The Garuda Purana

by Manmatha Nath Dutt | 1908 | 245,256 words | ISBN-13: 9788183150736

The English translation of the Garuda Purana: contents include a creation theory, description of vratas (religious observances), sacred holidays, sacred places dedicated to the sun, but also prayers from the Tantrika ritual, addressed to the sun, to Shiva, and to Vishnu. The Garuda Purana also contains treatises on astrology, palmistry, and preci...

Chapter CCXXIX - Duties of Brahmanas, etc.

Suta said:—Now I shall relate to you the rules of conduct to be observed by Brahmanas, etc., which Brahma first learned from Hari and expounded to the holy Vyasa, and proper performances whereof grant all things to their performers. A twice-born one, having learnt the Vedas and the scriptural law, shall perform acts (rites) enjoined to be performed in the Vedas; unable to perform the Vedic rites, he shall perform those mentioned in the law codes (Smriti), Even incapable of performing either class of these acts, the intelligent one shall perform acts of good conduct. The shruti and the Smriti are the eyes, as it were, of Brahmanas in respect of detecting the true virtue. Bereft of one of these eyes of shruti and Smriti, a Brahmana verily becomes a moral one-eyed; bereft of both he becomes morally blind. Pieties described in the shruti and shastras and the acts of good conduct performed by the pious triply form the eternal virtues (duties eternally obligatory on all). Truthfulness, gift making (charity), absence of greed or avarice, knowledge, performances of religious sacrifices, divine worship, and self-control, are the eight sacred constituents of good conduct. The body and sense-organs of the, pious, effulgent with a kind of sanctified light, do not adhere to sin, like water drops to lotus leaves. Of men of all the four orders virtue forms the main stay of existence. Truthfulness, performance of religious sacrifices and austerities (meditation), and charity, are the cardinal duties of house-holders. Non-acceptance of what has not been formally given and made over (to a person), practice of charities and austerities, study, annihilation of all killing or mischief-making propensities, truthfulness, abstention of irascible feelings, and performance of religious sacrifices, are the attributes of virtue. Learning (knowledge), opulence, practice of austerities, valour, noble, parentage, and absence of disease (sound health) are the factors that lead to the elevation of a man in this world; all these proceed from the practice of virtue. From virtue proceed happiness and knowledge; knowledge leads to the ultimate emancipation of one’s own self. Performances of religious sacrifices, endowments for the public good, study of the Vedas, and practice of charity in conformity with the injunctions of the shastras may be described as the eternal duties, commonly obligatory on Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. Imparting lessons (teaching) to the pure and the holy, officiating as priests at the religious sacrifices performed by the pure, and acceptance of gifts from persons not in any way impure or unholy are the three means of earning livelihood, open to Brahmanas, in the opinion of the Munis. Military professions and protection of creatures from hurt or injury are the callings of Kshatriyas. Rearing of cattle, agriculture, and trade are the means by which Vaishyas shall earn their living. Services of the three twice-born classes, to be made preferentially in the order of enumeration, should be the vocations of shudras. Residence near the preceptor, service of the consecrated nre, study of the Vedas, three ablutions, each day, ritualistic ablutions, wearing of clotted hairs, carrying of staffs, wearing of Mekhalas, living on alms, residence near the preceptor till death, or a clear-shaving of the head are the duties which are obligatory on Brahmacharins. Perfomances of Agnihotra sacrifices, earning of livelihood by means proper to his order, procreation of sons on his own married wife, and on days not interdicted as Parvas, making offerings to the gods and to his departed manes, as well as feeding of all chance-comers (Atithis) to his house, and perusal of the true imports of shrutis and Smritis are the duties of a house-holder. Wearing of clotted hairs on the head, performances of Agni Hotra sacrifices, go lying down on the bare ground, wearing of deer-skin, residence in the foreit, living on roots, bulbs, fruit and Nivara grains, etc., abstention from all forbidden acts, daily performance of three ablutions, observance of vow, and propitiation of the gods, Atithis and his departed manes are the duties of a forest-dwelling (Vanaprastha hermit). Abstention of all acts or undertakings, living on alms, residence under the trees, non-acceptance of gifts, living in harmony with all and sundry (lit. not in conflict with any), practising of equality to all, maintaining equanimity under all painful or pleasurable circumstances, acquisition of mastery over pleasure and pain, purification of both inside and out, practice of silence and meditation, drawing in of all the sense-organs from the external world, practice of constant meditation and attempt at being one with the thought, and purification of ideas are the duties which are obligatory on a Parivrajaka to cultivate. Truthfulness, forbearance, compassion, purity, abstention of all killing propensities and sacred discourse are the bounden duties of all the four social orders. Those, who strictly conform to the aforesaid laws and duly perform their respective duties, come by a better fate.

