Vikalpa: 14 definitions
Vikalpa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
Vikalpa (विकल्प) refers to “alternative” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vikalpa (विकल्प).—Choice or option re: the application of a rule as stated by the word वा, विभाषा, अन्यतरस्याम् (vā, vibhāṣā, anyatarasyām) or the like; cf.नेति प्रतिषेधो वेति विकल्पः तयोः प्रतिषेधविकल्पयोः (neti pratiṣedho veti vikalpaḥ tayoḥ pratiṣedhavikalpayoḥ) 'विभाषा (vibhāṣā)' इति संज्ञा भवति विभाषाप्रकरणे प्रतिपधेविकल्पौ उपतिष्टेते । तत्र प्रतिपेधेन समीकृते विषये प्रश्चद्विकल्पः प्रवर्तते (iti saṃjñā bhavati vibhāṣāprakaraṇe pratipadhevikalpau upatiṣṭete | tatra pratipedhena samīkṛte viṣaye praścadvikalpaḥ pravartate) Kas. on P, I. 1 44.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Vikalpa (विकल्प).—An ancient country of India famous in the Purāṇas. (Mahābhārata, Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Stanza 59).Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Vikalpa (विकल्प) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.57) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vikalpa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Vikalpa (विकल्प) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).
Cirañjīva defines vikalpa-alaṃkāra as follows—“vākārādairvikalpaścedalaṅkāraḥ sa eva hi”.—“When alternative is mean by the use of the word vā etc. the figure of speech vikalpa takes place”.
Example of the vikalpa-alaṃkāra:—
abandho bandho vā bhavatu bhavakārāgṛhamanu stutirvā nindā vā prasaratu satāṃ saṃsadi sadā |
sarojālīśaṅkākṣaṇamiladalivrātamalināḥ kaṭākṣāste sākṣātkhathamapi na yāsyanti hṛdayāt ||
“Let the prison in the form of this world be fruitful or fuetile in future. Let praise or censure always be spread out in the assembly of virtuous people; but your direct sidelong glances which are dark as multitude of bees and which are opened for a while due to fear from the friend of lotuses (bees) will never subside from my heart”.
Notes: In this verse the prison in the form of world has been described to be fruitful or futile alternatively with the use of the word vā in the first line. This word vā has again been used to mention praise or censure alternatively, so it is an example of vikalpa.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Vikalpa (विकल्प) refers to the “three kinds of discrimination” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 135):
- anusmaraṇa-vikalpa (discrimination through recollection),
- saṃtīrana-vikalpa (discrimination through investigation),
- sahaja-vikalpa (innate discrimination).
The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., vikalpa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vikalpa (विकल्प).—m (S) Opposition or difference of opinion respecting. 2 An opposite or a different opinion. 3 An alternative, a sphere or a subject of option. 4 Suspicion, surmise, evil apprehension concerning: also an evil, bad, or wrong surmise or thought. 5 Dubiety, doubt, indecision, doubleness of opinion or of intention regarding. Ex. aisē divasa lōṭatāṃ phāra || avalīsa vi0 pātalā thōra ||. 6 A thought, fancy, notion about. Generally pl. 7 In grammar. Admission of more than one form or rule. vi0 ghālaṇēṃ To cast doubt upon; or to inject doubtfulness. Ex. āmucēṃ tēthēṃ rata hōtēṃ citta || tyānta vi0 ghātalā tuṃvā ||.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
vikalpa (विकल्प).—m A different opinion. An alter- native. Suspicion. A fancy. vikalpa pālaṇēṃ To cast doubt upon.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vikalpa (विकल्प).—1 Doubt, uncertainty, indecision, hesitation; तत् सिषेवे नियोगेन स विकल्पपराङ्मुखः (tat siṣeve niyogena sa vikalpaparāṅmukhaḥ) R.17.49.
2) Suspicion; Mu.1.
3) Contrivance, art; मायाविकल्परचितैः (māyāvikalparacitaiḥ) R.13.75.
4) Option, alternative (in gram.); तुल्यार्थयोर्हि तुल्यविषययो- र्विकल्पो भवति न नानार्थयोः (tulyārthayorhi tulyaviṣayayo- rvikalpo bhavati na nānārthayoḥ) ŚB. on MS.1.6.33.
5) Sort, variety; दण्डविकल्पः (daṇḍavikalpaḥ) Ms.9.228; भूषणानां विकल्पम् (bhūṣaṇānāṃ vikalpam) Me.76.
6) An error, a mistake, ignorance.
