Manusha, Manusa, Mānusa, Mānuṣa: 18 definitions



Manusha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Mānuṣa can be transliterated into English as Manusa or Manusha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Mānuṣa (मानुष).—Description of a women of human (mānuṣa) type;—A woman who loves uprightness, is always clever and very virtuous, has regular features (vibhaktāṅgī), is grateful to her benefactors, disposed to worship the elders and gods, always careful about duty (dharma) as well as material gain, and is free from pride and fond of friends and has good habits is said to have the nature of a human being (mānuṣa or nara).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Manuṣa (मनुष, “man”) refers to one of the three gaṇa (clusters), according to the Mānasāra. Gaṇa is one of the three alternative principles, besides the six āyādiṣaḍvarga, used to constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

The particular gaṇa (e.g., manuṣa) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). Of the three gaṇas, the asura (demonic) and manuṣa (human) class are to be avoided.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Mānuṣa (मानुष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mānuṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Mānuṣa (मानुष) refers to “milk coming from a human (i.e., breast)”, as mentioned in verse 5.26 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] among the (different kinds of milk [viz., payas]), [...] Human milk [viz., mānuṣa] (is) destructive of eye-diseases (coming) of wind, choler, blood, and injury, (and that) in the form of refreshments and instillations (as well as) sternutatories”.

Note: Mānuṣa (“human milk”) has been paraphrased by bud-med nu-źo (“a woman’s breast-milk”).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Mānuṣa (मानुष) refers to a class of yakṣa deities according to Digambara while the Śvetāmbara tradition does not reccognize this class. The yakṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The assigned color of yakṣas is black and their caitya-vṛkṣa (sacred tree) is the “banyan tree” (vaṭa).

The deities such as the Mānuṣas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Manusha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mānusa : (adj.) human (m.), a man.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Mānusa, (adj. n.) (cp. Vedic mānuṣa; fr. same base (manus) as manussa) 1. (adj.) human Sn. 301 (bhoga); It. 94 (kāmā dibbā ca mānusā); Pv. II, 921 (m. deha); 956 (id.).—amānusa divine Vv 356; Pv. II, 1220; ghostly (=superhuman) Pv IV. 36; f. amānusī Pv III, 7. 9 — 2. (n. m.) a human being, a man Mhvs 15, 64; f. mānusī a (human) woman J. IV, 231; Pv. II, 41.—amānusa a superhuman being Pv IV. 157.—pl. mānusā men Sn. 361, 644; Pv. II, 117. As nt. in collective sense=mankind Pv. II, 113 (v. l. mānussaṃ; C. =manussaloka). (Page 529)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

māṇūsa (माणूस).—m f n (manuṣya S) A man, a person, a human being: also man or mankind. In designation of the stages downwards from the delicateness, tenderness, and susceptibility pertaining to Civilized humanity unto the rudeness, hardiness, and callousness of Absolute barbarism, three words have been devised to alliterate or jingle with māṇūsa, this word expressing the standard state. These three, with māṇūsa at their head, are (māṇūsa) kāṇūsa, ṭhēkasa, ṭhōmasa. bharalyā māṇasāntūna uṭhaviṇēṃ-kāḍhaṇēṃ-ghālaviṇēṃ To cast out of society. māṇasākāṇasīṃ By or through human beings. māṇusācēṃ kāṇūsa hōṇēṃ To become emaciated or reduced; or to become poor and wretched; i. e. to cease being māṇūsa and to become any non-descript thing. māṇūsa kāṇūsa ōḷakhāvēṃ- jāṇāvēṃ-pāhāvēṃ-dhyānānta dharāvēṃ &c. Make distinction betwixt man and man.

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mānuṣa (मानुष).—m S A man. mānuṣī f S A woman.

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mānuṣa (मानुष) [or षी, ṣī].—a S Pertaining or relating to man, human.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

māṇūsa (माणूस).—See maṇuṣya &c.