Now I shall relate to you the duties of a house-holder from the time when he leaves his bed to that when he goes to sleep in the night. Rising at the Brahma Muhurta (about half an hour before the dawn) a house-holder shall attend to the calls of nature, and then having carefully washed himself, at the close of the night, shall think of his own good both in this world and the next. Then he shall bathe and attend to the rite of his Sandhya meditation. He shall perform the rite of his morning Sandhya after having washed his face and cleansed his teeth. One should void stool and urine, looking towards the north, in the day; and towards the south, in the night. At the two junctions of the day and night, the rule laid down in respect of urination and defecation in the day should be followed. In shade, in darkness, in the day or night, as well as in times of danger to life or of illness, a Brahmana can void stool or urine, looking towards any quarter of the skies, best convenient. One shall not void urine on cowdung, charcoal, or an ant-hill, nor in clear pure water, or on the furrows of a ploughed field. Similarly, urination near the road side, in an assembly, or over writing materials are forbidden. Earth should not be taken from beneath the water, from a temple, from an ant-hill, from about a mouse-hole, or from a cremation ground. The residue of earth with which one has purified oneself (cleansed one’s person) should be avoided. One Mrittika (half a Prasritiful Earth) should be used in rubbing the external orifice of the urethra, three Mrittikas should be used in rubbing the anus, three Mrittikas in rubbing the palm of the left hand, and a Half Mrittiika in rubbing the palms of both the hands, after voiding stool.

Now I shall describe the process of purification, after voiding urine. One Mrittika should be applied to the external orifice of the urethra; three, to the anus; ten, to the palm of the left hand; five, to the soles of feet; and seven, to each of the arms. The greatest quantity of Mrittika (clay) which should be used in cleansing the orifices of the external ducts of the body, under these circumstances, is half of what can be contained in the palm of one’s hand, outstretched and hollowed. The second is half of that of the former, and the third is half of that of the second. He, who is incapable of voiding stool or urine in a sitting posture, shall perform half of these purifications, after urination or defecation. Half or a quarter part of the purifying measurs (measures?), enjoined to be performed in the day, shall be performed in the night, after voiding stool or urine. Men in health must unfailingly observe these rules of purification; while sick folks shall observe them as far as they are capable of observing. Fat, semen, blood, marrow, saliva, stool and urine, and waxy deposits in the ears, as well as mucous, tears, and perspiration are called the excrements of the human body. A man shall try to purify his person as long as he does not think himself pure; the extent of purification can not be precisely laid down for each individual case. There are two kinds of purification viz., external and internal, the first consists in cleansing the body with clay, water, etc.; the second is the purification of one’s thoughts and ideas.