7) Distinction; एवं सुरासुरगणाः समदेशकालहेत्वर्थकर्ममतयोऽपि फलेऽविकल्पाः (evaṃ surāsuragaṇāḥ samadeśakālahetvarthakarmamatayo'pi phale'vikalpāḥ) Bhāg.8.9.28.
8) A division of Kalpa; यावान् कल्पो विकल्पो वा यथा कालोऽनुमीयते (yāvān kalpo vikalpo vā yathā kālo'numīyate) Bhāg.2.8.12.
9) A god; वैकारिको विकल्पानाम् (vaikāriko vikalpānām) Bhāg.1.85.11.
1) Origin (utpatti); आत्मा केवल आत्मस्थो विकल्पापायलक्षणः (ātmā kevala ātmastho vikalpāpāyalakṣaṇaḥ) Bhāg.11.25.27.
11) Admission, statement.
12) Fancy, imagination.
13) Mental occupation.
Derivable forms: vikalpaḥ (विकल्पः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Vikalpa (विकल्प).—m. (1) (Sanskrit id., [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 1 g, at least in very similar meaning, but in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] more technical; whether Pali vikappa occurs in this sense is not clear; compare vikalpayati 1), (vain) imagining, especially false discrimination between true and false, real and unreal; seems substantially identical with kalpa 3 and parikalpa 1: compounded or associated with one or both of them, qq.v., Lalitavistara 34.11; Śikṣāsamuccaya 272.7; Kāśyapa Parivarta 94.3; Lalitavistara 250.16; 420.11; 422.20; Gaṇḍavyūha 350.5—6; eṣo asaṅgaprājñaḥ kalpair vikalpamukto Lalitavistara 223.21 (kalpair here = long periods of time; in next line kalpair is Lefm.'s insertion, mss. defective); in Dharmasaṃgraha 135 three vikalpāḥ, viz. anusmaraṇa-vi°, saṃtiraṇa-vi° (read saṃtīraṇa-, q.v., with v.l.), sahaja-vi° (compare Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. i.60); eight vi° Bodhisattvabhūmi 50.23, listed 25—27, svabhāva-vi°, viśeṣa-, piṇḍagrāha-, aham iti vi°, mameti vi°, priya-, apriya-, tadubhayaviparītaś ca vikalpaḥ (all expl. in the sequel); Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 227.18—19 also says, vikalpo 'ṣṭadhā bhidyate, but I find no evidence as to what the eight kinds are (are they connected with the eight vijñāna, mentioned in 227.10?); vikalpa is a common and important word in Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra, one of the five dharma (2, q.v. 3); kleśendhana- vikalpa-kṣayakaraṃ Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 12.3—4, (Buddha) who destroys (false) discrimination, the fuel of the depravities (wrongly Suzuki); Suzuki's translation(s) seems also wrong in Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 9.7 ff. (verses) anyatra hi vikalpo 'yaṃ buddhadharmākṛtisthitiḥ, ye paśyanti yathādṛṣṭaṃ na te paśyanti nāyakaṃ, apra- vṛttivikalpaś ca yadā buddhaṃ na paśyati, apravṛttibhave buddhaḥ saṃbuddho yadi paśyati, on the contrary (anya- tra) this is a false discrimination, viz. abiding in (resting upon) the external form of the Buddha and Doctrine. Those who see him as seen (with worldly sight), they do not (truly) see the Buddha. And when, having no productive-(false-)- discrimination, one does not see the Buddha (as an earthly figure), in non-originative condition, he is a Buddha, a Perfectly Enlightened One, if he sees (thus; the Wei rendering cited in Suzuki's note seems to me to support this); (2) (to vikalpayati 2; the noun not recorded in Pali) gift, provision (for a monk or saint or Buddha), especially of garments: vayaṃ bhagavato divyāṃ vikalpāṃ duṣyāṇi (so mss.) dāsyāmaḥ. bhagavāṃ teṣāṃ devatānāṃ vikalpaṃ (Senart em. °pa; mss. kalpaṃ) duṣyapradānāni nādhivāsa- yati Mahāvastu iii.312.10—11, (let not the Lord accept a garment of linen rags;) we will give the Lord supernatural gifts, fine cloth garments. The Lord did not accept the present of those [Page480-b+ 71] gods, the gifts of fine garments; vikalpa-hetoḥ Bodhisattvabhūmi 128.16, as a gift (see the preceding passage s.v. vikalpayati 2).
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Vikalpā (विकल्पा).—(1): paraspara-vikalpayā Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 287.7 (verse); perhaps m.c. for °pena, which would not fit metrical(ly) here.
