Artha; 16 Definition(s)


Artha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Artha (अर्थ) refers to the “treasury”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

The term Artha (अर्थ, “purpose”) stands for what is helpful; the meaning therefore is that what is mentioned here is the means for accomplishing what is helpful for man; (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.100-101)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Artha (अर्थ).—Born of dharma and buddhi1 Its ills;2 not to be earned by a king by illegitimate means and not to abuse it by giving it to undesirables.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 51; I. 2. 9.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 23. 17-21.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 220. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 81; 61. 130.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Artha (अर्थ, “meaning”) is the content carried by the words exchanged by people when communicating through language. In other words the communication of meaning is the purpose and function of language. A sentence therefore should convey an idea from one person to another. Meanings may take many forms, such as evoking a certain abstract idea, conveying an emotion, or denoting a certain real-world entity.

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
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Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Artha (अर्थ, “material goods”) refers to one of the ten effects of vyaya (“loss”), according to the Mānasāra. Vyaya is the second of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular vyaya (eg., artha) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Like in the case of the fruits of āya, all ten effects of vyaya must be considered as auspicious.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Artha (अर्थ).—(I) lit.signification,conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a determinant of the foot of a verse: cf. प्रायोर्थो वृत्तमित्येते पादज्ञानस्य हेतवः (prāyortho vṛttamityete pādajñānasya hetavaḥ) R. Pr. XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (पद (pada)). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; cf. अर्थः पदमिति ऐन्द्रे (arthaḥ padamiti aindre); cf. also अर्थः पदम् (arthaḥ padam) V. Pr. III.2, explained by उव्वट (uvvaṭa) as अर्थाभिधायि पदम् । पद्यते गम्यते ज्ञायते (arthābhidhāyi padam | padyate gamyate jñāyate)Sर्थो-नेनेति पदम् । (rtho-neneti padam |) There is no difference of opinion regarding the fact that, out of the four standard kinds of words नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग (nāma, ākhyāta, upasarga) and निपात (nipāta), the first two kinds नाम (nāma) and आख्यात (ākhyāta) do possess an independent sense of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner in which the sense is conveyed, by the other two viz. the Upasargas (prepositions) and Nipātas (particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although Pāṇini has given the actual designation पद (pada) to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon the different units or elements of a Pada such as the base, the affix, the augment and the like as possessed of individually separate senses. There is practically nothing in Pāṇini's sūtras to prove that Nipātas and Upasargas do not possess an independent sense. Re: Nipātas, the rule चादयोऽसत्वे (cādayo'satve), which means that च (ca) and other indeclinables are called Nipātas when they do not mean सत्त्व (sattva), presents a riddle as to the meaning which च (ca) and the like should convey if they do not mean सत्त्व (sattva) or द्रव्य (dravya) i.e. a substance. The Nipātas cannot mean भाव (bhāva) or verbal activity and if they do not mean सत्व (satva) or द्रव्य (dravya), too, they will have to be called अनर्थक (anarthaka) (absolutely meaningless) and in that case they would not be termed Prātipadika, and no caseaffix would be applied to them. To avoid this difficulty, the Vārtikakāra had to make an effort and he wrote a Vārtika निपातस्य अनर्थकस्य प्रातिपदिकत्वम् । (nipātasya anarthakasya prātipadikatvam |) P. I.2.45 Vār. 12. As a matter of fact the Nipātas च, वा (ca, ) and others do possess a sense as shown by their presence and absence (अन्वय (anvaya) and व्यतिरेक (vyatireka)). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a different manner as the word समूह (samūha), or समुदाय (samudāya), which is the meaning conveyed by च (ca) in रामः कृष्णश्च (rāmaḥ kṛṣṇaśca), cannot be substituted for च (ca) as its Synonym in the sentence रामः कुष्णश्च (rāmaḥ kuṣṇaśca). Looking to the different ways in which their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and by affixes, prepositions and indeclinables on the other hand, Bhartṛhari, possibly following Yāska and Vyāḍi, has developed the theory of द्योतकत्व (dyotakatva) as contrasted with वाचकत्व (vācakatva) and laid down the dictum that indeclinables, affixes and prepositions (उपसर्ग (upasarga)s) do not directly convey any specific sense as their own, but they are mere signs to show some specific property or excellence of the sense conveyed by the word to which they are attached; cf. also the statement 'न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुरिति शाकटायनः नामाख्यातयोस्तु कर्मोपसंयेगद्योतका भवन्ति । (na nirbaddhā upasargā arthānnirāhuriti śākaṭāyanaḥ nāmākhyātayostu karmopasaṃyegadyotakā bhavanti |) Nir 1.3. The Grammarians, just like the rhetoricians have stated hat the connection between words and their senses is a permanent one (नित्य (nitya)), the only difference in their views being that the rhetoricians state that words are related; no doubt permanently, to their sense by means of संकेत (saṃketa) or convention which solely depends on the will of God, while the Grammarians say that the expression of sense is only a natural function of words; cf. 'अभिधानं पुनः स्वाभाविकम् (abhidhānaṃ punaḥ svābhāvikam)' Vārttika No.33. on P. I.2.64. For द्योतकत्व (dyotakatva) see Vākyapadīya of Bhartṛhari II. 165-206.

