Nagara, Nāgara, Naga-ra: 57 definitions

Introduction:

Nagara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Nagar.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Nagara (नगर):—Another name for Caitrakaccha, one of the twenty-four pītha (‘sacred sites’) of the Sūryamaṇḍala according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the kubjikāmata-tantra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Nagara (नगर) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) to be assigned to the right buttock (sakthi) during the pīṭhavidhi (‘ritual of sacred sites’) according to the Tantrāloka chapter 29. This chapter of the Tantrāloka by Abhinavagupta expounds details regarding the Kula initiation ritual. Kula or Kaula is a specific tradition within Śaivism, closely related to Siddhānta and Śaktism. In the Jñānārṇava-tantra it is also mentioned as a pīṭha and is also called Kolvagiri.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)

Nagara (नगर) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra. Ujjayinī is presided over by a (Devī) accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Romajaṅgha. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the hala and their abode is Caitrakaccha. A similar system appears in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ayurveda: Cikitsa

Nāgara (नागर):—Another name for Śuṇṭhī (Zingiber officinale), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Kirātatiktādigaṇa group of medicinal drugs.

According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 5.24-28), Nāgara is a synonym for Śṛṅgavera, which is the Sanskrit word referring to fresh ginger (the same Zingiber officinale). The Rājanighaṇṭu is a 13th century medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Nāgara (नागर) (or Śuṇṭhī, Viśvabheṣaja, Viśva, Śṛṅgavera) (one of the tryuṣaṇa) refers to the medicinal plant Zingiber officinale Roxb., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Nāgara] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant Zingiber officinale Roxb. (Nāgara) is also known as Ārdraka according to both the Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Nāgara (नागर) refers to “dry ginger” and is mentioned in a list of remedies for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., fruits of bilva (bael) or jambu (Eugenia jambolana or rose apple)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., nāgara (dry ginger)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Kalpa (Formulas, Drug prescriptions and other Medicinal preparations)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Nāgara (नागर) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Zingiber officinale Rosc.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning nāgara] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Nāgara (नागर) is another name for Śuṇṭhī, a medicinal plant identified with Zingiber officinale Rosc. or “ginger root” from the Zingiberaceae or “ginger” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.24-26 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—Note: Śuṇṭhi is dried and specially prepared form of Ārdraka by removing the outer scales of the rhizome. The major part of the oil of ginger remains in these scales and is obtained from the Śuṇṭhī/Ārdraka with scales.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Nāgara and Śuṇṭhī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Nāgara (नागर) or “dry ginger” is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment of snake-bites such as those caused by the Hemamaṇḍalī-snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, one of the treatments is mentioned as follows: “[...] A gruel made of Girikarṇikā, Vacā, Viśvā, Kuṇḍala and pepper is to be sprinkled. Honey mixed with Girikarṇikā must be smeared inside the nose.Yellowness of eyes, impaired hearing, anaemia, eye infection, water flowing down from the eyes and bleeding from the pores of the hair on the skin , debility and reduced vision are treated by applying a paste of Dvipatra, dry ginger (nāgara), pepper, tamarind, root of Śigru and Vacā. [...]”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Nāgara (नागर) refers to “dry ginger” and is one of the pañcakola (“five spices”), mentioned in verse 3.46 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—By pañcakola (“the five spices”) are meant long pepper (pippalī), long-pepper roots (pippalīmūla) , elephant pepper (cavya), plumbago (citraka), and dry ginger (nāgara). Instead of lṅai CD offer lṅa ni, which is probably corrupt for lṅa-yi.

Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā

Nāgara (नागर) refers to Zingiber officinale, and is the name of a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—Synonyms of Nāgara: Ārdraka (fresh rhizome of ginger) and Śuṇṭhī (dried ginger).—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 221-222, Singh and Chunekar, 1999)

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Nāgara (नागर, “townsmen”):—The Sanskrit name for a group of Prāsādas (‘town buildings’), according to the 11th-century Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra (chapter 63). This work, authored by Bhojadeva, is an encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.āsāda.

The names of the twenty buildings/temples (prāsādas) mentioned in this group are as follows:

  1. Meru,
  2. Mandara,
  3. Kailāśa,
  4. Kumbha,
  5. Mṛgarāja,
  6. Gaja,
  7. Vimānacchanda,
  8. Caturaśra,
  9. Aṣṭāśra,
  10. Ṣoḍaśāśra,
  11. Vartula,
  12. Sarvatodaka,
  13. Siṃhāsya,
  14. Nandana,
  15. Nandivardhana,
  16. Haṃsaka,
  17. Vṛṣa,
  18. Garuḍa (Garutmaḍ),
  19. Padmaka,
  20. Samudra.
Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Nāgara (नागर).—A classification of prāsada (‘superstructure of a temple’);—Nāgara, according to texts, is a building, wiiich is square up to its finial. See the Suprabhedhāgama, Kriya 30.40, Padmasaṃhita 9.1-2 and the Mayamata 19.37.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Nāgara (नागर) refers to “n. of a type of prāsāda §§ 4.11; 5.14.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Nāgara (नागर) is another name for Camatkārapura.—King Camatkāra of Ānarta built and gifted a city to Brāhmaṇas. The city was named “Camatkārapura” after the name of the donor. It is called “Ānandapura” and “Nāgara”, synonyms of modern Vadnagara. It is the home of Nāgara Brāhmaṇas of Gujarat.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Nagara (नगर).—In ancient days there were rules and principles regulating the construction of a city. The name 'city' could be applied to them only if they conformed to the rules and principles in vogue. The principles and rules of the erection of a proper city are given below:—

