by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words
This page describes “the phalli/phallus (linga)” which is Chapter 52 of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.
6-7. The Samakarṇa is fit for the Brahmans, the Vardhamāna for the Kṣatriyas, the Śivāṅka for the Vaiśyas, and the Svastika for others.
8. All the phalli may, however, be made for the Brahmans, there will be no defect in that.
9. The Śivāṅka and the Svastika phalli also are said to be fit for the Kṣatriyas.
10. The Svastika and the Śivāṅka are fit for the Vaiśyas also.
11-15. The phalli may be measured in comparison with the measurement of the adytum (garbhagṛha) proper, the door, the width of the main edifice, the height of the base, similarly the height; of the main pillar; they may be also measured in cubit or in comparison with the height of the worshipper (yajamāna); these are said to be the general rules for measurement; each method may admit of different varieties: from the largest (including the intermediate) to the smallest should be the three sizes of measurement in each case.
16-19. The (breadth of the) adytum being divided into nine parts, each of those parta may be the height of the phallus; according to some, each of those nine parts should be again divided into nine parts so that (the height of) the phalli may be of eighty-one kinds, consisting of nine in each of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest sizes.
20-21. The height of the phallus is said to be of the smallest size when it is one-half of the (width of the) adytum; it is of the intermediate size when it is three-fourths thereof, and it is of the largest size when it is equal to the breadth of the adytum: these are the three kinds of height of the phallus.
22. Thus should be ascertained the height of the phallus is comparison with (the breadth of) the adytum.
23-25. The height of the door proper or its width being divided into nine equal parts, each of those parts should be the height of the phallus; the smallest and other sizes should be (distiuguished) as before; the measurement of each being again of three kinds, there will be eighty-one kinds of phalli.
26. In comparison with the breadth of the edifice it (the various height of the phallus) should be (ascertained) is the same way as stated in connection with the adytum.
27-30. In comparison with the base the phallus is of the largest size when it is equal to the base, of the intermediate size when it is three-fourths thereof, and of the smallest size when it is one-half of that: these are said to be the three kinds of phalli; again it (the base) being divided into nine parts, each of those parts is said to be (the height of) a phallus, and thus there will be nine phalli; each variety should again be (distinguished) as of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest sizes.
31-34. (In comparison with the main pillar) the height of the pillar being divided into nine parts, there will be nine kinds of measurement for the phallus; each of those parts being again divided into four parts, and each of the latter being the height of the phallus, there will be thirty-six kinds of phalli; they will be of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest size, and everything should be made as aforesaid.
35-39. The height of the main edifice being divided into nine parts consisting of three in each of the three sizes, namely, the smallest and others, there will be, thus, nine kinds of phalli with those nine kinds of height. According to some, the height of the edifice should ho divided into eighty-one parts, each of which should be the height of a phallus, so that the height of the phallus will be of eighty-one kinds; the phalli are desired to be (in this case also) of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest sizes as before.
40-42. The nine kinds of height (of the phallus) consisting of three in each of the three sizes, namely, the smallest, etc., should begin, from one cubit, and end at nine cubits, the increment being by one cubit.
43-44. The height of the nine phalli as before should begin from three-fourths cubit, and end at seven cubits less one-fourth, the increment being by three-fourths of a cubit.
45-46. Again, the height of the nine phalli should begin from one cubit and end at four cubits-and-a-half, the increment being by half a cubit.
47-48. The height of the nine phalli as before should (again) begin from one-fourth cubit, and end at two and one-fourth cubits, the increment being by one-fourth cubit.
50-51. There will (thus) be thirty-six kinds of height for the phallus according to the cubit measurement, consisting of three kinds
in each of the three sizes, the smallest, etc., of the four classes, namely, the (Jāti), Chanda, and others.
52-53. The nine kinds of height of the phallus should begin from eleven aṅgulas, and end at twenty-seven aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.
54-55. The nine kinds of height of the phallus should (again) begin from twelve aṅgulas, and end at sixty aṅgulas, the iucrement being by six aṅgulas.
55-57. The nine kinds of height of the phallus should (again) begin from twenty-five aṅgulas, and end at seventy-three aṅgulas, the increment being by six aṅgulas.
58. Each of these aṅgula measurement should be (of three sizes, namely,) the smallest, (the intermediate), and up to the largest.