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Ārtha (आर्थ).—Resultant from sense; made up of sense; अर्थस्य अयम् आर्थ (arthasya ayam ārtha); cf तदा-दितदन्तत्वमार्थसमाजग्रस्तम् (tadā-ditadantatvamārthasamājagrastam) Par. Śek. on Pari.37.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Artha (अर्थ, “wealth”) is accomplished by performing mantrasādhana (preparatory procedures) beginning with japamālā using a rosary bead made of lotus seed beads or conch shell beads, according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.43. Accordingly, “for the accomplishment of all kinds of kāma (love), one should recite a mantra using a rosary made of rudrākṣa beads. For the accomplishment of dharma (virtue), artha (wealth), kāma (love), and mokṣa (liberation), one should recite a mantra using a rosary made of lotus seed beads”.

According to verse 1.47, “to achieve artha (wealth), a rosary should be made from conch shell beads. To accomplish the nidhāna (treasure) and Yakṣiṇī ritual, the rosary should be strung with a white thread”

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Artha (अर्थ, “senses”) refers to the “object of senses” and represents one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “arthas are smell, taste, colour, touch and sound. These are the qualities of the earth”.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Artha (अर्थ): Wealth, one of the objects of human life, the others being Dharma, (righteousness), Kama (satisfaction of desires), Moksha (spiritual salvation).

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Artha (अर्थ, “meaning”) or Arthapratisaṃvid refers to one of the “four analytical knowledges” (pratisaṃvid) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 51). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., artha). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

1) Artha (अर्थ, “substance”).—according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.2, “Belief in substances (artha) and their modes as they are is right faith”. What is the meaning of artha? The conclusion and ascertainment about an entity (existent) is called artha.

2) Artha (अर्थ, “entity”).—What is the meaning of object (of knowledge) or entity (artha)? An entity or the object of knowledge is called artha. In the context of mind-based knowledge it implies the object which continues to be the object in all four stages of mind based knowledge. However in the context of sensation /awareness only, arthāvagraha is known as object-perception / awareness.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Artha.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’, (CII 1), a cause or matter. (CII 1), business. Note: artha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

