Stri, Stṝ, Strī, Stṛ, Śtrī, Shtri: 22 definitions

Introduction

Stri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Stṝ and Stṛ and Śtrī can be transliterated into English as Str or Stri or Shtri, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Strī (स्त्री) refers to “beautiful women”, mentioned as one of the potential rewards of Śiva-worship, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12:—“[...] those who desire magnificent buildings, beautiful ornaments, beautiful women (strī), wealth to satiety, sons and grandsons, health, splendid body, extraordinary status, heavenly happiness and final salvation or profound devotion to the great lord shall duly worship Śiva by virtue of their merit accumulated by them. Sure success will be his who regularly worships Śiva liṅga with great devotion. He will never be afflicted by sins”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Strī (स्त्री).—Origin. In both Hindu and Christian scriptures, the story about the origin of woman appears to be similar. It is stated in Manusmṛti, Chapter 1, Verse 32, that Brahmā divided his body into two and made one part male and the other part female and the male embraced the female, from which union was born the Virāṭpuruṣa. (See full article at Story of Strī from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Strī (स्त्री).—The region of adharma, and of Kali;1 duties and behaviour of; to be avoided by a Brahmacārin;2 becomes Keśaśūla in Kali; more women than men; unfit for rule, if there were no husband;3 killing a woman a heinous crime; Hari cursed to be born on earth for having slain Bhṛgu's wife.4 No śīla or vrata; but fond of wine and meat in the Kali age;5 conditions making her unfit for intercourse;6 to be honoured and not to be fully confided.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 17. 38.
  • 2) Ib. VII. 11. 25. 29; 12. 7-9.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 31. 51 and 54: IV. 14. 15.
  • 4) Ib. II. 36. 181 and 18{??}; III. 72. 138-40.
  • 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 58. 43.
  • 6) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 11. 115-17.
  • 7) Ib. III. 12. 30.

1b) In Kali age; personal charm in the possession of hair; deserts her husband for power; a wealthy man, considered as husband; fickle, short of stature, and gluttonous, speaks lies, is indecent and immoral; child bearing at the age of 5 or 6;1 by honouring her husband she is elevated.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 17-18, 28-31, 41.
  • 2) Ib. VI. 2. 28-9.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Strī (स्त्री) refers to “women” who have dealings with the king whose classes have been defined on the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 34.

The classes and functions of women (strī) who have dealings with the king are:

  1. chief queen (mahādevī),
  2. other queens (devī),
  3. other highborn wives (svāminī),
  4. ordinary wives (sthāyinī),
  5. concubines (bhoginī),
  6. crafts-women (śilpakāriṇī),
  7. actresses (nāṭakīyā),
  8. dancers (nartakī),
  9. maids in constant attendance (anucārikā),
  10. maids of special work (paricārikā),
  11. maids in constant movement (sañcārikā),
  12. maids for running errands (preṣaṇacārikā),
  13. matrons (mahattarī),
  14. ushers (pratihārī),
  15. maidens (kumārī),
  16. old dames (sthavirā or vṛddhā),
  17. female overseers (āyuktikā).

These in brief are the different classes women of the royal harem.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Strī (स्त्री).—In this world people always desire happiness of which women are indeed the source. These women are of various nature: the nature of gods (devas), asuras, gandharvas, rākṣasas, nāgas, birds (śākuna or patatrin), piśācas, yakṣas, tigers (vyāla), men (nara or mānuṣa), monkeys (vānara), elephants (hastin), deer (mṛga), fish (mīna or matsya), camel (uṣṭra), makara, asses (khara), horses (vājin or haya), buffaloes (mahiṣa), goats (aja), dogs, cows (go) and the like.

Women who have the nature of various animals are of three classes:

  1. “homely” (ābhyantara, lit. inside)
  2. “public” (bāhya, lit. outside),
  3. “mixed” (bāyābhyantara, lit. outside and inside).
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Strī (स्त्री).—The sense of the feminine; cf. स्थ्रियाम् (sthriyām) P. IV. 0.3-81

2) Strī.—A word ending with an affix in the sense of femininity such as टापू, डाप् (ṭāpū, ḍāp) or चापू (cāpū) or ङीपू, ङीषू (ṅīpū, ṅīṣū) or ङीनू (ṅīnū) or the like; cf. स्त्रीभ्यो ढक् (strībhyo ḍhak) IV. 1.120;

3) Strī.—A word in the sense of feminine cf. स्त्री पुवच्च (strī puvacca) P. I. 2.66.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Śtrī (श्त्री) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (eg., Śtrī) in 20 verses.

2) Strī (स्त्री) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., strī) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Strī (स्त्री) refers to the “pleasure of women”, which is considered as very harmful (kaṣṭatama), according to the Manusmṛti 7.50. Accordingly, “[...] in the set arising from love of pleasure (kāmaja),—drinking (pāna), dice (akṣa), women (strī) and hunting (mṛgayā) are to be regarded as the four most pernicious (kaṣṭatama), in the order in which they are named”.

Strī (‘women’) and Mada (‘intoxication’)—The fact of these two being evils is well known.

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Strī (स्त्री) is the Sanskrit word referring to “woman” or “female” in general, as opposed to Puṃs, which refers to “man” or “male”.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

1) Stṛ (स्तृ) (used in the instrumental plural only) denotes the ‘stars’ of heaven.