First, thrice sip water in the manner of the rite of Achanianam, then twice rinse the mouth with water, and after that, thrice sip water with the ball of the thumb. Then repeatedly touch your eyes and ears with the tips of the thumb and the index finger joined together. The navel should be touched with the tips of the thumb and the small finger joined together; and the region of the heart, with the palm of the hand. The head should be touched with all the fingers united together, and the back of the arms should be touched with the tips of fingers by rounding the band. A Brahmana shall thrice sip water in the manner of Achamanam for propitiating the three Vedas, viz, the Rik, the Yajus and the Saman. Similarly, by twice rubbing the lips he shall propitiate the Arthava Angirasa, as well as the Itihasas, Puranas, and Vedangas in succession. He shall touch the principle of ether in his mouth; the principle of air, in his nostrils; the sun, in his sight; the quarters of the skies, in the chord of vitality in his umbilicus; and the supreme Brahma, at his heart. The god Rudra is pleased by one touching one’s head, white the Rishis are propitiated by one touching the tuft of hair on one’s crown, at the time of performing an Achamanam. The lord of death, Indra, Varuna, Kuvera, the Earth-goddess and the fire-god are pleased by one touching one’s anus, at the aforesaid time. He shall feel the contact of Vishnu and Indra by touching the soles of his feet and that of Vishnu alone-by touching his arms. O thou twice born one, the celestial serpents Vasuki etc., are propitiated by the water that one might cast on the ground at the time of performing Achamanam, and the drops of water that he might cast around tend to propitiate the hosts of spirits. The deities, Agni, Vayu, Surya and Indra are situated in the phalanges of one’s fingers. The moon-god, with all the sacred pools and sanctuaries, are situated in the palm of one’s (right) hand; hence, the (right) hand is always pure. The sacred streams and rivers such as, the Ganges etc., are situated in the lines, that run across the palm of one’s (right) hand.