artha (अर्थ).—m (S) Meaning, signification, sense, import, interpretation. 2 Meaning, intent, aim; matter purposed or proposed. 3 Substance, wealth, property. 4 A thing or matter to be attained or accomplished, an object. Ex. dharma artha kāma āṇi mōkṣa hē puruṣācē a0; Sansk. adage artha vā sādhayēta dēhaṃ vā pātayēt Success or death; my object accomplished or my life sacrificed. 5 One of the four grand objects of the human affections and faculties, viz. the pleasures conferred by fame, power, and riches. See severally dharma, artha, kāma, & mōkṣa. 6 A material substance; a created thing; any entity or object of sense: also an existence or relation in the widest sense; any object of the exercise of the mental faculties. 7 Fruit, product, consequence. 8 Desiring, desire, seeking. 9 Substance, strength, goodness, virtue. Ex. hyā śētānta ātāṃ kāṃhīṃ a0 nāhīṃ 10 artha is constantly occurring in learned discourse in the compounds lakṣyārtha Indicated, implied, or tacitlyinculcated sense; vācyārtha Declared or expressed sense; vyaṅgyārtha Insinuated or covertly-intimated sense. 11 In comp. For the purpose or sake of; in order to. Ex. śītanivāraṇārtha For the purpose of warding off the cold; adhyayanārtha In order to study; udarapōṣaṇārtha, dēvatārcanārtha, dānārtha, grahaṇārtha, gamanārtha, kathanārtha &c. 12 The learner must prepare himself to meet with some lax uses of this word: as jyā arthīṃ tumhī māgatāṃ tyā arthīṃ dilhēṃ pāhijē Since you ask for it, so we must give it to you. kōṇatyāhī arthānēṃ tumacēṃ vhāvēṃ In some way or other; whatever be the state of the case. 13 In law. A suit or case; an action. 14 artha answers closely to the word MATTER as bearing the wide sense of Thing to be done, or uttered, or understood, believed, thought &c. Ex. vālhā jāhālā sadradita || mhaṇēṃ kaisā artha karūṃ ātāṃ || Also as per the common asā artha nāhīṃ This is not the thing--the matter--(the thing said, intended, actual, come about &c.) 15 Regard or care for; sense of need of or interest in. Ex. sarvāṃsa sarvāñcā artha asāvā. arthācē tukaḍē bhāgavatācyā cindhyā Used of strained and wild exposition or interpretation. arthālā maraṇēṃ To be extravagantly eager in pursuit of one's own interest.

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ārtha (आर्थ) [or आर्थिक, ārthika].—a S Relating to artha the matter or subject; belonging to the sense or meaning;--as disting. from śābda Relating to words or style. 2 Implied, involved.

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artha (अर्थ).—. Add:--16 In modern Maraṭhi grammar. Mood. See saṅkētārtha, vidhyartha or ājñārtha, svārtha, śakyārtha.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

artha (अर्थ).—m Meaning, signification, sense, import. Intent, aim, matter purposed or proposed. Substance, wealth. An object. Substance, strength, good- ness, virtue. Ex. hyā śētānta ātāṃ kāṃhīṃ artha nāhīṃ. In comp. For the purpose or sake of, in order to. jyā arthī-tyā arthī Since- So. svārtha Self-interest. Selfishness.

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ārtha (आर्थ) [or ārthika, or आर्थिक].—a Relating to the subject or sense or meaning. Implied.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Artha (अर्थ).—[In some of its senses from arth; in others from ṛ-than Uṇ.2.4; arthate hyasau arthibhiḥ Nir.]

