvividhaṃ proktaṃ paraṃ cāparameva ca), absolute generality belonging to the notion ‘to be’ or ‘existence’ in general as including the notion of substance, quality and action (dravyāditrikavṛttistu sattā paratayocyate), and relative generality to the notion ‘genus’ (parabhinnā ca yā jātiḥ saivāparatayocyate); the notion ‘genus’ again as including substances, qualities and actions being absolute or relative (see the meaning b.) (dravyatvādikajātistu parāparatayocyate); [b.]) more comprehensive (para) and less comprehensive (apara), when applied to a substance (see dravya); thus earth, water, fire, wind and the organ of thinking have amongst other qualities also that of comprehending more or less matter (kṣitirjalaṃ tathā tejaḥ pavano mana eva ca . parāparatvamūrtatvakriyāvegāśrayā amī; or parāparatvasaṃkhyādyāḥ pañca vegaśca mānase); the eye seizes objects which amongst others have the quality of being more or less comprehensive (vibhāgasaṃyogaparāparatvasnehadravatvaparimāṇayuktam…gṛhlāti cakṣuḥ); parāparatva is therefore one of the material qualities (rūpaṃ rasaṃ sparśagandhau paratvamaparatvakam . dravo gurutvaṃ snehaśca vego mūrtaguṇā amī); [c.]) more remote and less remote, when applied [aa.]) to the notion of space: i. e. far and near (dūratvamantikatvaṃ ca daiśikaṃ paratvamaparatvaṃ bodhyam; or yathā pāṭaliputrātkāśīmapekṣya prayāgaḥ paraḥ . pāṭaliputrātkurukṣetramapekṣya prayāgopara iti), farness implying the idea of a more, and nearness that of a less extended area in contact with the sun (paratvaṃ —scil. daiśikaṃ—sūryasaṃyogabhūyastvajñānato bhavet . aparatvaṃ tadalpatvabuddhitaḥ syāditīritam); [bb.]) to the notion of time: i. e. old and young (Praśastapāda: ekasya draṣṭuryuvānamavadhiṃ kṛtvā sthavire viprakṛṣṭabuddhirutpadyate tatastāmapekṣya pareṇa kālapradeśena saṃyogātparatvasyotpattiriti . sthaviraṃ cāvadhiṃ kṛtvā yūni saṃnikṛṣṭabuddhirutpadyate tatastāmapekṣyāpareṇa kālapradeśena saṃyogādaparatvasyotpattiriti), old age implying the notion of prior, young age that of posterior existence with regard to the revolutions of the sun, i. e. the former implying the notion of more and the latter of fewer such revolutions (Bhāṣāp. divākaraparispandapūrvotpannatvabuddhitaḥ . paratvamaparatvaṃ—scil. kālikaṃ—tu tadanantarabuddhitaḥ; comm.: yasya sūryaparispandāpekṣayā yasya sūryaparispandodhikaḥ sa jyeṣṭhaḥ . yasya nyūnaḥ sa kaniṣṭhaḥ); time is thus the cause of understanding the notion of greater and lesser periods (kālaḥ…parāparatvadhīhetuḥ). Comp. also apekṣābuddhi. E. a neg. and para. Iii. [bahuvrihi compound] m. f. n.

(-raḥ-rā-ram) Than which there is nothing superior; supreme, absolute (for the formation comp. anuttara, anuttama); e. g. ubhau (scil. prakṛtipuruṣau) apyanādī . ubhāvapyanantau . ubhāvapyaliṅgau . ubhāvapi nityau . ubhāvapyaparau . ubhau ca sarvagatāviti (comp. for the meaning of apara in this passage from Suśruta the following from Gaurapāda’s comm. on the verse 10 of the Sāṅkhyakārikā: tathāśritaṃ vyaktam (the discrete principle) anāśritamavyaktam (the indiscrete principle or Prakṛti) . akāryatvāt . na hi pradhānātkiṃcidasti paraṃ yasya pradhānaṃ kāryaṃ syāt ..). apara is used in this sense perhaps also in the instance p. 166, col. 1, 1. 51. 52. E. a priv. and para.

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Apāra (अपार):—I. [tatpurusha compound] n.

(-ram) 1. The opposite bank of a river; the same as pāra; comp. also avāra. E. See s. v. pāra. 2. (In the Sāṅkhya philosophy.)