59-64. The nine kinds of height of the phallus in comparison with the height of the worshipper should extend up to his sex organ, navel, heart, breast, root of the arm, chin (jaw), nose, eye, and his full length; or the height (of the worshipper) being divided into nine parts, each of which should be the height of the phallus; and they should consist of three in each of the three sizes, the smallest, etc.; thus there are known to be the ninety-one kinds of phalli in comparison with the height of the worshipper.
65. The phalli are thus (primarily) of nine kinds in number, but they are (actually) made (lit. installed) in many varieties.
66. But the measurement of height in cubit may be (generally) used for all kinds of the phallus.
67-68. The measurement of fifteen aṅgulas which is (the measurement) prescribed for the nine phalli should begin from fifteen aṅgulas and end at seventeen aṅgulas.
69-70. An extra height of three-fourths of a cubit should be given above all the heights, especially with regard to the five phalli.
71. This is meant for the single (individual) phalli, when all of them are installed in one temple.
72. But when all the phalli are installed in many (temples) the (extra height of) three-fourths of a cubit (karṇa) need not be given.
74. Thus is described the height of the phallus; its width will be described here.
75. The width of phalli in group (bahuliṅga) should be three, four, up to five aṅgulas.
76-77. As an alternative the height being divided into three, four, and five parts, the width of the phalli in group (bahuliṅga) should be one of those parts.
79. The width of the Ekaliṅga (phalli installed singly or individually) is said to be six, seven, or eight aṅgulas.
80. The width of the uniform (sama) phallus should be nine, ten, or eleven aṅgulas.
81-82. Similarly the width of the Ekaliṅga is (also) described as twelve, thirteen, or fourteen aṅgulas.
83-84. Fifteen, sixteen, and ten aṅgulas are (also) known as the width of the uniform (sama) phalli.
85-86. Eighteen, nineteen, and twenty aṅgulas: these are the three kinds of width of the (same) phallus.
87-88. Twenty-one, twenty-two, and twenty-three aṅgulas: these are (another) three kinds of width of the phallus.
89-90. Twenty-four, twenty-five, and twenty-six aṅgulas: these are (another) three kinds of width of the phallus.
91-92. Twenty-seven, twenty-eight and twenty-nine aṅgulas: these should (again) be (the three kinds of) width of the phallus.
93-94. Thirty, thirty-one, and thirty-two aṅgulas: these are alternately known as the three kinds of width of the phallus.
95. Each of those measures should be of nine kinds, consisting of (three in each of) the smallest, (the intermediate), and up to the largest sizes.
96. These are the nine kinds of phallus, of each of the Nāgara and other (i.e., the Drāviḍa, and the Vesara) styles.
97-98. As an alternative the height being divided into four, five, or six parts, the width of the single phallus should be one of these parts.
99. Thus are known to be the three styles, the Nāgara (northern), the Drāviḍa (southern), and the Vesara (eastern).
100-103. Two, three, or four parts being made for the desirable length, those parts should be increased by one respectively for the Vesara and the other (i.e., the Drāvida, and the Nāgara) styles; the breadth thereof and the three sizes, namely, the smallest, etc., should be discreetly (i.e., according to the aforesaid proportions) made by the intelligent (architect).
104. The height of all the phalli in group (bahuliṅga) should exclude the height of the Brahmā portion.
106-107. As an alternative the height being of nine parts, the height of the Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu portion) should be four parts, and the height of the Śiva portion five parts: this is known as the Vardhamāna type.
110-111. Of the ten parts of the height, the height of Viṣṇu portion should be six parts, and the Śiva portion should be four parts: this is (known as) the Svastika in the phalli in group (bahuliṅga).
112. In the Ekaliṅga class of phalli, the Brahmā, the Viṣṇu, and the Śiva portions should be equal to one another.
113-114. Of the twenty-four parts of the height, the Brahmā, the Viṣṇu, and the Śiva portions should be seven, eight, and nine parts respectively: this is the Sarvatobhadra phallus,
115-117. The Vardhamāna phallus too is worshipped by the Brahmans and the kings (Kṣatriyas): the height (therein) of the Brahmā, the Viṣṇu, and the Śiva portions should be five, five, and six parts respectively.
118-119. The desired height being divided into four parts and the Śiva portion being greater (than the others) by one part, the phallus is fit for the (worship of the) Vaiśyas.