1) Object, purpose, end and aim; wish, desire; ज्ञातार्थो ज्ञातसंबन्धः श्रोतुं श्रोता प्रवर्तते, सिद्ध°, °परिपन्थी (jñātārtho jñātasaṃbandhaḥ śrotuṃ śrotā pravartate, siddha°, °paripanthī) Mu.5; °वशात् (vaśāt) 5.8; स्मर्तव्योऽस्मि सत्यर्थे (smartavyo'smi satyarthe) Dk.117 if it be necessary; Y.2.46; M.4.6; oft. used in this sense as the last member of compounds and translated by 'for', 'intended for', 'for the sake of', 'on account of', 'on behalf of', and used like an adj. to qualify nouns; अर्थेन तु नित्य- समासो विशेष्यनिघ्रता च (arthena tu nitya- samāso viśeṣyanighratā ca) Vārt.; सन्तानार्थाय विधये (santānārthāya vidhaye) R.1.34; तां देवतापित्रतिथिक्रियार्थाम् (tāṃ devatāpitratithikriyārthām) (dhenum) 2.16; द्विजार्था यवागूः (dvijārthā yavāgūḥ) Sk.; यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणोऽन्यत्र (yajñārthātkarmaṇo'nyatra) Bg.3.9. It mostly occurs in this sense as अर्थम्, अर्थे (artham, arthe) or अर्थाय (arthāya) and has an adverbial force; (a) किमर्थम् (kimartham) for what purpose, why; यदर्थम् (yadartham) for whom or which; वेलोपलक्षणार्थम् (velopalakṣaṇārtham) Ś.4; तद्दर्शनादभूच्छम्भोर्भूयान्दारार्थ- मादरः (taddarśanādabhūcchambhorbhūyāndārārtha- mādaraḥ) Ku.6.13; (b) परार्थे प्राज्ञ उत्सृजेत् (parārthe prājña utsṛjet) H.1.41; गवार्थे ब्राह्मणार्थे च (gavārthe brāhmaṇārthe ca) Pt.1.42; मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः (madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ) Bg.1.9; (c) सुखार्थाय (sukhārthāya) Pt.4.18; प्रत्याख्याता मया तत्र नलस्यार्थाय देवताः (pratyākhyātā mayā tatra nalasyārthāya devatāḥ) Nala.13.19; ऋतुपर्णस्य चार्थाय (ṛtuparṇasya cārthāya) 23.9.

2) Cause, motive, reason, ground, means; अलुप्तश्च मुनेः क्रियार्थः (aluptaśca muneḥ kriyārthaḥ) R. 2.55 means or cause; अतोऽर्थात् (ato'rthāt) Ms.2.213.

3) Meaning, sense, signification, import; अर्थ (artha) is of 3 kinds:-- वाच्य (vācya) or expressed, लक्ष्य (lakṣya) or indicated (secondary), and व्यङ्ग्य (vyaṅgya) or suggested; तददोषौ शब्दार्थौ (tadadoṣau śabdārthau) K. P.1; अर्थो वाच्यश्च लक्ष्यश्च व्यङ्ग्यश्चेति त्रिधा मतः (artho vācyaśca lakṣyaśca vyaṅgyaśceti tridhā mataḥ) S. D.2; वागर्थाविव (vāgarthāviva) R.1.1; अवेक्ष्य धातोर्गमनार्थमर्थवित् (avekṣya dhātorgamanārthamarthavit) 3.21.

4) A thing, object, substance; लक्ष्मणोऽर्थं ततः श्रुत्वा (lakṣmaṇo'rthaṃ tataḥ śrutvā) Rām.7.46.18; अर्थो हि कन्या परकीय एव (artho hi kanyā parakīya eva) Ś.4.22; that which can be perceived by the senses, an object of sense; इन्द्रिय° (indriya°) H.1.146; Ku.7.71; R.2.51; न निर्बद्धा उपसर्गा अर्थान्निराहुः (na nirbaddhā upasargā arthānnirāhuḥ) Nir.; इन्द्रियेभ्यः परा ह्यर्था अर्थेभ्यश्च परं मनः (indriyebhyaḥ parā hyarthā arthebhyaśca paraṃ manaḥ) Kaṭh. (the objects of sense are five : rūpa, rasa, gandha, sparśa and śabda); शब्दः स्पर्शो रसो गन्धो रूपं चेत्यर्थजातयः (śabdaḥ sparśo raso gandho rūpaṃ cetyarthajātayaḥ) Bhāg.11.22.16.

