Svarna, Svarṇa, Svarṇā: 22 definitions


Svarna means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Swarn.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण, “Gold”) is a synonym for Suvarṇa. Gold is a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Śuddhaloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra.

Source: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Svarna refers to “gold”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Source: PMC: Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India

Svarna, the Sara Lauha is an important, noble metal known to Indians since antiquity. References can be traced back to Charaka and Sushruta Samhita where the noble metal has been attributed with a wide range of applications. The ‘Bhasma’ form of Gold is in metallic state. Various formulations of ‘Svarna’ are useful: Vrishya, Balya, Rasayana, Medhya, Ayushya, Ojo Vardhaka, Vayah sthapaka etc. and disease alleviators particularly in chronic debilitating diseases like Raja Yakshma, Swasa, Kasa, Pandu etc. Normal dose levels given for ‘Svarna Bhasma’ is 15 mg. to 30 mg.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) refers to “gold”, representing a type of material for construction of a Liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.22 while explaining the importance of the partaking of the Naivedya of Śiva:—“[...] with regard to the following phallic images viz:—[...] liṅgas made of gold (Svarṇa-liṅga) [...], the partaking of the Naivedya of Śiva is on a par with the rite of Cāndrāyaṇa. Even the slayer of a brahmin if he partakes of the remains of the food offered to the God quells all his sins immediately [...]”.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Svarṇā (स्वर्णा).—A celestial woman. By the blessings of Krauñca a daughter named Vṛndā was born to Svarṇā. There were none who were not fascinated by her beauty. Once Śukra asked Svarṇā, and obtained Vṛndā, for the asura named Jalandhara. (Padma Purāṇa, Uttara Khaṇḍa, Chapter 4).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Svarṇā (स्वर्णा).—A daughter of Samudra and wife of Prācīnabarhis.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 63. 25.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) [=Svarṇaka?] refers to “gold”, representing the material to be used for the images (pratimā) of the planets Mercury and Jupiter, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[Images of and offerings to grahas]—The materials which are used to compose the images (pratimā) of the grahas are prescribed: red copper (Sun), crystal (Moon), red sandal-wood (Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter) [i.e., svarṇakasvarṇakād ubhau], silver (Venus), iron (Saturn), lead (Rāhu) and white copper (Ketu). Such prescriptions for the planetary images are not found in gṛhya texts except in the Āśvalāyanagṛhyapariśiṣṭa (2.3) where the materials are almost the same as those in Yājñavalkyasmṛti, the only difference being the use of saffron for Mercury instead of gold. According to the Śāntikalpa (13.3), red copper (Sun and Mars), gold (Mercury and Jupiter), silver (Moon and Venus), and black iron (Saturn, Rāhu, and Ketu) are used.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) refers to “gold”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] The Yogin who has had sex with Māyā should rub his semen mixed with gold (svarṇa), camphor and saffron on his own body: [his] beauty will become moon-like. [...]

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) refers to “gold (ornaments)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“[...] The Devīs are white, red, yellow, and black, four-faced, four armed, three eyed, and in [their] hands bear golden hatchets, sticks and rosaries. [...] Seated on horseback, the Great Devī [Aparājitā] is adorned with many ornaments and resembles a broken sapphire [i.e., black]. [She is] adorned with four faces, four arms, three eyes, and holds a grass noose, a jewel, a bowl, and a mace. [She] stands firmly on a divine seat, clothed in gold clothes and gold ornaments (svarṇa-bhūṣaṇa-bhūṣitā). [...] [When one] worships and meditates on [the Devīs, as they] stand in the cardinal directions, [the Devīs grant the practitioner] the fruits of siddhi. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) refers to “gold”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “In reality, there is no unity of the forms of matter and consciousness with regard to mundane bondage and the connection of these two is without a beginning like gold and a flaw in gold (svarṇaśleṣaḥ svarṇakālikayor iva). In this world, the body which is material, absolutely immobile [and] without that which is conscious, becomes confused, through ignorance, with that which is conscious, formless and mobile”.

Synonyms: Kāñcana.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Svarṇa.—cf. śoṇa-vari (SITI), svarṇa-vari, explained as ‘tax payable in gold'; same as Tamil pŏn-vari; but cf. also suvarṇa- daṇḍa, profession-tax payable by the goldsmiths. Note: svarṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

svarṇa (स्वर्ण).—and other compounds with svarṇa See under the common word suvarṇa.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण).—[suṣṭhu arṇo varṇo yasya]

1) Gold.

2) A golden coin.

3) A kind of red chalk (gaurika); असृक्क्षरन्ति धाराभिः स्वर्णधारा इवाचलाः (asṛkkṣaranti dhārābhiḥ svarṇadhārā ivācalāḥ) Rām.7.7.15.

4) A kind of plant (Mar. dhotrā).

Derivable forms: svarṇam (स्वर्णम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण).—n.

(-rṇaṃ) 1. Gold. 2. A gold coin. E. su excellent, ṛṇ to go or be, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण).—i. e. su-varṇa, n. Gold, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 25, 14; a gold coin, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 22, 97.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण).—( = suvarṇa) [neuter] gold (also ka [neuter]) or a cert. weight of gold (also [masculine]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Svarṇa (स्वर्ण):—m. (contracted from su-varṇa) a [particular] Agni, [Harivaṃśa]

2) n. gold (as a weight = one Karṣa of gold), [Yājñavalkya; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

3) a kind of red chalk, [Rāmāyaṇa]

4) a kind of plant ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.], ‘a kind of herb’, = gaura-suvarṇa ‘the thorn-apple’, ‘a kind of cocoa palm’, and ‘the flower of Mesua Roxburghii’), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण):—(rṇaṃ) 1. n. Gold.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Soṇṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Svarna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Svarṇa (स्वर्ण) [Also spelled swarn]:—(nm) gold; ~[kaṇa/kaṇikā] a gold-particle; ~[kāra] a goldsmith; ~[kārī] goldsmithy; —[jayaṃtī] golden jubilee: ~[juhī] yellow jasmine; -[taskara] a gold smuggler; —[taskarī] gold-smuggling; -[patra] golden leaf; -[mudrā] a gold coin; -[yuga] the golden age; ~[varṇa] (of) golden (colour); ~[varṇā] (a woman) of golden colour.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Svarṇa (ಸ್ವರ್ಣ):—

1) [noun] gold.

2) [noun] riches; wealth.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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