At the approach of dawn, one shall attend to the calls of nature, and cleanse his person; then having cleansed his teeth with a twig, bitten down in the shape of a tooth-brush, he shall take an ablution. A person remains impure, even after cleansing his teeth, after the expiry of the previous night; hence, one shall eat the tooth-twig (twig bitten and smashed in the shape of a tooth-brush), each morning. Twigs of Kadamva, Vilva, Khadira, Karavira, Vata, Arjuna, Yuthi, Vrihati, Jati, Karanja, Arka, Atimukta, Jamvu, Madhuka, Apamarga, Shirisha, Audumvara, Asana, Kshiri, and Kantaki trees and plants are recommended for the purpose of being used as tooth-brushes. Twigs of pungent, bitter, and astringent flavours, used for the purpose of cleansing the teeth, bring health and happiness to the cleanser. Then having washed the tooth-twig and cleansed his teeth, he shall wash his face, while seated in a pure site. Tooth-twigs should not be used on days, marked by the new moon, as well as on the first, sixth or ninth day of the moon’s wane or increase. Similarly, the use of tooth-twigs is prohibited on Sundays. In the absence of any tooth-twig, as well as on days in which its use is prohibited, one shall gargle one’s mouth with twelve handfuls of water. A morning-ablution, either before or after the appearance of the sun on the horizon, is recommended as wholesome; a pure-souled and pure-bodied morning-bather becomes competent to practise all religious rites of Japa, etc. The human body, extremely filthy within and provided with nine apertures or external ducts, day and night, exudes impure and unclean secretions, and a morning ablution is the means of bringing about its purification, each day. An ablution in the Ganges imparts a cheerfulness to the mind, and health and a beautiful complexion to the body. It dissipates grief and misery. “For the extinction of the ten classes of sin, severally committed by receiving what has not been formally given, by doing forbidden acts, by hurting or killing any creature, by carnally knowing another man’s wife, by using abusive language to, or hurting the feelings of any, by speaking falsehood, by practising niggardliness, by improper speaking, by coveting other men’s riches, by wishing evil to others, I take this ablution in the Ganges.” One shall recite this Mantra, while bathing in the Ganges, on the tenth day of the moon’s increase, marked by the asterism Hasta or Jestha, or under the auspices of the astral combination known as Dasha-Papa-Hara. Brief is the ceremony which attends an act of ablution in the morning; while it is elaborate in respect of that which is made at noon. House-holders and forest-dwelling hermits (Vanaprasthas) are only competent to bathe twice a day, viz., at morning and mid-day; while Yatis are privileged to bathe three times, each day. A Brahmacharin shall bathe only once a day. Having performed the rite of achamanam, and invoked the sacred pools therein, one shall take a bath in the river. Thirty million is the number of the malignant spirits, called Mandehas, who manifest a desire of devouring the sun at day break. He, who does not attend to his Sandhya rite at the meetings of the day and night, verilv kills the sun, inasmuch as the libations of consecrated water (offered unto the sun-god in the course of a Sandhya) tend to consume these monsters (Mandehas) like streams of liquid fire. The unions or meetings (Sandhya) of the day and the night, which are called Sandhyas, last for the period of two Nadikas till the sun or the stars appear in the sky. After the performance of his Sandhya rite, a person shall personally do the Homa. The merit of personally performing the Homa is greater than that of getting it done by another. A Homa performed by one’s Rittvik (priest, son, preceptor, brother, or sister’s son is regarded as one done by one’s self. The house-holder fire (Garhapatyagni) is identical with Brahma, Dakshinagni is same as the three-eyed deity (Siva), Ahavaniya fire is one with the deity Vishnu, while Truth is the god, Kumara. After performing the Homa, one shall repeat the Mantra, sacred to shiva (to the sun according to others.) After that, self-controlled, he shall recite the Pranava and the Savitri Mantras. He, who daily recites the Savitri Mantra, coupled with the seven Vyahritis, as well as the Tripada Savitri, has no reason to be afraid of any thing in this world. He, who recites the Gayatri, every morning, on leaving his bed, is not attached to sin, as water lies not attached to a lotus-leaf. The presiding deity of the Gayatri is described as a white-complexioned goddess, clad in silken raiments, seated on a full blown lotus-flower and carrying a rosary of Aksha seeds in her hand. The goddess should be invoked by reciting the Yajus Mantra running as, thou art the light etc. The gods, wishing, of yore, to see the goddess residing in the Brahmaloka in the disc of the sun, invoked her with the selfsame Mantra. The goddess should be bid adieu, alter the worship, with acts of obeisance. The deities should be worshipped in the fore-part of the day. There is no higher god than the Supreme Vishnu; hence, he should be constantly worshipped. An intelligent person shall not think Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva as different divinities, but as all one and the same. Brahmanas, kine, fire, gold, clarified butter, the sun-god, water, king, the eighth in the list, are always auspicious in this world. Hence, one should constantly view, worship and circumambulate these eight holy ones.

The cultivation of Vedic knowledge consists in constantly studying their contents, in constantly committing them to memory, in meditating Upon the imports of the Vedic Mantras, and in giving lessons in the Vedas to one’s pupils. He, who makes gifts of the Vedas, by getting them transcribed by paid writers, goes to the region of the Vedas. He, who makes similar gifts of works on Itihasas, Puranas, etc., acquires twice as much merit as that of making Brahmadanam (making gifts of Vedic texts). The third part of the day should be demoted to works connected with the maintenance of one’s dependants (Poshyas, lit, those who are to be supported) One’s own parents, preceptor, brother, poor dependants, Athithis, the sacred fire and guests form the list of one’s Poshyas (Poshya-vargas). Support of those, whom it is one’s duty to sustain, leads to heaven; hence, one should make his best endeavours to maintain one’s Poshyas. He, on whom many depend for their subsistence, truly lives. He, who is concerned only with the pampering of his own belly, is dead in life; even dogs are found to secure their food and appease their appetite. From accumulated wealth and augmented opulence proceed all acts, as rivers spring up from elevated, mountains. This earth in whose bowels all gems are interred (land), food grains, animals and women are called money (Artha), because they are invariably connected with the gratifications of desires (Arthas). A means of livehood, which is absolutely inhostile to others, or is slightly hostile to a (microscopic) minority, should be adapted by a Brahmana in times of peace.