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mānuṣa (मानुष).—a Human. m A man.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mānuṣa (मानुष).—a. (-ṣī f.) [मनोरयम् अण् सुक् च (manorayam aṇ suk ca)]

1) Human; मानुषी तनुः, मानुषी वाक् (mānuṣī tanuḥ, mānuṣī vāk) &c.; R.1.6;16.22; मानुषे लोके (mānuṣe loke) Bg. 4.12; अवजानन्ति मां मूढा मानुषीं तनुमाश्रितम् (avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanumāśritam) 9.11; Ms.4.124.

2) Humane, kind.

-ṣaḥ 1 A man, human being.

2) An epithet of the three signs of the zodiac, Gemini, Virgo, and Libra.

-ṣī 1 A woman.

2) A branch of medicine, administering drugs and herbs.

-ṣam 1 Humanity.

2) Human effort or action; मानुषं च स्वाध्यायप्रवचने च (mānuṣaṃ ca svādhyāyapravacane ca) T. Up.1.9.1.

3) Manhood; श्रीरेषा द्रौपदीरूपा त्वदर्थे मानुषं गता (śrīreṣā draupadīrūpā tvadarthe mānuṣaṃ gatā) Mb.18.4.12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mānuṣa (मानुष).—name of a nāga king: Mahā-Māyūrī 247.25.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mānuṣa (मानुष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣā-ṣaṃ) Human. m.

(-ṣaḥ) A man. f. (-ṣī) 1. A woman. 2. A branch of medicine, the administering of drugs and herbs. E. manuṣa a man, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mānuṣa (मानुष).—i. e. manus (q. cf.), + a, I. adj., f. ṣī. 1. Human, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 3; 54, 17. 2. Relating to mankind, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 124. Ii. m. A man, [Pañcatantra] 61, 10. Iii. f. ṣī, A woman, [Nala] 13, 55. Iv. n. Human effort, Chr. 56, 16 (daivaṃ mānuṣopetam, Fate combined with human effort).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manuṣa (मनुष).—[masculine] man.

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Mānuṣa (मानुष).—[feminine] ī human or humane. [masculine] (adj. —° [feminine] ā) human being, man, [plural] the (5) tribes of men; [feminine] mānuṣī a woman; [neuter] = seq.

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Mānuṣa (मानुष).—[feminine] ī human or humane. [masculine] (adj. —° [feminine] ā) human being, man, [plural] the (5) tribes of men; [feminine] mānuṣī a woman; [neuter] = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Manuṣa (मनुष):—[from man] m. (or ṣa, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]) ([from] manus) a man, [Ṛg-veda]

2) Mānuṣa (मानुष):—mf(ī)n. or mānuṣa ([from] manus) belonging to mankind, human, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) favourable or propitious to men, humane, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

4) m. (ifc. f(ā). ) a man, human being ([plural] the races of men, 5 in number), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

5) m. Name of the signs of the zodiac Gemini, Virgo, and Libra, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) n. the condition or manner or action of men, humanity, manhood, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

7) Name of a place, [Catalogue(s)]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mānuṣa (मानुष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. A man. f. (ṣī) Woman; administering medicine.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Manuṣa (मनुष):—(von manus) m. Mensch: iLāmakṛṇva.manuṣasya.śāsanīm [Ṛgveda 1, 31, 11.] iṣaṃ du.antā.manuṣāya [117, 21.] svadhvara [10, 11, 5.] manuṣī s. u. manuṣya .

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Mānuṣa (मानुष):—

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Manuṣa (मनुष):——

1) m. Mensch.

2) *f. manruṣī ein menschliches Weib.

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Mānuṣa (मानुष):—und mānuṣa

1) Adj. (f. ī) — a) menschlich. — b) menschenfreundlich.

2) m. — a) Mensch. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) Pl. Menschenstämme. (5 angenommen). — c) Bez. der Zodiakalbilder Zwillinge , Jungfrau und Wage (nebst ihren Unterabtheilungen den navāṃśa. —

3) f. mānuṣī ein menschliches Weib.

4) n. — a) Menschenweise , -art. — b) Menschenzustand , Menschheit. — c) menschliches Thun , — Handeln. — d) Nomen proprium eines Ortes.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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