Rajan, Rājan, Rājaṉ: 24 definitions


Rajan means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Triveni: Journal (dharmashastra)

The king (raja/ rajan) is created for the protection of the world from out of the body of five deities. Leaving aside the metaphors, it can be said that the king was a symbol of five attributes of the five deities, which rule the universe. The king was to look to the customs of the people, and the customs had great force as law just as they have got today. According to Shukraniti, the king was to observe Nyaya in the noon and Smriti in the morning. The king was to legislate within certain bounds, but the law was mostly interpreted by the learned Brahmins who had absolutely no interest in their personal worldly well-being.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Rājan (राजन्).—All the important Purāṇas have laid special emphasis on the importance of rule by Kings. All living beings will have Kings of their own. It was Brahmā who first assigned or ordained Kingship. After the creation of the Prajāpatis, Brahmā made Candra the King of the stars and medicines; Varuṇa was appointed King of waters like sea, river etc; Vaiśravaṇa was appointed King of Kings; Viṣṇu, King of Devas; Agni, King of Vasus; Indra King of Maruts; Dakṣa King of the Prajāpatis; Prahlāda King of the dānavas; Himavān, King of mountains; Citraratha, King of Gandharvas; Vāsuki, King of nāgas; Garuḍa, King of birds; Airāvata, King of elephants; Ox, King of cattle, Tiger, King of animals, Peepal tree, King of trees and Uccaiśśravas that of horses. (Agni Purāṇa).

As to what type the King of man-kind should be and what should form his duties it is ordained as follows. The Rājā should appoint either a Kṣatriya or a brahmin as his Commander-in-chief. The Commander-in-chief should be of noble birth and well-versed in law. Only a strong man who can speak boldly and openly should be appointed emissary or ambassador. Either a male or a female may be appointed to carry chewing materials. But, that person should be loyal, friendly and capable of putting up with hardships. The body-guard of the King should be a good swords-man. Ministers should be conversant with dharmaśāstras (moral and ethical codes). (See full article at Story of Rājan from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Rājan (राजन्) refers to “vassal kings”, the control of whom is mentioned as obtainable through the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] for the conquest (jaya) of vassal kings (sāmanta), worship for ten million times is recommended [for details, see text]. For keeping vassal kings (rājan) under influence the same for ten thousand times is recommended”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Rājan (राजन्).—Ety. daṇḍadhārin; crimes escaping his notice are dealt with by Yama. In Kali the king is mostly of the fourth caste and takes the profession of robbery rather than protection. Earth loses its fertility. The wealth and wives of others are coveted; mlecchas are patronised. Duties— salutation to cows and Brahmanas, sandhya worship and gifts to the deserving; not to deprive forcibly a Brahmana of his property;1 renowned kings get the title of Rājaṛṣi, generally of the family of Manu, Aila, Ikṣvāku.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 29. 63-64; 31. 41-156; 36. 156; III. 28. 10-74.
  • 2) Ib. II. 35. 90, 96-102; III. 71. 194.
Source: Triveni: Journal (itihasa)

In the Mahabharata the origin of kingship (raja/ rajan) appears to be divine (santiparva, Section 59). According to the Mahabharata, God Vishnu entered the body of Prithu and hence Prithu, the ruler of the earth, became representative of God. The king was to be obeyed because he was really a portion of Vishnu on earth.

The Mahabharata expressly shows that an unrighteous king could be slain by his subjects (Santiparva, Section 58, Shloka 41). The kingship, according to the Mahabharata and according to the ancient scriptures, was not a right but a duty. The king was to observe the rules of Raja Dharma.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Rājan (राजन्, “king”) refers to a specific “mode of address” (nāman) used in drama (nāṭya), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 19. Rājan is used by ṛṣis (sages) to address their king.

2) Rājan (राजन्) refers to a “king” who can be assigned the role of an assesor (prāśnika) of dramatic plays (nāṭaka) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. These assessors (e.g., the rājans) are to point out the faults of a dramatic performance (nāṭaka) as well as the merits of actors (nartaka) whenever a controversy (saṃgharṣa) arises among persons ignorant of the nāṭyaśāstra.