120-123. The height of the Svastika phallus being divided into one hundred parts, the Siva portion should be sixty parts, the Viṣṇu portion sixteen parts, and the Rudra (Śiva) portion should be made according to rules (i.e., twenty-four parts): this is to be fit for the worship of the Śūdras for their prosperity.
124-127. The Brahmā portion (of the phallus) at the bottom should resemble a quadrangle, the Viṣṇu portion at the middle a octagon, and the Śiva portion at the top should be circular: thus should be carved all the single (eka) phalli.
123-131. With regard to the phalli in group (aneka[?]) it is stated that the learned architects should make the bottom (portion of Brahmā) quadrangular, the middle (portion of Viṣṇu) octagonal, and the Rudra (i.e., Śiva) portion at the top circular.
132-135. Both in the single (eka) and grouped (bahu) phalli, the flutes (dhārā, lit., stream) made in the Śiva portion should begin from sixteen and end at one thousand, the increment being by two: this has been laid down in the sciences (tantra, of architecture) with regard to the Dhārā (fluted) phallus.
136-139. The width (of the whole top portion) being divided into five, six, seven, or eight parts, the measure (of width) of the pinnacle of the head should be two parts (in each case); and that measure should be sub-divided for the flutes which increase in number by two (to a thousand) and which are made as the component limbs along the height of the top portion.
140-143. The wise architects should make the pinnacle resembling the extreme point of the wick (variikā); therein should be made the image of Śiva (Tripuragha); and the leading architects should make the crescent (of Siva) from ear to ear, which should look like an exact representation (of the half moon).
144-149. The height of the phallus for worship should be divided into ten parts consisting of one, two, three and four parts (given to the four portions), the last part being given to the characteristic base (uddhāra) at the bottom of that (phallus): the architect should make this for all the three styles, namely, the Nāgara, etc., (i.e., the Vesara, and the Drāviḍa).
150-151. It (the width) at the middle of that characteristic base should be one (i.e., equal to) or half a part of that upper portion measuring one, two, or three parts in height which should be extended down to the ground by the sides and the back.
152-165. Small ball-like devices (piṇḍikā) should be furnished at the side, one such ball being at the interval of one, two, or three parts; and at the back should be fittingly made the image of Viṣṇu; in the same way should be made the phalli in the Nāgara and the other styles.
156-159. At the base (dhāraṇa) of the single (eka) or the grouped (bahu) phalli, a bud ornament may be made optionally in the same way as on the pinnacle; and the pinnacle portion (also) may be optionally made like an umbrella: thus should the wise architect erect discreetly (the phallus) from the bottom upwards.
160. The phalli and other deities should be installed in the different parts of all the temples as said before (by the ancients).
161. The interior of the adytum proper (central hall alone, śuddha-garbhageha) should be divided into seven parts.
162. The Brahmā plot should be in the centre, and around that should be the eight gods.
163. The Mānuṣa (human) plot beyond that should be of sixteen parts around.
164. The Paiśāca (demon) plot beyond that (human plot) should be of twenty-four parts around.
165. The Brahmā plot in the centre should be divided into forty-nine parts.
166. In the centre of the Brahmā plot should be marked the Brahmā (central) line (sūtra).
167. The Viṣṇu line should be marked beyond that on the left side.
168. Beyond that line the śīva [śiva?] line should be marked between those two (lines).
169. Thug should be the Brahmā and the Viṣṇu lines, and between those should be marked the Śiva lines.
170. Thus should be (made) the single (eka) phalli which should be installed by the best architect.
171. When the phalli in group (bahuliṅga) are to be installed, they should be made like the single (ekaliṅga) phalli.
172. In the plot of Viṣṇu may be as well the single phalli or the phalli in group,
173-175. The floor of the adytum, (especially) the central portion thereof, which contains (the image) should be (perfectly) level; it would be all defective if it be higher or lower in level through ignorance; the wise (architect) should, therefore, avoid that (the unevenness of the ground) in matter of installation of all deities.
176. The idol (of a deity) is stated to be (installed) upon a single piece of stone, while the phalli should be (installed) upon four pieces of stone.
177-178. The single piece of stone to be placed (under the idol) should be of the Nandyāvarta form and the other (i.e., the four piece-stone) should have what is called the tortoise shape: thus is known (to be made) the upper base.
179-180. Above that in continuation of the stone-piece, the height (of the base) may be optionally increased by the (addition of the) pedestal (pīṭha).
