Jati, aka: Jātī, Jāti, Jaṭī, Jaṭi; 34 Definition(s)


Jati means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Jātī (जाती):—One of the sixty-seven Mahauṣadhi, as per Rasaśāstra texts (rasa literature). These drugs are useful for processing mercury (rasa), such as the alchemical processes known as sūta-bandhana and māraṇa.

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

1) Jāti (जाति):—A Sanskrit word referring to the Jasminum grandiflorum (“Jasmine”) plant and is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. It is also known by the name Mālatī in Sanskrit, and in Hindi it is also known as Camelī. The plant is also known in Englsh as “Royal jasmine” (etc.). It is native to South Asia and beyond and is widely cultivated in warm temperate and subtropical regions.

2) Jatī (जती) is another name for Mallikā (Jasminum sambac “Sambac jasmine”), from the Oleaceae family of flowering plants. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā.

3) Jaṭī (जटी) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of animal. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Jaṭī is part of the sub-group named Pratuda, refering to animals “who eat while striking”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1) Jaṭī (जटी).—A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 61).

2) Jāti (जाति).—See under Cāturvarṇya.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

Jātī (जाती) refers to the lotus and represents flowers (puṣpa) once commonly used in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa verse 429. The lotus is also called by the names Kamala, Jalaja (verse 45), Padma, and Nīlanalina, Nīlotpala (verse 62 and 339), Irā (verse 673-675ff.) and Kunda (verse 495).

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Jaṭī (जटी).—A group of heretics.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 14. 40.

1b) A name of Vighneśvara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 70.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Jaṭī (जटी) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.56) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Jaṭī) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Jāti (जाति) refers to “futility” (sophisticated refutation). It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Jāti (जाति, “futility”) refers to “sophisticated refutation” and represents the fifteenth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Jāti means unfair sentence which is stated based on false analogy. In the Nyāyasūtra, Gautama defines that it is known as jāti in which objection is founded on mere similarity or dissimilarity. As for example: one infers that sound is non-eternal as it is an effect like the pot. But other one gives an objection that sound is eternal, as it is spiritual like the sky. Here the objection is a kind of jāti, because there is no necessary relation between the spiritual and the eternal.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Katha (narrative stories)

Jāti (जाति).—Soḍḍhala mentions three chief Jātis or “varieties of poets”. They are:

  1. Kaukilī,
  2. Māyūrī,
  3. Mārālī.

The illustrations of the same have been given by the author himself.

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Jāti (जाति, “birth”) refers to the recognized melody-types of the day according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28.—The jātis relating to the overlapping notes (svarasādhāraṇa) are three in number: Madhyama, Pañcamī and Ṣaḍjamadhyā. Their constituent parts are Ṣaḍja, Madhyama and Pañcama of which the Pañcamī will be distinct, but weaker than the rest in its own note (i.e. Pañcama).

The seven jātis in the ṣaḍja-grāma are:

  1. Ṣāḍji,
  2. Ārṣabhī,
  3. Dhaivati,
  4. Naiṣādi,
  5. Ṣaḍjodīcyavatī,
  6. Ṣaḍjakaiśikī,
  7. Ṣaḍjamadhyamā.

The eleven jātis in the madhyama-grāma are:

  1. Gāndhārī,
  2. Raktagāndhārī,
  3. Gāndhārodīcyavā,
  4. Madhyamodīcyavā,
  5. Madhyama,
  6. Pāñcamī,
  7. Gāndhārapañcamī,
  8. Āndhrī,
  9. Nandayantī,
  10. Karmāravī,
  11. Kaiśikī.

Ten characteristics of the Jātis are: graha, aṃśa, tāra, mandra, nyāsa, apanyāsa, alpatva (reduction), bahutva (amplification), ṣāḍava (hexatonic treatment), and auḍavīta (pentatonic treatment).

2) Jāti (जाति) refers to a combination of the dhātus (roots), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. The four dhātus relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).

There are four different jātis defined:

  1. udātta,
  2. lalita,
  3. ribhita,
  4. ghana.

3) Jāti (जाति, “class”) refers to one of the five cause of songs (dhrūva) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the number of syllables in the metre of a dhruvā constitute its class (jāti)”. This refers to syllabic metres.