5) (a) An affair, business, matter, work; प्राक् प्रतिपन्नोऽयमर्थोऽ- ङ्गराजाय (prāk pratipanno'yamartho'- ṅgarājāya) Ve.3; अर्थोऽयमर्थान्तरभाव्य एव (artho'yamarthāntarabhāvya eva) Ku.3.18; अर्थोऽर्था- नुबन्धी (artho'rthā- nubandhī) Dk.67; सङ्गीतार्थः (saṅgītārthaḥ) Me.66 business of singing i. e. musical concert (apparatus of singing); सन्देशार्थाः (sandeśārthāḥ) Me. 5 matters of message, i. e. messages; (b) Interest, object; स्वार्थसाधनतत्परः (svārthasādhanatatparaḥ) Ms.4.196; द्वयमेवार्थसाधनम् (dvayamevārthasādhanam) R.1. 19;2.21; दुरापेऽर्थे (durāpe'rthe) 1.72; सर्वार्थचिन्तकः (sarvārthacintakaḥ) Ms.7.121; माल- विकायां न मे कश्चिदर्थः (māla- vikāyāṃ na me kaścidarthaḥ) M.3 I have no interest in M. (c) Subject-matter, contents (as of letters &c.); त्वामव- गतार्थं करिष्यति (tvāmava- gatārthaṃ kariṣyati) Mu.1 will acquaint you with the matter; उत्तरोऽयं लेखार्थः (uttaro'yaṃ lekhārthaḥ) ibid.; तेन हि अस्य गृहीतार्था भवामि (tena hi asya gṛhītārthā bhavāmi) V.2 if so I should know its contents; ननु परिगृहीतार्थोऽ- स्मि कृतो भवता (nanu parigṛhītārtho'- smi kṛto bhavatā) V.5; तया भवतोऽविनयमन्तरेण परिगृहीतार्था कृता देवी (tayā bhavato'vinayamantareṇa parigṛhītārthā kṛtā devī) M.4 made acquainted with; त्वया गृहीतार्थया अत्रभवती कथं न वारिता (tvayā gṛhītārthayā atrabhavatī kathaṃ na vāritā) 3; अगृहीतार्थे आवाम् (agṛhītārthe āvām) Ś.6; इति पौरान् गृहीतार्थान् कृत्वा (iti paurān gṛhītārthān kṛtvā) ibid.

6) Wealth, riches, property, money (said to be of 3 kinds : śukla honestly got; śabala got by more or less doubtful means, and kṛṣṇa dishonestly got;) त्यागाय संभृतार्थानाम् (tyāgāya saṃbhṛtārthānām) R.1.7; धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः (dhigarthāḥ kaṣṭasaṃśrayāḥ) Pt.1.163; अर्थानामर्जने दुःखम् (arthānāmarjane duḥkham) ibid.; सस्यार्थास्तस्य मित्राणि (sasyārthāstasya mitrāṇi)1.3; तेषामर्थे नियुञ्जीत शूरान् दक्षान् कुलोद्गतान् (teṣāmarthe niyuñjīta śūrān dakṣān kulodgatān) Ms.7.62.

7) Attainment of riches or worldly prosperity, regarded as one of the four ends of human existence, the other three being धर्म, काम (dharma, kāma) and मोक्ष (mokṣa); with अर्थ (artha) and काम, धर्म (kāma, dharma) forms the well-known triad; cf. Ku.5.38; अप्यर्थकामौ तस्यास्तां धर्म एव मनीषिणः (apyarthakāmau tasyāstāṃ dharma eva manīṣiṇaḥ) R.1.25.