181-182. Thus the chief architect (sthapati) together with his assistants (sthāpaka) should install the phalli and idols in the edifices for the phalli, the altars (pīṭha), and the (other) gods and goddesses.
183. The particulars of the collection of stone will now be described in full (detail).
184-187. The chief architect (sthapati) together with the assistant workers (sthāpaka), the master, and his retinue, after getting up in the morning should go to a hill or a forest on an auspicious moment of good constellation, and collect stone; they should have all the good omens as stated before on their sides to see on their way (to the forest).
188. (After the collection) they should place the stone on a wagon (lit., chariot) and convey it to the studio as stated before.
189-190. That piece of stone should be rejected which is covered by leaves, burnt by fire, disfigured by being fallen into a pit, or licked by the sun (shines).
191-192. The forepart (of the stone to be selected) is known to be in the east to north, and the bottom in the west to south, the face towards the ground, and the other (hinder) part lying upwards,
193-194. All the stones (to be selected), with their forepart lying towards the east, should have the right side towards the south and the left side towards the north.
195. (The stone) with the head on the north is known to have the right side towards the east, and the left side towards the west.
196. The stones with the head on the north-east should have their bottom towards the south-west.
197. Of those (stones) in all other corners there are no (distinct) head and tail.
198. All those stones which lie lengthwise in the four directions are known as male.
199. Those lying lengthwise in the four corners are called neuter.
200. All the huge pieces of stone keep occupying the earth and the sky.
201-203, With forepart towards the sky, the bottom towards the ground, (and the sides) towards the aforesaid direction and the north-east, if stones with such up-lifted face are to be installed, their sides should be ascertained as aforesaid; the shape thereof is abated here.
204. The stone which is of the same (uniform) shape at the bottom, top, and middle is known as male.
205. The female stone is known to have the broad bottom and the thin top.
206. The stone is neuter when it is broad at the top, thin at the middle, and broad (at the bottom).
207-208. The male stone is said to be quadrangular, and the female circular; and when it has many horus (elevations) it is called neuter.
209. That which sounds like the bell metal is called the female stone.
210. When it sounds like the jewel-box, it is known as the male stone.
211. All the stone which is soundless is known as neither female nor male (i.e., neuter).
212. When it sounds like the musical tone (tāla) it is called the creeper-stone.
213. That is called the tree-stone (vṛkṣa) when it sounds like the buffalo.
216. All those stones which are circula [circular?] should be reared as grain (śāli).
216. The male idols (and) phallus should be made of the male stones, and the lines should be avoided.
217. Female stones should be collected for the altar (pīṭha, consort of Siva’s phallus) and the idols of the female deities (Śakti).
218. The neuter atones should be used for all kinds of buildings, etc.
219-220. The phalli and other idols of the twice born (the Brahmans, the Kṣatriyas, the Vaiśyas), and others (the Śūdras) should be made by the wise sculptors of the white, red, yellow, and black stones respectively.
221. The stone (for the phallus and idols) of all the castes may be optionally black.
222. But the black lines in the stone for (the images of) all the castes should be avoided.
223. White and gold lines (in the stone for phalli and idols) are auspicious and conducive to all prosperity.
224. Thus is described the collection of stone; the rest should be followed as stated in the scripture (āgama).
225. The characteristic features of all the self-revealed (svayambhu) phalli will be described now.
226-227. The Udbhuta (revealed proper), the Daivika (divine), the Mānuṣa (human), and the Gāṇava (of the Gaṇa class): these ate known to be the four types of the self-revealed phalli.
228. That which is installed as a self-revealed phallus is called the Svayambhu phallus.
229. That which is installed (i.e., given) by the gods is called the Daivika phallus.
230. That which is imitated by man is called the Mānuṣa (man-made) phallus.
231. That which is made by others (non-descript) is called the irregular (ārṣa) phallus.
233. The Udbhuta phalli are white in colour, and the Daivika red.
234. The Mānuṣa phalli are yellowish, and the Gāṇava black.
235. The irregular (ārṣa) phalli are marked by joint lines, or are of the Svastika shape.
236-237. The Udbhuta phalli should bear the Śaṅkara shape, the Daivika phalli the Rudra shape (?rosary), and the Gāṇava phalli resemble the mountain: the shapes of the phalli are (thus) described here.