4) Jāti (जाति) refers to a set of eighteen rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

The following are the eighteen jātis connected with the twenty prakāras:

  1. Śuddhā,
  2. Ekarūpā,
  3. Deśānurūpā,
  4. Deśādapetarūpā,
  5. Paryāya,
  6. Viṣkambha,
  7. Paryastā,
  8. Saṃrambhā,
  9. Pārṣṇisamastā,
  10. Duṣkarakaraṇā,
  11. Ūrdhvagoṣṭhikā,
  12. Uccitikā,
  13. Evaṃvādyā,
  14. Mṛdaṅgapaṇava,
  15. Avakīrṇā,
  16. Ardhāvakīrṇa,
  17. Saṃplavā,
  18. Vidhūta.

These are the jātis to be known by the wise for application in the walk and other movements. Those which are not mentioned here, should be taken from the people and with a view to their meaning. Prakāras and jātis apply to all mārgas. But in movements they are to be in their pure forms.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Jāti (जाति).—According to the Śāstras, jāti is so called owing to its being born of two Grāmas, viz., ‘ṣaḍja-grāma’ and ‘madhyama-grāma’. Compositions using varṇas (notes) and alaṃkāras have been classified under jātis.

There are seven types of śuddha or pure jātis, each taking the name of a note viz.,

  1. ṣāḍjī,
  2. ārṣabhī (from ṛṣabha),
  3. gāndhārī,
  4. madhyamā,
  5. pañcamī,
  6. dhaivatī,
  7. naiṣādī (or niṣādī).

There are various rules for pure and mixed jātis mentioned in details in the Śāstras. Barring the pure jātis mentioned above, there are about 129 mixed jātis. Indian modes were known as jātis until rāga names replaced them.

In modern use jāti means class in music, and is used to denote:

1) Quantitative class of scales, eg.,

  1. anuḍuva-jāti (pentatonic class, scales using five notes),
  2. ṣāḍava-jāti (hexatonic class, scales using six notes),
  3. sampūrṇa-jāti (heptatonic class, using all the seven notes).

2) Qualitative class of rāgas e.g.,

  1. śuddha-jāti (pure class),
  2. chāyālaga-jāti (rāga having a shadow of another rāga),
  3. saṃkīrṇa-jāti (rāga having several rāgas mixed together)
Source: Google Books: The Dictionary of Hindustani Classical Music

Jāti (जाति).—Mataṅga says that jātis are so-called because the rāgas are born of them. (cf Mataṅga’s 9th century Bṛhaddeśī)

Source: archive.org: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music

Jāti (जाति).—The metres regulated by akṣaras are called vṛttas and those regulated by mātrās are called jātis. A vṛtta is divided into three classes viz. samavṛtta, ardhasamavṛtta, and viṣamavṛtta. Again, yati or pause or caesura is a part of a verse, at which the reader is required to stop his breath and then proceed on.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Jāti (जाति).—A generic property which has been accepted by the Grammarians as one of the five denotations of nominal stems.

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Jāti (जाति).—Genus; class;universal;the notion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kind. The biggest or widest notion of the universal or genus is सत्ता (sattā) which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it is the denotation or denoted sense of every substantive or Pratipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an individual object is required for daily affairs and is actually referred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahabhasya a learned discussion is held regarding whether जाति (jāti) is the denotation or व्यक्ति (vyakti) is the denotation. The word जाति (jāti) is defined in the Mahabhasya as follows:-आकृतिग्रहणा जातिर्लिङ्गानां च न सर्वभाक् । सकृदाख्यातनि-र्गाह्या गोत्रं च चरणैः सह ॥ अपर आह । ग्रादुभीवविनाशाभ्यां सत्त्वस्य युगपद्गुणैः । असर्व-लिङ्गां बह्वर्थो तां जातिं कवयो विदुः (ākṛtigrahaṇā jātirliṅgānāṃ ca na sarvabhāk | sakṛdākhyātani-rgāhyā gotraṃ ca caraṇaiḥ saha || apara āha | grādubhīvavināśābhyāṃ sattvasya yugapadguṇaiḥ | asarva-liṅgāṃ bahvartho tāṃ jātiṃ kavayo viduḥ) M. Bh. on IV. 1.63. For details see Bhartphari's Vakyapadiya.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Jāti (जाति).—The Classical metres are divided into three types viz. 1. vṛtta or varṇa, 2. mātrā or jāti 3. gadya. The metres (chandas) which are calculated through letters are called as varṇa type, and the mātrā type is calculated by syllabic instances. The gadya type of metres are not accepted by all prosodicians, but authorities like Gaṅgādāsa, Candraśekhara, Raghunātha and Gopīnātha advocate for this metre.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Jāti (जाति).—Hereditary social and occupational group, often translated caste. Note: Jāti is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Jāti (जाति, ”category”):—While varṇa seems to have come from occupation, culture, and aptitude, jāti seems to emphasize on birth, family reputation, (family) profession, and economic status. Varṇa takes into account the worth of the individual and constructs a social system for the division of labour.