Vikalpā can also be spelled as Vikalpa (विकल्प).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-lpaḥ) 1. Error, ignorance, mistake. 2. Alternative, option. 3. Doubt, indecision. 4. (In rhetoric,) Antithesis of opposites. 5. (In grammar, &c.,) Admission of more than one form or rule. 6. Device. E. vi distinction, and kalpa making, &c.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Vikalpa (विकल्प).—i. e. vi-kḷp + a, m. 1. Option, [Daśakumāracarita] in.
Vikalpa (विकल्प).—[masculine] alternative, choice between two or more; difference, variety; supposition, (false) conception; uncertainty, doubt.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Vikalpa (विकल्प):—[=vi-kalpa] [from vi] 1. vi-kalpa m. (for 2. See under vi-√kḷp) an intermediate Kalpa, the interval between two Kalpas. (q.v.), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
2) [=vi-kalpa] a etc. See under vi-√kḷp.
3) [=vi-kalpa] [from vi-kḷp] 2. vi-kalpa m. (for 1. See p. 950, col. 1) alternation, alternative, option, [???; Manu-smṛti; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc. (pena ind. ‘optionally’)
4) [v.s. ...] variation, combination, variety, diversity, manifoldness, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] contrivance, art, [Raghuvaṃśa]
6) [v.s. ...] difference of perception, distinction, [Nyāyasūtra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
7) [v.s. ...] indecision, irresolution, doubt, hesitation, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
8) [v.s. ...] admission, statement, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
9) [v.s. ...] false notion, fancy, imagination, [Yoga-sūtra; Gīta-govinda]
10) [v.s. ...] calculation, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
11) [v.s. ...] mental occupation, thinking, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] = kalpa-sthāna, [Caraka]
13) [v.s. ...] a god, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa] ([Scholiast or Commentator])
14) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) antithesis of opposites, [Pratāparudrīya]
15) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) admission of an option or alternative, the allowing a rule to be observed or not at pleasure (veti vikalpaḥ, [Pāṇini 1-1, 44 [Scholiast or Commentator]])
16) [v.s. ...] a collateral form, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
17) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata] ([Calcutta edition] vikalya)
18) [v.s. ...] mfn. different, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Ends with (+2): Anusmaranavikalpa, Apraptavikalpa, Arthavikalpa, Ashtavikalpa, Avikalpa, Dandavikalpa, Devikalpa, Durvikalpa, Mithyavikalpa, Naikavikalpa, Nirvikalpa, Nirvvikalpa, Patikavetravanavikalpa, Pattikavetrabanavikalpa, Praptavikalpa, Prativikalpa, Sahajavikalpa, Samtiranavikalpa, Santiranavikalpa, Savikalpa.
Full-text (+56): Dandavikalpa, Nirvikalpa, Vikalpaka, Kalpa, Vikalpajala, Vaikalpika, Vaikalpa, Nirvikalpaka, Avikalpa, Vikalpin, Vikalpavat, Vikalpatva, Vikalpita, Savikalpa, Vyavasthitavikalpa, Nirvikalpavada, Praptavikalpatva, Nirvikalpavicara, Three Kinds of Discrimination, Vikalpena.
Search found 40 books and stories containing Vikalpa, Vikalpā, Vi-kalpa; (plurals include: Vikalpas, Vikalpās, kalpas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 3 - Explanation of the word ‘śrutam’ (śruta) < [Chapter II - Evam Mayā Śrutam Ekasmin Samaye]
2. Actions producing the thirty-two marks (dvātriṃśallakṣaṇa) < [Part 4 - The Bodhisattva in the Abhidharma system]
II. Knowledge of the aspect of the paths < [VI. Acquiring the knowledges of the paths and the aspects of the paths]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 1574 < [Chapter 19b - (B) On analogical cognition]
Verse 31 < [Chapter 1 - Examination of the Doctrine of Primordial Matter (prakṛti)]
Verse 888 < [Chapter 16 - Examination of the Import of Words]
Narada Parivrajaka Upanishad of Atharvaveda (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux (by Satkari Mookerjee)
Chapter XXI - The Theory of Perception as propounded by Dharmakīrti and Dharmottara < [Part II - Logic and Epistemology]
Chapter IV - A Critical Estimate of the Sautrāntika Theory of Causation < [Part I - Metaphysics]
Chapter XIX - Mano-vijñāna or Mental Perception < [Part II - Logic and Epistemology]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)