238. The base of the Udbhuta phalli is broad, and the top sharp (lit., thin), or equal, or larger than the base.
239. As an alternative all the phalli may be broad at the top and sharp at the base
240. The Daivika phalli should have the drum shape, and the Mānuṣa phalli should have the ladle-shape.
241. The Udbhuta phalli may (otherwise) have the mountain-shape, and the Gāṇava the pumpkin-shape.
242. The phalli should be installed (lit., collected) on the bank of some holy river or mountain.
243. Such should be the phalli for public (worship); the rest (of the features) should be as stated in the scripture (āgama).
244. The characteristic features of the liṅgapīṭha (the altar of the phallus) for personal worship (lit., for one self) will be described now.
245 246. The length of the phallus is said to be equal to the height of the altar, or three-fourths or one-half of it, and the width should be qual [equal?] to the width of the altar.
247. The altar is (also) installed on the bank of the river or the mountain.
248-249. White, red, yellow, and black: these are the four colours of the altars as of the phalli respectively for the four castes, namely, the Brahmans and others.
250. As an alternative all those (altars) may be black in colour and irregular.
251. That phallus and altar (lit., ground goddess) which are finely polished is called Śambhu.
252. In connection with the self-revealed phallus it (the corresponding altar) should be in particular of a different colour.
253. It (the altar) should be fully marked with lines (like the phallus): the rules thereof are stated now (here).
254. The phallus (? altar) which is called the Mānuṣa should be on the terrace of the mountain.
255. Any line (split), spot, or black mark (in the phallus) should in particular be avoided.
256. If it be spotted with gold spot and line marks, it is auspicious and for all prosperity.
257. The phallus which is a little raised up (elevated) above (lit., like) the temple is called Svayambhu.
268-259. The altar (pīṭha) thereof is desired to be round (circular), or elliptical at the middle (lit., navel) and along the base (lit., foot); and corresponding to (lit., following the way of) the phallus it should be a little raised up or lowered down.
260. It (the altar) should also have the corresponding shape as of the phallus with broad top and thin base, and with all (other) forms.
261. That which possesses the natural tooth and lip marks is called the Mānuṣa (human) phallus.
262. The Svayambhu phallus is (also) known to be installed in the sandy bank.
263. The phallus installed on the sandy bank is desired to be neither red nor black.
264. All the Svayambhu phalli may be used for personal or public worship.
265. The phallus in red (in particular) should not be used for public (lit., assembly) worship.
266. It (the altar) should be made in accordance with what is stated (above) regarding the phallus, and the rest should he made according to the scripture.
267. The characteristic features of the altar (pīṭha) of the phallus for personal worship will be stated (below).
268. In selecting the stone (for the altar) that which is known to lead to the destruction of master should be avoided.
269. The stones defiled by water, fire, heat, or wind should be avoided.
270. The stones under the ground, Wet (soft), spotted, and split should be avoided.
271. The stone is called female when a part; of it makes a low sound (kalita).
272. The stone which is neither male nor female and is slightly bitten is called neuter.
273. The stones which are either black or blue all over should be preferred; stones of other colours should be avoided,
274. The stone which is as if wrought with gold lines should be preferred.
275. The stone should be selected after such examinations.
276. The altar should be constructed with stone of such characteristic features.
277-278. The aṅgula (unit) measure can be taken in three ways: with the middle of the middle finger in the master’s right hand, the length between the finger joints, and the width of (that) finger.
279. It (the altar) should be measured in yava or aṅgula unit.
280. This measure should be properly verified by the number of the planet under whose influence the master is born.
281. The measurement of the self-revealed (altars) should be carried out in the standard aṅgula unit (of three-fourths inch).
282. The verification by the six formulas known as the āya, etc., should be applied in connection with the measurement of height of the altar.
283. If the measurement of the phallus be separated (i.e., excluded, from that of the altar) it should be in connection with the Mānuṣa and the other types.
284-285. The breadth of the altar should begin from three yavas and end at twenty-five aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.
286-287. The breadth of the altar may (again) begin from three aṅgulas and end at twenty-five aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.
288. The auspicious (verification, śubha) by the six formulas, namely, the āya, etc., should be applied to (the measurement of) the corresponding dimensions (i.e., the length, breadth, height, thickness, girth, etc.).
289-290. The (combined) breadth (height) of the altar being divided into four parts, the measure of the phallus should be one part, and the rest the height of the altar proper.
291-292. As an alternative that (combined) height should be divided into five parts of which one part is said to be the height of the phallus, and the height of the altar should be made, as before, of the remainder by the wise (architect).