Further, varṇa emphasizes the prescribed duties for the community. Jāti, on the other hand, takes into account the history of the family and cares little for the prescribed duties. It is more concerned with rights and privileges. It is noteworthy that the term jāti in the sense of social classification hardly ever occurs in the Vedas. Interestingly, the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa uses the word jāti to denote ‘species.’

Source: India Facts: Exploring the World of Varna

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

F (Rebirth). The fact to take rebirth.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Jati or jata means arising or coming up.

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

(literally birth or nature) Cittas can be classified in many ways and one of these is the classification by way of "jati". Cittas can be of the following four jatis:

  1. akusala
  2. kusala
  3. vipaka (result )
  4. kiriya (inoperative, neither cause nor result)
Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

'birth', comprises the entire embryonic process beginning with conception and ending with parturition.

"The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their conception (okkanti) and springing into existence, the manifestation of the groups (corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations, consciousness; s. khandha), the acquiring of their sensitive organs: this is called birth" (D. 22). For its conditioning by the prenatal karma-process (kamma-bhava; s. bhava), s. paticcasamuppāda (9, 10), patisandhi.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Jāti (जाति, “birth”) refers to the eleventh of twelve pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. As a consequence of this bhava, one reassumes the five aggregates (skandha) of the new lifetime (punarbhava). This is called jāti, birth. The decay of the five skandhas coming from this jāti is called jarāmaraṇa, old-age-and-death. Jarāmaraṇa gives rise to dissatisfaction (daurmanasya), sorrow (parideva) and all kinds of worries (śoka); and thus the mass of suffering accumulates.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Jāti (जाति, “birth”) refers to one of the thirteen “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “unassociated with mind” (citta-viprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., jāti). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Jāti also refers to the eleventh of the “twelve factors of conditional origination” (pratītyasamutpāda) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 42).

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Jāti (जाति, “caste”) as in jāti-mada refers to “pride of caste” and represents one of the eight forms of vainglory (mada), according to Samantabhadra in his Ratna-Karaṇḍa-śrāvakācāra (with commentary of Prabhācandra). These eight madas are included in the twenty-five blemishes (dṛg-doṣas), which are generally held to be the eight madas, the three mūḍhatās, the six anāyatanas, and the eight doṣas.

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Jāti (जाति, “genus”) refers to “class body-making karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by the class (jāti) body-making karma? The karmas rise of which produces birth in a grouping of similar / alike beings (called jāti) without deviating from the particular realm is called class body-making karma. 

How many sub types of class (jāti) body-making (nāma) karmas are there? These karmas are of five types, namely:

  1. one sensed living beings (ekendriya),
  2. two sensed living beings (dvīndriya),
  3. three sensed living beings (trīndriya),
  4. four sensed living beings (caturindriya),
  5. five sensed living beings (pañcendriya).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