8) (a) Use, advantage, profit, good; तथा हि सर्वे तस्यासन् परार्थैकफला गुणाः (tathā hi sarve tasyāsan parārthaikaphalā guṇāḥ) R.1.29 for the good of others; अर्थान- र्थावुभौ बुद्ध्वा (arthāna- rthāvubhau buddhvā) Ms.8.24 good and evil; क्षेत्रिणामर्थः (kṣetriṇāmarthaḥ) 9.52; यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः सांप्लुतोदके (yāvānartha udapāne sarvataḥ sāṃplutodake) Bg.2.46; also व्यर्थ, निरर्थक (vyartha, nirarthaka) q. v. (b) Use, want, need, concern, with instr.; कोऽर्थः पुत्रेण जातेन (ko'rthaḥ putreṇa jātena) Pt.1 what is the use of a son being born; कश्च तेनार्थः (kaśca tenārthaḥ) Dk.59; कोऽर्थस्तिरश्चां गुणैः (ko'rthastiraścāṃ guṇaiḥ) Pt.2.33 what do brutes care for merits; Bh.2.48; योग्येनार्थः कस्य न स्याज्ज- नेन (yogyenārthaḥ kasya na syājja- nena) Ś.18.66; नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन (naiva tasya kṛtenārtho nākṛteneha kaścana) Bg.3.18; यदि प्राणैरिहार्थो वो निवर्तध्वम् (yadi prāṇairihārtho vo nivartadhvam) Rām. को नु मे जीवितेनार्थः (ko nu me jīvitenārthaḥ) Nala.12. 65.

9) Asking, begging; request, suit, petition.

1) Action, plaint (in law); अर्थ विरागाः पश्यन्ति (artha virāgāḥ paśyanti) Rām.2.1. 58; असाक्षिकेषु त्वर्थेषु (asākṣikeṣu tvartheṣu) Ms.8.19.

11) The actual state, fact of the matter; as in यथार्थ, अर्थतः, °तत्वविद्, यदर्थेन विनामुष्य पुंस आत्मविपर्ययः (yathārtha, arthataḥ, °tatvavid, yadarthena vināmuṣya puṃsa ātmaviparyayaḥ) Bhāg.3.7.1.

12) Manner, kind, sort.

13) Prevention, warding off; मशकार्थो धूमः (maśakārtho dhūmaḥ); prohibition, abolition (this meaning may also be derived from 1 above).

14) Price (perhaps an incorrect form for argha).

15) Fruit, result (phalam). तस्य नानुभवेदर्थं यस्य हेतोः स रोपितः (tasya nānubhavedarthaṃ yasya hetoḥ sa ropitaḥ) Rām.6.128.7; Mb.12.175.5.

16) Name of a son of धर्म (dharma).

17) The second place from the लग्न (lagna) (in astr.).

18) Name of Viṣṇu.

19) The category called अपूर्व (apūrva) (in pūrvamīmāṃsā); अर्थ इति अपूर्वं ब्रूमः (artha iti apūrvaṃ brūmaḥ) | ŚB. on MS.7.1.2.

2) Force (of a statement or an expression); अर्थाच्च सामर्थ्याच्च क्रमो विधीयते (arthācca sāmarthyācca kramo vidhīyate) | ŚB. on MS.5.1.2. [अर्थात् (arthāt) = by implication].

21) The need, purpose, sense; व्यवधानादर्थो बलीयान् (vyavadhānādartho balīyān) | ŚB. on MS.6.4.23.

22) Capacity, power; अर्थाद्वा कल्पनैकदेशत्वात् (arthādvā kalpanaikadeśatvāt) | Ms.1.4.3 (where Śabara paraphrases arthāt by sāmarthyāt and states the rule: ākhyātānāmarthaṃ bruvatāṃ śaktiḥ sahakāriṇī |), cf. अर्थोऽभिधेयरैवस्तुप्रयोजननिवृत्तिषु । मोक्षकारणयोश्च (artho'bhidheyaraivastuprayojananivṛttiṣu | mokṣakāraṇayośca)...... Nm.

Derivable forms: arthaḥ (अर्थः).

--- OR ---

Ārtha (आर्थ).—a. (-rthī f.) [अर्थादागतः अण् (arthādāgataḥ aṇ)]

1) Relating to a thing or object.

2) Relating to, dependent on, sense (opp. śābda); आर्थी उपमा (ārthī upamā) &c.

3) Material, significant.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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