293. The breadth of the pedestal should be equal to the phallus at the middle of the forepart of the channel (nāla).
294. The breadth of the altar being divided into two parts, the breadth of the channel (nāla) should be one part.
295. The same being divided into four parts, the breadth of the forepart of the channel (nāla) should be less by one part (i.e., three parts).
296. According to some, it may be two oat of throe parts, and it should taper from the bottom towards the top.
297. (Again) of the three parts of the same breadth, one should be the breadth of the channel (praṇāla).
298. The surrounding water course (vṛtavārikā) should be one-fourth or one-third of the breadth of the altar.
299. The width of the phallus should be equal to the breadth of the altar.
300-301. Such should be (the plan) in connection with the Svayambhu (self-revealed) phallus for personal as well as for public worship; the same may be (the plan) in connection with the phalli in group, but not in connection with the single phalli.
302-306. The height of the altar being divided into three parts, the height of the neck (gala) should be one part, or preferably the height of the neck should be two parts out of five parts (of the height of the altar); the remainder should be given to the upper and lower bands (bandha), the fillet (paṭṭa), the plinth (janman), and the cyma (saroruha): (thus) the height of the plinth should be one part, the band (vetraka) also one part, equal to that should be the forepart of the cyma (paṅkaja, lotus), and the middle part (kukṣi) of the cyma two parts.
307-309. Of the eight parts of the same (height of the altar) the (lower) band (vetra) should be one part, and equal to that the upper band; it should be furnished with the ear (karṇa) as before, and the upper portion should be made like the lower portion; it may be made greater or less by one-fourth of a part or whatever may make it look beautiful.
310. The length of the channel should be made as aforesaid proportionate to the breadth and height of the altar.
311. The altar should be circular (round); any other shape should be avoided.
312. There should be a hole in the (middle of the) height of the altar resembling that on the width of the phallus.
313. The peculiarity of the height of the phallus is that a belt (veśana) is made therein by the wise architect.
314-315. It (the altar) should (thus) be measured in connection with the phalli in group as well as the single phalli, (in fact) for all the phalli, for personal as well as public worship.
316. Jewels should be placed first (on the altar), and then the phallus should be placed thereupon.
317-318. A gold band (bandhana) should be inserted to the holes around the phallus; if gold be wanting it may be made with silver, copper, or iron.
319. The architect should get fixed up the phallus perfectly in continuation of the height of the altar,
320. There should be eight bands (bandhana) in the single phalli and the phalli in group for the personal and public worship.
321. Some (architects) furnish three bands with resin (guggula) and other materials.
322-323. Gold altars should be made for all the phalli made of jewels (precious stones), or jewel altars should be made for the phalli made of jewels as before.
324. The altar should be (generally) made of the same material with which the phallus is made.
325. The gold altar (also) should be made, and it should be furnished with the nine gems.
326. The phallus is named after the gem with which it is made.
327. In the altar or the phallus, there should be preferably (inserted) the nine gems.
328. The single phalli may be furnished with one or many ears (or comers, karṇa)
329-330. Thus is described the Vajra (diamond) phallus; its jewels will be stated here: it should be furnished with one or many of the nine gems.
331-333. The altar of the phallus which is said to be made of gold should be furnished with jewels; or the wise (architect) should make the altar with gold alone: thus is described the (Svarṇa (golden) phallus, its characteristic features should be as aforesaid.
334. The phallus should be measured in the hand (cubit) of the priest (lit., preceptor), or is the finger (aṅgula) of the disciple.
335. Thereafter (i.e., after the carving) the worshipping (of the phallus and altar) should be performed as advised by the priest (lit., preceptor).
336. Now the (good) fruit of worshipping the phallus in accordance with rules will be stated (in detail).
337-338. The worshipping of the phallus near the river or the mountain leads (the worshipper) to the Kailāśa (a kind of heaven, being the abode of Śiva), and in this world he becomes the object of respect: it (the worship) is thus fruitful for fruition and salvation,
339. The fruit of worshipping a jewel phallus is what leads to salvation.
340. The fruit of worshipping a gold phallus is heavenly beatitude.
341-342. If the altar be made with gold, its phallus is said to be made with pearls, or with any other precious materials, or with other materials liked (chosen) by the master: this is sanctioned, and there will be no defect in it.