There are three kinds of wealth, white, brown, and black, which may be again divided into seven classes. Possessions of all orders of society may be grouped under three heads such as, heriditary, obtained as presents of love or affection, and obtained as dowry with a wife. The three specific sources of wealth, in the case of a Brahmana, are fees obtained for teaching and officiating as a priest at religious sacrifices, as well as gifts received from the pure and the holy. The three specific kinds of wealth (possessions,) in respect of a Kshatriya are money obtained in the shape of revenue, fines realised from persons convicted in law courts, atid that obtained by conquest. The three specific sources of wealth in respect of a Vais’ya are cattle-rearing, agriculture and trade. Favour obtained by service is the only source of income of a shudra. In times of danger, a Brahmana, by pursuing agriculture, trade, or usury, does not commit any sin. The Rishis have described a large concourse of means of livelihood, but usury thrives the best of them all. Unnatural seasons of drought, political disturbances, rats and other pests are the impediments to the successful practice of agriculture, but usury is bereft of them all. The thriving in Usury does not cease irt day or in night, in dark or light fortnight, nor in summer, winter or rains. The profit, which artisans and traders of different guilds do by sojourneying to foreign climes, the money-lender does by remaining in his native country. Having made a good profit in the business of money lending, one should propitiate the gods, Brahmanas and one’s departed manes with a portion thereof. The gods, etc., thus propitiated, absolve the sin incidental to the practice of usury. Learning, art, service, cattle-rearing, trade, agriculture and alms-taking etc., are i the ten means of livelihood. By accepting gifts a Brahmana shall acquire wealth, a Kshatriya shall acquire wealth by conquest, a Vaishya shall acquire money by plying any lawful trade, whereas a Shudra shall earn money by serving others. A full-bodied river, Sakas (vegetables), Samids, Kusha-grass, fire, leaves and Omkara are the best possessions of Brahmanas. There is no demerit in accepting gifts, offered without asking or seeking, the gods call such articles (gifts) as ambrosia; hence, they should not be rejected. One seeking to propitiate the gods and Atithis mav accept gifts from one’s servants and preceptor. For these purposes one may accept gifts from any person whomsoever, but one must not appropriate articles of such gifts to one’s own use. A Brahmana, possessed of good qualifications and having very little blemishes in his conduct, is alone competent to receive gifts; a bad or illiterate Brahmana degrades his Self lowerer by taking any gift. The foremost of Brahmanas, obliged to earn his livelihood by penmanship, shall subsequently practise a penance by way of expiation.

In the first quarter of the day, a Brahmana shall collect sesame, flowers, Kusha-grass, and earth for rubbing his body with, while bathing; a bath in a natural stream of water is recommended. Ablutions may be divided into six classes such as, the Nityam (daily obligatory bath, non-performance whereof is sinful), Naimittikam (specific or occasional), Kamyam (that made for the fruition of any definite object), Kriyangam (which forms the part of, or sequel to, any religious rite), Malakarshanam (that made for the purpose of cleansing the body) and Kriya (bath which in itself forms a religious rite.) Without bathing a man does not become competent to perform his daily rite of Homa, Japa, etc.; hence, he shall bathe early in the morning, each day. An ablution, which is made under specific circumstances such as, the one made for the purpose of purifying one’s self, after touching excreta or a Chandala or a woman in her menses, is called a Naimittika Snanam. Bathing under the influence of any auspicious asterism such as, the Pushya etc., and made in accordance with the directions of astrologers, is a called Kamya Snanam. He, who has not the fruition of any definite object in his heart, must not bathe under such circumstances. An ablution, made with the express object of worshipping any divinity, or of studying any sacred Vedic Mantra, is called a Kriya Snanam.