jāti : (f.) birth; rebirth; race; nation; genealogy; a sort of; a kind of.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Jāti, (f.) (see janati & cp. Gr. geneά, gέnesis; Lat. gens; Goth. kind-ins).—Instr. jātiyā (Sn. 423) & jaccā (D. II, 8; J. III, 395; Dh. 393); Abl. jātiyā (S. I, 88) & jātito (by descent: D. II, 8); Loc. jātiyaṃ (PvA. 10) & jātiyā (PvA. 78).—1. birth, rebirth, possibility of rebirth, “future life” as disposition to be born again, “former life” as cause of this life. Defined (cp. the corresp. expln of jarā) as: yā tesaṃ tesaṃ sattanaṃ tamhi tamhi satta-nikāye jāti sañjāti okkanti abhinibbatti khandhānaṃ pātubhāvo āyataṇānaṃ paṭilābho D. II, 305 =S. II, 3=Nd2 257.—Jāti is a condition precedent of age, sickness & death, and is fraught with sorrow, pain & disappointment. It is itself the final outcome of a kamma, resting on avijjā, performed in anterior births; & forms thus the concluding link in the chain of the Paṭicca-samuppāda. Under the first aspect it is enumd in various formulæ, either in full or abbreviated (see Nd2 258), viz, (a) as (1) jāti, (2) jarā, (3) vyādhi, (4) maraṇa, (5) sokaparidevadukkhadomanass’upāyāsa in the dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ (the noble truth of what is misfortune) Vin. I, 10; A. I, 176; III, 416; °dhamma destined to be born, etc. M. I, 161 sq. , 173;— A. V, 216; Nd2 258, 304, 630, etc., in var. connections (referring to some dukkha).—(b) as Nos. 1—4: Nd2 254, 494b; J. I, 168, etc.—(c) as Nos. 1, 2, 4 (the standard quotation, implying the whole series 1—5): S. V, 224; A. V, 144; jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ Vin. I, 1; D. II, 31, 57, etc.; °ika A. II, 11, 173; °īya M. I, 280; Nd2 40.—(d) to this is sometimes added (as summing up) saṃsāra: Nd2 282f; cp. kicchaṃ loko āpanno jāyati ca jīyati ca mīyati ca cavati ca uppajjati ca D. II, 30.—(e) as Nos. 1+4: pahīna-jātimaraṇa (adj.) (=free from life & death, i.e. saṃsāra) A. I, 162; °bhayassa pāraga A. II, 15; °kovida Sn. 484; atāri °ṃ asesaṃ Sn. 355 (cp. 500); °assa pāraga Sn. 32.—(f)=e+saṃsāra (cp. d): sattā gacchanti saṃsāraṃ jātimaraṇagāmino A. II, 12=52; jātimaraṇasaṃsāraṃ ye vajanti punappunaṃ ... avijjāy’eva sā gati Sn. 729.—(g) as Nos. 1+2, which implies the whole series: atāri so jātijaraṃ A. I, 133= Sn. 1048; jātijar’upaga Sn. 725=It. 106; saṃyojanaṃ jātijarāya chetvā It. 42;— Sn. 1052, 1060; Dh. 238, 348; cp. jāti ādinā nihīna PvA. 198.—Other phrases & applications: Various rebirths are seen by one who has perfect insight into all happening & remembers his former existences (D. I, 81; III, 50; A. I, 164; M. II, 20). Arahantship implies the impossibility of a future rebirth: see formula khīṇā jāti (M. I, 139; Sn. p. 16, etc.) and arahant II. A: jātiyā parimuccati S. I, 88; jātiṃ bhabbo pahātuṃ A. V, 144 sq.—antimā jāti the last rebirth D. II, 15 (cp. carima); purimā j. a former existence PvA. 1; atītajātiyaṃ in a former life (=pure) PvA. 10. On jāti as dukkha see Vism. 498—501. ‹-› 2. descent, race, rank, genealogy (cp. fuή, genus), often combd w. gotta. Two grades of descent are enumd at Vin. IV, 6 as hīnā jāti (low birth), consisting of Candāḷa, Veṇa, Nesāda, Rathakāra & Pukkusa; and ukkaṭṭhā j. (superior birth), comprising Khattiyas & Brāhmaṇas.—The var. meanings of jāti are given by Bdhgh at Vism. 498, 499 in the foll. classification (with examples) bhava, nikāya, saṅkhata-lakkhaṇa, paṭisandhi, pasūti, kula, ariya-sīla.—Kiṃ hi jāti karissati? What difference makes his parentage? D. I, 121; jāti-rājāno kings of birth, genuine kings J. I, 338; na naṃ jāti nivāresi brahmalok’ûpapattiyā Sn. 139; jātiṃ akkhāhi tell me the rank of his father & mother Sn. 421, 1004; cp. 462; na jaccā vasalo hoti Sn. 136; 142; id. w. brāhmaṇo Sn. 650; with nāma & gotta in the description of a man jātiyā nāmena gottena, etc. Vin. IV, 6; jātito nāmato gottato by descent, personal & family name D ii. 8; cp. jāti - gotta - kula J ii. 3. See also j.—vāda.—3. a sort of, kind of (cp. jāta 3): catujātigandha four kinds of scent J. I, 265; II, 291. ‹-› 4. (jāti°) by (mere) birth or nature, natural (opp. artificial); or genuine, pure, excellent (opp. adulterated, inferior), cp. jāta 1 (b): in cpds. , like °maṇi, °vīṇā, etc.