3) Rājan (राजन्) is a classification of persons who “move about in public”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34. Accordingly, “the king (rājan) should be intelligent, truthful, master of his senses, clever, and of good character, and he should possess a good memory; and be powerful, high-minded and pure, and he should be far-sighted, greatly energetic, grateful, skilled in using sweet words; he should take a vow of protecting people and be an expert in the methods of different work, alert, without carelessness, and be should associate with old people, and be well-versed in the Arthasāstra and the practice of various policies, a promoter of various arts and crafts, and an expert in the science of polity, and should have a liking for this, Besides these he should know his actual position, prosperity and its decline, and the weak points of his enemies, and principles of Dharma, and be free from evil habits”.

4) Rājan (राजन्) refers to the role of “kings” defined to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35, the role (bhūmikā) of actors playing kings (rājan) is defined as, “actors of the best kind who have beautiful eyes, eyebrows, forehead, nose, lips, cheeks, face, neck, and every other limbs beautiful, and who are tall, possessed of pleasant appearance, dignified gait, and are neither fat nor lean, and are well-behaved, wise and steady by nature, should be employed to represent the role of kings (rājan) and princes (kumāra)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Rājan (राजन्, “king”) or Rāja refers to the fifth of nine aṃśa (part), according to the Mānasāra. Aṃśa is the alternative sixth of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular aṃśa (e.g., rājan) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Among the nine taskara, the ones named ṣaṇḍa and vipat are inauspicious, and should therefore be avoided.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Rājan (राजन्) refers to a “feudatory ruler” and represents an official title used in the political management of townships in ancient India. Officers, ministers, and sovereigns bearing such titles [eg., Rājan] were often present in ancient inscriptions when, for example, the king wanted to address his subjects or make an important announcement.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Society State and Polity: A Survey

Rājan (राजन्, “king”) according to the ancient Indian science of Society and Polity, as defined in Kauṭilya’s Arthaśāstra (4th century BCE).—The king (rājan) was to regard himself as an agent of the people and had to abide by his dharma as laid out in the Śāstras. Kauṭilya (1, 16) described the following ideal for the king: “The monarch should seek happiness in the happiness of his citizens, his welfare is in their welfare, and his good is not in what pleases him but in what pleases the citizens”.

The king (rājan) was to to display ātma-vrata (self-control), and for this he had to abandon the ‘six enemies’:

  1. kāma (lust),
  2. krodha (anger),
  3. lobha (greed),
  4. māna (vanity),
  5. mada (haughtiness),
  6. harṣa (overjoy).
Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Rājan (राजन्) refers to a “prince”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “That prince [i.e., rājan] meets with ruin who does not support a Jyotiṣaka well-versed in all the Divisions and Subdivisions of Saṃhitā and in Horoscopy and Astronomy. Even men who, having conquered their passions and cut asunder all ties of family, live in woods, desire to question a learned Jyotiṣaka regarding their future”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Rājan (राजन्) refers to the “King”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] Out of [his own] head indeed has God, the Lord, created the King (rājandevo rājānam asṛjat) in ancient times. Therefore does he have his head anointed and stands above all beings. The King is praised in Revealed Knowledge and Systematized Bodies of Knowledge as a double Brāhmaṇa (i.e. as worth twice as much as a Brāhmaṇa). If one is hostile to him out of delusion, that fool is hostile to Hari [himself]”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Lokottaravāda

Rājan (राजन्) is the name of a Buddha under whom Śākyamuni (or Gautama, ‘the historical Buddha’) acquired merit along the first through nine bhūmis, according to the Mahāvastu. There are in total ten bhūmis representing the ten stages of the Bodhisattva’s path towards enlightenment.

Rājan is but one among the 500 Buddhas enumerated in the Mahāvastu during a conversation between Mahākātyāyana and Mahākāśyapa, both principle disciples of Gautama Buddha. The Mahāvastu is an important text of the Lokottaravāda school of buddhism, dating from the 2nd century BCE.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Rājan (राजन्) refers to a group of deities summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Rājan).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Rājan.—(IE 8-2, 8-3; EI 30; CII 3, 4; HD), royal title; originally used by imperial rulers; later, when emperors assumed more dignified titles, a title of feudatories and smaller rulers. Cf. Vogel, Ant. Ch. St., p. 121; Ep. Ind., Vol. IX, p. 297. Note: rājan is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rājan (राजन्).—m. [rāj-kanin rañjayati rañj-kanin ni ° vā Uṇādi-sūtra 1.145]