2) Strī (स्त्री) is the ordinary word in poetry and prose for ‘woman’, without special reference to her as a wife or as a maiden. Nārī has the same sense, but disappears in later prose, while Gnā refers only to the wives of the gods, and Yoṣit, with its cognate words, denotes the young woman as ripe for marriage. In the Rigveda Strī stands opposed to Pumāṃs, ‘man’, and once to vṛṣan, ‘male person’; not until the Atharvaveda does it mean ‘wife’ as opposed to Pati, ‘husband’, and even in the Sūtras it is sharply opposed to Jāyā.

Source: Hindu Dharma Forums: Mantra /Sanskrit Question

Strī (स्त्री) is defined as the feminine gender yet also is defined as the 'bearer of children'; the word is also found as strīm and strīs - a woman , female , wife

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Strī (स्त्री, “woman”) or Strīratna refers to the “woman jewel” and represents the fifth of the “seven jewels of universal monarchs” (saptaratna) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 85). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., strī). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Google Books: Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation

Strī (स्त्री, “woman”).—One of the fourteen gems (ratna) serving the Cakravartin;—Strī is a most beautiful woman, eternally young, warm at touch in cold season and cool in hot season, energising the husband constantly to new pleasure by her look and driving away disease by her touch.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra Vol-i

Strī (स्त्री, “women”) refers to one of the  hardships (parīṣaha), or “series of trials hard to endure” according to the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra 10.1 (Incarnation as Nandana). While practicing penance for a lac of years, Muni Nandana also endured a series of trials hard to endure (eg., strī). Nandana is the name of a king as well as one of Mahāvīra’s previous births.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

strī (स्त्री).—f (S) A woman: also a female animal. 2 One's wife, the wife of. 3 The female of trees and plants. 4 A word of the feminine gender. Ex. lēkhaṇī hī strī āṇi cākū hā purūṣa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

strī (स्त्री).—f A woman; one's wife.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Stṛ (स्तृ).—I. 5 U. (stṛṇoti, stṛṇute, stṛta; pass. staryate)

1) To spread, strew, cover, spread on or over; (mahīṃ) तस्तार सरघाव्याप्तैः स क्षौद्रपटलैरिव (tastāra saraghāvyāptaiḥ sa kṣaudrapaṭalairiva) R.4.63;7.58.

2) To spread, expand, diffuse.

3) To scatter, spread about.

4) To clothe, cover, overspread, envelop.

5) To kill. -Caus. (stārayati-te) To overspread, cover, strew; रक्तेनाचिक्लद- द्भूमिं सैन्यैश्चातस्तरद्धतैः (raktenāciklada- dbhūmiṃ sainyaiścātastaraddhataiḥ) Bk.15.48. -Desid. (tistīrṣati-te). -II. 5 P. (stṛṇoti) To please, gratify.

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Stṛ (स्तृ).—m A star.

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Stṝ (स्तॄ).—9 U. (stṛṇāti, stṛṇīte, stīrṇa; desid. tistari-rī-ṣati-te, tistīrṣati-te) To cover, strew &c.; see स्तृ (stṛ).

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Strī (स्त्री).—[styāyete śukraśoṇite yasyām]

1) A woman; श्रुतं दृष्टं स्पृष्टं स्मृतमि नृणां ह्लादजननं न रत्नं स्त्रीभ्योऽन्यत् क्वचिदपि कृतं लोकपतिना । तदर्थं धर्मार्थो विभववरसौख्यानि च ततो गृहे लक्ष्म्यो मान्याः सततमबला मानविभवैः (śrutaṃ dṛṣṭaṃ spṛṣṭaṃ smṛtami nṛṇāṃ hlādajananaṃ na ratnaṃ strībhyo'nyat kvacidapi kṛtaṃ lokapatinā | tadarthaṃ dharmārtho vibhavavarasaukhyāni ca tato gṛhe lakṣmyo mānyāḥ satatamabalā mānavibhavaiḥ) || Subh. Ratn.

2) A female of any animal; गजस्त्री, हरिणस्त्री (gajastrī, hariṇastrī) &c.; स्त्रीणामशिक्षितपटुत्वममानुषीषु (strīṇāmaśikṣitapaṭutvamamānuṣīṣu) Ś.5.22.

3) A wife; स्त्रीणां भर्ता धर्मदाराश्च पुंसाम् (strīṇāṃ bhartā dharmadārāśca puṃsām) Māl.6.18; Me.28.

4) A white ant.

5) The Priyaṅgu plant.

6) The feminine gender, or a word used in that gender; आपः स्त्रीभूम्नि (āpaḥ strībhūmni) Ak.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Strī (स्त्री).—(= Sanskrit), woman. ‘Even now a woman never attains five stations (sthānāni): those of Brahman, Śakra, a mahārāja (= lokapāla), a cakravartin, and an avai- vartika-bodhisattva’ SP 264.11 ff.; in BHS often replaced by mātṛgrāma, and by stryāgāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Stṛ (स्तृ).—r. 5th cl. (stṛṇīti stṛṇute) 1. To cover, to clothe, to spread on or over, to strew. 2. To kill. (-stṛṇoti) 1. To love. 2. To protect. With vi prefixed, 1. To spread widely, to extend. 2. To diffuse or prolix. 3. To cover. With upa, To arrange. With pari, 1. To spread. 2. To cover. 3. To arrange.

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Stṝ (स्तॄ).—r. 9th cl. (-stṛṇāti stṛṇīte) To clothe, to cover, to spread on or over more properly ṣṭṝ.

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Strī (स्त्री).—f. (-strī) 1. A woman or female in general. 2. A wife. E. styai to sound, ḍraṭ Unadi aff., ṅīp fem. aff.; or ṣṭu to praise, ḍraṭ aff.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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