A bath, taken for the purpose of removing the impurities of the body, and for no other object, is called a Malap-karshanam Snanam. An ablution in a sacred pool, or in a natural reservoir of water, when it forms in itself a religious rite, is called a Kriya Snanam. A mere touch of the water of a sacred pool leads to the purification of the bodily limbs; religious merit is obtained by taking a bath therein. By rubbing the body while reciting the Varuna Mantra, one is immediately absolved of all sin. In the absence of a sacred pool (Tirtha) all ablutions should be made in boiled water. Water, that lies on the surface of the earth, is more purifying than what has been collected and carried away; waters of springs or fountains are more purifying than terrestrial waters. Lake water is more purifying than fountain-water; river-water is more purifying than lake-water; the water of a sacred pool is more purifying than river-water, while the water of the Ganges is the purest of the pure. Ganges-water extinguishes the sin of a man which he might have committed from his birth to death. Of the waters that are to be found in the sanctuaries at Gaya or Kurukshetra, the Ganges-water is the most purifying of them all. The counsels or discourses of the erudite are more purifying in their effect than ablutions in any sacred pool whatsoever; and in conferences of virtue and religion most sanctifying is the Brahmana, who lives in conformity with the injunctions of the holy Vyasa.

Baths on the occasion of the birth of one’s own son, or in the event of the sun passing over to another zodiacal sign, or under the auspicies of any blissful astral combination are recommended in the night, if these events take place in the night. Nocturnal baths, under the auspicies of lunar eclipses, are also recommended, otherwise baths in the night are prohibited. “A bath in the river, taken in early morning, each day, and just after the appearance of the sun on the horizon, equals a Prajapatyam in merit, and tends to extinguish the Mahapatakas. By bathing, each morning, for a year, with a devotional spirit, one acquires the same merit which is ordinarily acquired by practising the Prajapatyam penance, for twelve years in succession. Be, who desires for the objects of enjoyment, effulgent as the sun and the moon, and wishes to possess an absolutely sound health, shall bathe, each morning, for the two months in the year, vis., Magha (January, February) and Phalguna (February, March). By living on Havishya food and observing the vow of Shat-Tilam during the month of Magha, a morning bather is absolved of all sin. The mother, father,, brother, friend or preceptor of a bather,, by mentioning whose name he might dive into the water, takes one-twelfth part of the merit of the ablution. The god Vishnu becomes specially fond of amalakam (Emblic Myrobalans) under the auspices of the eleventh day of the moon’s wane or increase; hence, one, wishing personal beauty, shall bathe with Amalakas on bis person. Bereavement, infamy, ill-health, etc., reside in the stone of an Amalakam. By anointing one’s person a man acquires health, beauty and all things he might set his heart upon. The goddess of fortune remains so long satisfied, with a vowist, after he has got his hair clipped by a barber, as he does not touch oil.

Having bathed in the manner above described, one shall propitiate the gods and one’s departed manes, as well as perform. the rite of Tarpanam unto the canonised men. Standing in navel-deep water, he shall meditate upon the Selves of his deceased ancestors as seated in the air, and invoke their presence by saying, “come, O my departed manes, pleased with the libations of water I have just now offered unto you.” By reciting this invocation he shall offer libations of water unto each of them in the southern quarter of the heaven. Then having put on dry clothes and seated on cushions of Kusha blades, the performers of Tarpanas, duly conversant with the rules of offering libations of water unto the gods and their departed manes, shall offer them, on blades of Kusha grass, and never in any vessel. “May whatever is impure in this water, may whatever is cruel or unquiet in this water, may that all be removed.” By reciting this Mantra and taking a libation of water in bis left band, he shall cast that in the south-west quarter of the sky for the purpose of warding off the advent of malignant spirits, during the performance of the rite.