1) A technical term to denote that kind of mental acquiescence or indifference which arises from the reflection that sensual objects perish in consequence of enjoyment and that there is a feeling of pain or trouble when they perish; some call this kind of acquiescence sunetra, and others pārapāra (the latter word written thus in the Calc. ed. of the comm. of the Sāṅkhyapravachana and in the E. I. H. Ms. 2668; in Wilson's ed. of the Sāṅkhya-Kārikā pārāpāra); it is among the nine kinds of acquiescence or tuṣṭi (q. v.) one of the five called vāhya or acquiences relating to exterior objects. [Wilson in his comment on the Kārikā (page 155) renders the literal meaning of this word ‘shoreless’, taking it therefore as a [bahuvrihi compound]; but it seems to me that the compound terms of this category, enumerated s. v. anuttamāmbhas, are all Tatpur., the simile inhering to these terms being taken from the notion of ‘water’ or ‘opposite shore’, and the different mode in which the former is expressed (ambhas, salila, ogha, vṛṣṭi) as well as the qualification conveyed by the former part of the compound terms (supāra, uttamāmbhas &c.) being intended to express the higher or lower degree of the various acquiescences, none of which is conducive to final emancipation; the literal meaning of apāra would therefore be, in my opinion, ‘a bad or undesirable opposite shore’. In the list of Gaurapāda which differs from that of the other comm., the correctness of the term sunetra seems to me, for the reasons given, doubtful, unless netra is to be connected there with the sense of netrī ‘river’.]

2) The reverse of the technical Sāṅkhya term pāra, i. e. [a.]) non-acquiescence or not being indifferent through not reflecting that pain or trouble arises from the preservation of sensual objects when they have been acquired; or [b.]) non-acquiescence through not reflecting that acquiring sensual objects causes trouble or pain; (the term pāra being used by Gaurapāda in the former, by Vāchaspati, Vijnānāchārya &c. in the latter sense); it is amongst the seventeen buddhibadha or obstructions of intellect one of the nine which are the converse of the tuṣṭi or acquiescences. E. a 1. deter., 2. neg. and pāra. Ii. [bahuvrihi compound] m. f. n.

(-raḥ-rā-ram) Shoreless, unbounded, boundless, illimitable. E. a priv. and pāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Apara (अपर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ) a.] Other. f. The womb. n. The hind quarter of an elephant.

2) Apāra (अपार):—[a-pāra] (raṃ) 1. n. The opposite bank of a river. a. Boundless.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Apāra (अपार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Apāra, Avara, Avarā, Avāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Apara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Apara (अपर) [Also spelled upper]:—(a) other, another, different; later; latter; following; inferior.

2) Aparā (अपरा):—(nm) mundane or materialistic knowledge; worldly wisdom; —[vidyā] materialistic knowledge.

3) Apāra (अपार) [Also spelled apar]:—(a) boundless; shoreless; immense; hence ~[] (nf).

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Apāra (अपार) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Apāra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Apara (ಅಪರ):—

1) [adjective] another; different.

2) [adjective] coming or happening later.

3) [adjective] additional; extra.

4) [adjective] of inferior quality.

5) [adjective] at or toward the rear; behind; hinder; posterior.

6) [adjective] of excellent quality; superior.

7) [adjective] not belonging to the gross or physical world; transcendental.

8) [adjective] concerned with what is independent of experience; transcendental.

9) [adjective] of west direction; western.

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Apara (ಅಪರ):—

1) [noun] the hind part of an elephant.

2) [noun] a hollow, muscular organ of female mammals in which the ovum is deposited and the embryo and foetus are developed; the womb.

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Apāra (ಅಪಾರ):—

1) [adjective] having no boundaries; shoreless.

2) [adjective] vast; immense; unlimited; enormous; fabulous.

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Apāra (ಅಪಾರ):—[noun] the bank of a river which is nearer (to the speaker).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Apara (अपर):—adj. the other; a second one;

2) Aparā (अपरा):—n. a science/knowledge different from the spiritualism; materialism; worldly wisdom;

3) Apāra (अपार):—adj. 1. boundless; unbounded; unlimited; 2. inexhaustible; immense; great; 3. out of reach; 4. difficult to be crossed; difficult to overcome;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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