—kkhaya the destruction of the chance of being reborn S. V, 168; A. I, 167; Sn. 209, 517, 743; Dh. 423. —khetta the realm of rebirth PvA. 138 (=dasa cakkavāḷasahassāni); —thaddha conceited, proud of birth Sn. 104 (+dhanatthaddha, gotta°: proud of wealth & name); —thera a Th. by rank D. III, 218; —nirodha the extermination of (the cause of) rebirth Vin. I, 1≈; —pabhava the origin or root of existence Sn. 728; —puppha nutmeg J. VI, 367; —bhaya the fear of rebirth A. II, 121; —bhūmi natural ground, in °bhūmaka, °bhūmika, °bhūmiya living on nat. gr. (vassaṃ vasati) M. I, 145; A. III, 366; —maṇi a genuine precious stone J. II, 417; —maya constituting birth, being like birth ThA. 285; —vāda reputation of birth, character of descent, parentage. The 1st of the 5 characteristics constituting a “well-bred” brahmin: yāva sattamā pitāmahāyugā akkhitto anupakkuṭṭho jātivādena “of unblemished parentage back to the 7th generation” D. I, 120, etc. (=DA. I, 281); A. I, 166; III, 152, 223; Sn. 315, 596. Cp. gotta-vāda (e.g. D. I, 99); —vibhaṅga a characteristic of birth, a distinction in descent Sn. 600; —vīṇā a first-class lute J. II, 249; —sampanna endowed with (pure) birth (in phrase khattiyo muddhâvasitto j. °) A. III, 152; —sambhava the origin of birth A. I, 142; III, 311; J. I, 168; —sambheda difference of rank DhA. I, 166; —saṃsāra the cycle of transmigration, the saṃsāra of rebirths (see above 1 d. f.): pahīna left behind, overcome (by an Arahant) M. I, 139; A. III, 84, 86; °ṃ khepetvā id. Th. 2, 168; vitiṇṇo j. ° n’atthi tassa punabbhavo Sn. 746; —sindhava a well-bred horse J. II, 97; —ssara the remembrance of (former) births (°ñāṇa) J. I, 167; IV, 29; DhA. II, 27; IV, 51; cp. cutûpapāta-ñāṇa); —hiṅgulaka (& hingulikā) natural vermilion J. V, 67; VvA. 4, 168, 324. (Page 281)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

jatī (जती).—m (yati S) A religious mendicant of one jaina sect.

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jāti (जाति).—f (S) Kind, sort, species, class. 2 Lineage, race, family, tribe. 3 In arithmetic. Assimilation.

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jātī (जाती).—f S Jessamine,--the plant or its flower.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jatī (जती).—m A religious mendicant of the jaita sect.

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jāti (जाति).—f Kind, sort, species, class. Line- age, race.

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jātī (जाती).—

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jaṭi (जटि) or Jaṭī (जटी).—f. [jaṭ-in]

1) The (Indian) fig-tree.

2) Clotted hair.

3) An assemblage, multitude.

Derivable forms: jaṭiḥ (जटिः).

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Jāti (जाति).—f. [jan-ktin]

1) Birth, production, सङ्कुलं जलजातिभिः (saṅkulaṃ jalajātibhiḥ) Rām.3.11.6; Pt.1.38; Ms.2.148; also 'the time of birth'; cf. जातौ बाल्ये च कौमारे यौवने चापि मानवाः (jātau bālye ca kaumāre yauvane cāpi mānavāḥ) Mb.12.158.11.

2) The form of existence fixed by birth.

3) Race, family, lineage, rank.

4) A caste, tribe or class (of men); अरे मूढ जात्या चेदवध्योऽहं एषा सा जातिः परित्यक्ता (are mūḍha jātyā cedavadhyo'haṃ eṣā sā jātiḥ parityaktā) Ve.3; (the primary castes of the Hindus are only four :-brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra).