“May Indra, Varuna and Vrihaspati, Bhaga, Savita and the Rishis such as Sanaka, etc., extinguish all the sin, which I might have committed by eating forbidden food, or by accepting gifts from sinful and degraded persons, as well as that which I might have committed by word, thought or deed. May all creatures from the lowest animalculum to the highest Brahman be propitiated with this libation of water”. Saying this, one shall offer three libations of water. Thus I have briefly described the mode of performing Tarpanaro. Bereft of pride and humble in spirit, one shall worship the gods by reciting the Mantras sacred to Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Savitri or Varuna, as the case may be. Each deity should be worshipped by reciting the Mantras sacred to it. Then having made obeisance to it, flowers should be offered to it by appending the term Namas to the name to the deity. The god Vishnu, who is not only full of the energies of all the divinities, but their grand refuge, as well as the sun-god should be worshipped, and offerings of flowers and libations of water should he made to him by reciting the Purusha Sukta. The god Vishnu may be worshipped by reciting the Mantra, which runs as, “By him all this visible universe has been created and arranged in systems,” or by reciting any other Tantrik Mantra. First, the Arghya offering should be made to the deity, then scented pastes such as sandal etc., should be offered, after that, offerings of flowers, should be made, and lighted lamps should be waived before the deity.

Brahmanas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas should bathe by reciting the Mantras, while shudras should silently bathe. The performance of a Brahma-yajna consists in teaching the Vedas, that of a Pitri-yajna consists in offering oblations and libations of water to one’s departed manes; casting of oblations in the sacred fire (Homa) is called Daiva-yajna; offering of oblations unto the animals is called Bhuta-yajna, and the feeding of Atithis is called Nri-yajna. The rite of Japa (mental recitation of a Mantra), done in the house, bears ordinary merit; made on the banks of a river it gives double merit; made in a cowshed it bears fruit ten times greater; made in a chamber of the consecrated fire it bears fruit, a hundred times greater; made at a sanctuary or in a divine temple it produces a thousand times greater merit; made near the image of Vishnu it bears a hundred millions of times greater merit.

Of the five parts of food prepared in a household, each day, four should be respectively allotted to the use of the Pitris, Devas, men and the insects etc. He, who takes his daily meals, after giving food (boiled rice) to his friends, relations and Brahmanas, ascends to the region of heaven after death, through the merit of making gifts of food. Articles of sweet flavour should be eaten at the fore part of a meal; things of acid and saline tastes, at it its middle; and those of bitter, pungent and astringent flavours, at its close. Water should be taken after eating a meal. One should never take edibles of a single taste in exclusion of those of all others. Verily the boiled rice of a Brahmana is like unto ambrosia; that of a Kshatriya is like unto milk; that of a Vaishya is a wholesome food, and that of a shudra is like unto blood. Beauty and opulence reside in the person of him, who observes a fast on the day of the new moon. The Garhapatya fire is located in the belly of a mao; the Dakshina fire, in his dorsal region; the Ahavaniya fire, in his mouth; and the Satyagni in his head—He, who is cognisant of the locations of these five fires in his body, is called an Ahitagni one. The body, the water, the albumen or the fluid constituents of the body and the various kinds of food-stuff are called Annam, while Prana, Agni (fire heat) and aditya (the sun) are one and the same and enjoy the aforesaid Annam. Food contributes to the invigoration of the principles of earth, water, fire and air contained in my body, and the essence of food, after being properly digested, and assimilated in my organism, brings about a pleasurable condition of my ego. Prepared betel leaves (Tamvulas) should be smashed with the hands, and then chewed, after eating. After eating one’s (midday) meal, one shal hear the narration of histories and Puranas during the sixth and seventh parts of the day. After that, one shall again bathe' and attend to the performance of one’s Evening Sandhya. O thou twice-born one, thus I have described the daily routine of acts to be followed by house-holders. The erudite one, who hears these rules of conduct narrated, or follows them in earnest spirit, goes to heaven after death. The god Keshava is the narrator of these rules of purity, duty and virtue, and the god Hari is the goal of all expiatory penances, and is the last refuge of the celestials and celestial regions.

Here follow descriptions of the modes of performing ceremonial ablutions and the different forms of Shraddha, identical with those described in our English translation of the Agnipuranam.