1) A king, ruler, prince, chief (changed to rājaḥ at the end of Tat. comp.); वङ्गराजः, महाराजः (vaṅgarājaḥ, mahārājaḥ) &c.; तथैव सोऽभूदन्वर्थो राजा प्रकृतिरञ्जनात् (tathaiva so'bhūdanvartho rājā prakṛtirañjanāt) R.4.12; पित्रा न रञ्जितास्तस्य प्रजास्तेनानु- रञ्जिताः । अनुरागात्ततस्तस्य नाम राजेत्यभाषत (pitrā na rañjitāstasya prajāstenānu- rañjitāḥ | anurāgāttatastasya nāma rājetyabhāṣata) || V. P.

2) A man of the military casts; a Kṣatriya; Śi 14.14.

3) Name of Yudhiṣṭhira.

4) Name of Indra.

5) The moon; राजप्रियाः कैरविण्यो रमन्ते मधुपैःसह (rājapriyāḥ kairaviṇyo ramante madhupaiḥsaha) Bv.1.126.

6) Lord, master.

7) Name of Pṛthu.

8) A Yakṣa; तं राजराजानु- चरोऽस्य साक्षात् (taṃ rājarājānu- caro'sya sākṣāt) Kirātārjunīya 3.3.

9) The Soma plant; ऐन्द्रश्च विधिवद्दत्तो राजा चाभिषुतोऽनघः (aindraśca vidhivaddatto rājā cābhiṣuto'naghaḥ) Rām.1.14.6; Bṛ. Up.1.3. 24.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājan (राजन्).—m.

(-jā) 1. A king, a prince, a sovereign. 2. A soldier by birth, a man of the regal and military tribe. 3. A master. 4. The moon. 5. A Yaksha. 6. Indra. 7. (In com.) Royal, denoting eminence or excellence. f. (-jñī) 1. A queen, the wife of a king. 2. The wife of the sun. 3. Deep coloured brass, consisting of three parts of copper to one of zinc or tin. E. rāj to shine, Unadi aff. kanin .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājan (राजन्).—[rāj + an] (or rather ṛj, properly raj, + an, cf. [Latin] rĕgere), I. m. 1. A king, Chr. 3, 6. 2. One of the Kṣatriya caste, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 32. 3. A master. 4. The moon. 5. Indra. 6. A Yakṣa. Ii. f. rājñī. 1. A queen, Chr. 54, 18; a princess, Chr. 18, 3. 2. The wife of the sun.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājan (राजन्).—1. [masculine] king, ruler (often of gods, [especially] of Soma), a man of the military caste; [feminine] rājñī queen.

--- OR ---

Rājan (राजन्).—2. [substantive] direction, guidance.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rājan (राजन्):—[from rāj] 1. rājan m. (ifc. mostly m(-rāja) , [especially] in Tat-puruṣas; f(-rājan, or jñī). ; cf. [Pāṇini 4-1, 28 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) a king, sovereign, prince, chief (often applied to gods e.g. to Varuṇa and the other Ādityas, to Indra, Yama etc., but [especially] to Soma [also the plant and juice] and the Moon), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a man of the royal tribe or the military caste, a Kṣatriya, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc. (cf. rājanya)

3) [v.s. ...] a Yakṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the 18 attendants on Sūrya (identified with a form of Guha), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] of Yudhi-ṣṭhira, [Mahābhārata] (rājñām indra-mahotsavaḥ and -rājñām pratibodhaḥ Name of works.) ; (rājñī) f. See sub voce

6) [v.s. ...] cf. [Latin] rex; Kelt. rīg, [from] which Old [German] rīk; [Gothic] reiks; [Anglo-Saxon] rīce; [English] rich.

7) [from rāj] 2. rājan (only in [locative case] rājani) government, guidance, [Ṛg-veda x, 49, 4.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rājan (राजन्):—(jā) 5. m. A king f. () Queen.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Rājan (राजन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Rāṇa, Rāya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Rajan in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Rājaṉ (ராஜன்) noun < rājan. King; அரசன். [arasan.]

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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