343-346. The short lasting phallus for temporary worship should be made of the rust of iron (maṇḍūra) mixed with water, or of flower or lotus, with sand rounded with hand, with rice grain mixed with molasses, or of sweet-meat (modaka), or ground cake (piṣṭaka), cow-dung, or whatever else may be liked.
347-348. All these phalli too should be shaped like the ordinary phallus (as aforesaid); but all the details of the measurement need not be followed (for these phalli), as they are considered (lit., meditated on) to be for sacrificial purposes only (dakṣiṇakā).
349-350. The length of the phallus should be tested by the rules of the six formulas, namely, the āya, etc., as is done in all other measurements; but with regard to the self-revealed and other phalli which are furnished with natural measurement all those tests known as the āya, etc., need not be applied.
351-354. With regard to the height of the single phalli for public worship, the yoni, āya, vyaya, bha (ṛkṣa), vāra, and aṃśa should be ascertained according to the following formulas: it (the height) should be multiplied by three, eight, nine, eight, nine, and four respectively, and the products should be divided by eight, twelve, ten, twenty-seven, seven, and nine respectively.
355-358. The mare, (she) buffalo, lioness, bitch, cow, (female) donkey, (female) elephant, and (female) crow: these are the eight Yonis in order; the ancients say that the mare, lioness, (female) elephant, aṇd cow (lit., female bull) are the auspicious and preferable yonis, and the others are the inauspicious yonis.
359-362. The military prosperity (lit., weapon), general progress, support, general peace, increase of vigilance (lit., eye), of intelligence, of beauty, and good luck, prosperity, happiness, great increment, and plentifulness: these are the twelve respective fruits (of the twelve āyas).
363-366. Fruition, salvation, auspiciousness, increment of prosperity, fortune, fulfilment of wealth, enjoyment, destruction of quarrel, and friendship: those are, oh Brahman, said to be the ten respective fruits (of the ten vyayas).
367-370. The increased āya and the decreased vyaya should be preferable; but the decreased āya and the increased vyaya will be the sources of death, poverty, and destruction; therefore, the increased or equal āya should be chosen for prosperity.
371. Of the planets excluding the birth one, the sixth, the eighth, and the ninth planets are inauspicious (the other being auspicious).
372. All other days excluding the Saturday should increase fruition (enjoyment), strength, and wealth.
373-376. Of the aṃśas (parts), the bhūṣa, śuddha, dhīra, candana, veśman, bhrūbandhana, and vīra: these are auspicious for fruition, and salvation; all other aṃśas beginning with the taskara (thief) if selected would destroy all prosperity.
Thus in the Mānasāra, the science of architecture, the fifty-second chapter, entitled: “The description of the phalli (of Śiva).”
Footnotes and references:
The lines 69-73 appear to be the result of some confusion.
Compare lines 156-158 where alternative forms are suggested for the top portion of the phallus.
See Chapter IX, and the writer’s Dictionary, pages 294-296.
Compare the method prescribed for the collection of wood for pillars, in Chapter XV, 251-256, pages 165-166.
See Chapter XV, 257-307, pages 166-168.
It may mean foreign or of the Ionian Grecian origin (yavana); but the context does not admit of such an interpretation, compare lines 213, 215.
See Chapter IX and the writer’s Dictionary, pages 732-738.
There are stated to be fifty-one places in India where elevated altars, symbolising Satī, the devoted consort of Śiva, are worshipped. More detailed account of the altar is given in the next chapter. Here the altars are mentioned because they form more component parts of the phallus, while in the next chapter they may be separate and independent elevated platform-like objects without any figure or image.
Compare pages 532-535, 166-168.
Compare lines 209, etc .
Compare lines 211, etc .
Five, six, or seven yavas make one aṅgula (see chapter II, 46-48, pages 7[?]8).
This refers to the six formulas beginning from āya, with which all measures are verified, compare line 282 below, and see tor other references and explanation the writer’s Dictionary, pages 600-611.
Compare the preceding note and the lines 350-376.
Compare lines 234, 261 etc. of this chapter.
Compare the writer’s Dictionary (page 600); the more usual formulas are the following:
Āya is the remainder of (length x 8) / 12;
Vyaya is the remainder of (breadth x 9) / 10;
Ṛkṣa is the remainder of (length x 8) / 27;
Yoni is the remainder of (breadth x 8) / 8;
Vāra is the remainder of (height x 9) / 7;
Aṃśa is the remainder of (height x 4) / 9;