5) A class, genus, kind, species; पशुजातिः, पुष्पजातिः (paśujātiḥ, puṣpajātiḥ) &c.

6) The properties which are peculiar to a class and distinguish it from all others, the essential characteristics of a species; as गोत्व, अश्वत्व (gotva, aśvatva) of cows, horses &c; see गुण, क्रिया (guṇa, kriyā) and द्रव्य (dravya); जातिक्रियागुणैः (jātikriyāguṇaiḥ) Śi.2.47; and cf. K. P.2.

7) A fire-place.

8) Nutmeg.

9) The Jasmine plant or its flower; नागपुन्नागजातिभिः (nāgapunnāgajātibhiḥ) Bhāg.8.2.18; पुष्पाणां प्रकरः स्मितेन रचितो नो कुन्दजात्यादिभिः (puṣpāṇāṃ prakaraḥ smitena racito no kundajātyādibhiḥ) Amaru.4 (written also as jātī in the last two senses).

1) (In Nyāya) Futile answer.

11) (In music) The seven primary notes of the Indian gamut; जातिभिः सप्तभिर्युक्तं तन्त्रीलयसमन्वितम् (jātibhiḥ saptabhiryuktaṃ tantrīlayasamanvitam) Rām.1.4.8.

12) Reduction of fractions to a common denominator.

13) False generalization.

14) A figure of speech (in rhetoric) which consists in so arranging words that they may read the same in Sanskṛt as well as in Prākṛta (saṃskṛtaprākṛtayoḥ samā jātiḥ); cf. Vb.1.3.

15) A class of metres; see App.

Derivable forms: jātiḥ (जातिः).

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Jātī (जाती).—The jasmine plant (mālatī).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jāti (जाति).—(1) as in Sanskrit, kind, sort, but with forms of nt. gender: tāni sarvāṇi prāṇaka-jātīni Mv ii.95.10 (prose), all those kinds of living beings; (prāṇakajātīyo 14, but then, in same sentence) tāni sthalacarāṇi prāṇakajātīni (v.l. °tāni) 15; compare, in ii.132.17, ekaṃ (so mss.) pi jātiṃ duve pi jātiṃ (mss.) trayo pi jātiṃ (mss.), etc.; (2) f., age (compare -jātīya): daharo 'ham asmi…jātyā SP 318.2 (prose), I am young in age (lit., perhaps, by birth); (3) (as in Pali, e.g. jāti-vīṇā Jāt. ii.249.24, noble lute; and like Sanskrit kula-) at beginning of cpd., characterized by nobility; noble, excellent: jāty-utpalātimuktaiś ca SP 342.8 (verse), with excellent water-lilies and atimukta-flowers (Burnouf and Kern transl. have different readings for the last word).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jaṭi (जटि).—f.

(-ṭiḥ) 1. Waved-leaf fig tree, (F. venosa:) see jaṭin. 2. Assemblage, multitude. 3. Clotted hair: see jaṭā. E. jaṭ to collect, affix in.

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Jaṭī (जटी).—f. (-ṭī) Waved-leaf fig tree: see jaṭi. E. jaṭ to entangle, i Unadi affix, and ṅīṣ added.

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Jāti (जाति).—f.

(-tiḥ) 1. Kind, sort, species, class, tribe. 2. Birth, production. 3. Lineage, race, family. 4. A fire-place, a chimney. 5. Emblic myrobalan, (Phyllanthus emblica.) 6. A plant: see kāmpilla. 7. A kind of poetical metre. 8. A rhetorical ornament. 9. (In Arithmetic,) Assimilation, as viśeṣajāti assimilation of the difference, śeṣajāti of the remainder. 10. Proximate cause or occurance of disease, &c. f. (-tiḥ or -tī) 1. Great flowered jasmin, (J. grandiflorum.) 2. Mace, nutmeg. f.

(-tiḥ) The flower of the jasmin. E. jan to be born, affix ktin and occasionally ṅīṣa added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 359 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Ekajāti (एकजाति).—mfn. (-tiḥ-tiḥ-ti) 1. Of the same caste. 2. Once born. m. (-taḥ) A Sudra. E. ...
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Jātiphala (जातिफल).—(sometimes jātīphalam also) a nutmeg; जातीफलं मातुलानीमहिफेनं च पत्रकम् (jā...
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