Shri, aka: Śri, Śrī, Śṝ, Sṛ, Sṝ; 15 Definition(s)

Introduction

Shri means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śri and Śrī and Śṝ and Sṛ and Sṝ can be transliterated into English as Sri or Shri or Sr, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

1) Śri (श्रि, “Splendor”):—One of the female offspring from Mahālakṣmī (rajas-form of Mahādevī). Mahālakṣmī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahākālī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Lakṣmī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named rajas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

2) Śrī (श्री, “splendid”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ श्रियै नमः
oṃ śriyai namaḥ.

3) Śrī (श्री, “fortune”).—One of the names of Lakṣmī (the śakti/power of Viṣṇu).—According to the Viṣṇu-purāṇa, Śrī was first born as a daughter of Bhṛgu (“the crack of the ritual fire”) united to Khyāti (“the hymns of praise”). Śrī is thus the fruit of the Yajña (“ritual-sacrifice”). According to the Taittirīya-saṃhitā, Śrī is one of the two wives of Āditya (“the solar-principle”).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Śrī (श्री) indicates “His auspiciousness”.

(Source): Manblunder: Sri Rudram 2.1-2
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Śrī (श्री, “splendour”):—A name of Lakṣmī, the consort of Viṣṇu, according to the Khecarīvidyā by Ādinātha. Ballāla calls her Yogīśā.

(Source): Google Books: The Khecarividya of Adinatha
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Purana

Śrī (श्री) is the name of a Goddess that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—These Goddesses (eg., Śrī) form the shining galaxy of female deities worshipped by the people of Kaśmīra.

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Śrī (श्री).—(Khāyāti), a daughter of Bhṛgu and Khyāti devoted to Bhagavān;1 requested by Devas to approach Nṛsimha with a view to appease his wrath, she dared not go near him;2 elder sister of Dhātā and Vidhātā; married Nārāyaṇa and gave birth to Bala and Unmāda (utsāha) besides mind-born sons;3 alias Mahālakṣmī or Lakṣmī.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 10. 26; 11. 26 and 33; IV. 1. 43; 24. 49.
  • 2) Ib. VII. 9. 2; VIII. 4. 20; 5. 40; 23. 6; IX. 4. 60; X. 3. 50; 9. 20; 29. 37; 31. 17; XI. 14. 15 & 39; XII. 11. 20.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 2; 13. 78; Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 2.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 39. 70-71. 44. 71; Vāyu-purāṇa 37. 38.

1b) Came out of the churning of the milk ocean, whom Viṣṇu placed on his breast: the dweller in the lotus: also Śrīdevī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 76, 79; 33. 46; 36. 21, 31 and 90.

1c) A Kala of the moon.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 92.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Śrī (श्री) is the Sanskrit name of one of the seven Nāṭyamātṛ (‘mothers of nāṭya’) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.86-87. They should be offered worship during ceremonies such as ‘consecration of the mattavāraṇī’ and ‘pouring ghee into sacrificial fire’.

Accordingly (85-87), “After saying these words for the happiness of the king, the wise man should utter the Benediction for the success of the dramatic production. [The Benediction]: Let mothers such as Sarasvati, Dhṛti, Medhā, Hrī, Śrī, Lakṣmī, and Smṛti protect you and give you success.”

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Katha (narrative stories)

Śrī (श्री) is the daughter of King Suśarman, whose story is told in “Story of Puṣpadanta”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 7.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śrī, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

1) Śrī (श्री) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Śrī corresponds to Rucirā (according to Barata) as well as Sāndrapada. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

2) Śrī (श्री) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (eg., Śrī) in 20 verses.

3) Śrī (श्री) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., śrī) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

(Source): Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Shri (श्री): Another name of Lakshmi, a goddess, the delight of Vishnu.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

1) Śrī (श्री) is the mother of Kunthunātha, the seventeenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Śrī is Sūra according to Śvetāmbara or Sūryasena according to Digambara. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

2) Śrī (श्री).—The name of a Goddess residing over the padmahrada (big lotus-island) which lies in the center of a lake named Padma. This lake is situated on top of the mountain range (varṣadharaparvatas) named Haimavat, one of the six mountain ranges in Jambūdvīpa. Jambūdvīpa lies at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śrī (श्री, “fortune”) is the name of a deity residing in the lotus (puṣkara) in the middle of the Padma lake, which lies on top of the Himavat (Himavān) mountain. This mountain is situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.

Jambūdvīpa (where Śrī resides) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

śrī (श्री).—f (S) The goddess Lakshmi, the wife of Vishn̤u, the deity of plenty and prosperity. 2 Hence Fortune, prosperity, success, wealth, honor, glory &c. 3 The three objects of life col- lectively; viz. love, duty, and wealth. 4 śrī is used as a prefix of reverence to the names of deities, holy places, sacred books, spiritual teachers &c. It is also written at the commencement of books, letters, and writings generally, elliptically of śrīgaṇēśā &c., forming an invocation to the god Gan̤esha. It is affixed to numerous words-to confer the sense of Glory, lustre, splendor, beauty, excellence; as garbhaśrī, gṛhaśrī, jayaśrī, jalaśrī, yaśaśrī, vanaśrī, vīraśrī. 5 The ornamental cap of an elephant.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śrī (श्री).—f The goddess lakṣmī. Fortune, glory.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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