One yojana or a half of land should be selected as site.* The planning of the city should be commenced after worshipping the deity of Vāstu. There should be four main gates on the four sides, East, West, North and South. The South gate should be in the position of Gandharvapada, West gate in the place of Varuṇa, the North gate in the place of Soma (Moon) and the East fort gate in the place of Sūryapada (the position of the Sun). The haṭṭas (minor gates) should be wide enough for elephants etc. to pass through. The main gates should be six rods wide. (See full article at Story of Nagara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Nagara (नगर).—In Śākadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 101; III. 70. 10.

1b) A son of Manyu, and father of Samkṛti.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 21-2.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Nagara (नगर) [nagarāṇi]—Towns: shape of; round, vajra and long condemned. Square commended; half viṣkamba beyond kheṭa and pāṇam beyond that.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 94, 108-111.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Nagara (नगर) [=Girinagara?] refers to a mountain belonging to “Dakṣiṇa or Dakṣiṇadeśa (southern division)” classified under the constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā represent the southern division consisting of [i.e., Giri, Nagara] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Nagara (नगर) refers to “cities”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “When kings are overpowered by enemies with an army (or: by strong enemies), when cities are burnt down (nagaranagareṣu pradagdheṣu) and the Kings’ army is driven away, when people in various districts do not have access to food [and other goods] — if the kingdom is thus oppressed by the enemies’ army, oh Great Sage, and if in this inadequate situation the King’s enemies are unimpeded, he should have a sixteen-armed Sudarśana constructed [and properly installed, for his power is] without obstacles”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Nāgara (नागर) refers to one of the four division of Citra (“painting”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The third variety of Painting is nāgara, which according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa should be vartula i.e., round in shape and dṛḍha i.e., firm. The figures painted in nāgara Paintings should be adorned with well developed limbs and be decorated with garlands.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Nagara refers to a type of string instrument common to the region of Assam.—Indian classical Music is highly influenced by the Nāṭyaśāstra, the Saṃgītaratnākara etc. As the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa follows the Nāṭyaśāstra in a great extent, this work also influences somehow the Indian classical Music. [...] Some indigenous instruments of Assam can also be classified under these four kinds of instruments as stated in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa. Instruments like nāgārā, etc. are avanaddha or percussion instruments.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Nagara (city): A nagara or pura covers an area of a yojana (1 yojana = ~13km).

Source: Yoga Magazine: 2005

Dried ginger is called nagaram in Sanskrit and south in Hindi. Ayurveda calls dried ginger 'the great medicament' against colds, cough, rhinitis, bronchitis and indigestion. It is a strong aromatic stimulant, prescribed for abdominal distension, colic, diarrhoea and nausea. Ayurvedic physicians used an infusion of dried ginger in hot water to induce sweating for breaking fevers. They also applied it externally to relieve rheumatic pain. However, they stressed that ginger should be avoided by those who suffer from hyperacidity and gastric ulcers.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

The name of King Maddas capital (?) J.v.310.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Nagara (नगर) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Suvīrā, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Suvīrā is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the southern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Pāṇḍaravāsinī. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Nagara is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Nagara is to be contemplated as situated in the toes. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitioners

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

1) Nagara (नगर) is one of the two Śmaśāna (‘sacred spot’) present within the Kāyacakra (‘circle of body’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Pātālavāsinī (‘a woman living underground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts (viz., Nagara) resided over by twenty-four ‘sacred girls’ (ḍākinīs) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.

Nagara has the presiding Ḍākinī named Suvīrā whose husband, or hero (vīra) is named Mārāri. The associated internal location are the ‘toes’ and the bodily ingredient (dhātu) is the ‘fat’. According to the Vajraḍākavivṛti, the districts Sindhu, Nagara, Pūrṇagiri and Jālandhara are associated with the family deity of Yāminī; while in the Abhidhānottarottaratantra there is the Ḍāka deity named Viśvaḍāka standing in the center of the districts named Nagara, Sindhu, Maru and Kulatā.

2) Nagara (नगर) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Nagara] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Nagara is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Vetālā accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Romajaṅgha. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the hala and their abode (residence) is mentioned as being a vetra-tree.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

1) Nagara (नगर) is the pīṭha associated with Suvīrā and Heruka, according to the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".

Associated elements of Suvīrā and Heruka:

Circle: kāyacakra (body-wheel) (white);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Suvīrā;
Ḍāka (male consort): Heruka;
Bīja: naṃ;
Body-part: feet;
Pīṭha: Nagara;
Bodily constituent: medas (sweat);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): upekṣābodhyaṅga (awakening of equanimity).

2) Nagara (नगर) refers to a “city” [i.e., nagare amuka], according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Nagara (नगर) is the name of Upachandoha (category of holy sites), according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly: “Now, [the Blessed One] has taught [holy sites] such as the chandoha and upachandoha in sequence. [...] (5) Pretapurī, Gṛhadevī, Saurāṣṭra, and Suvarṇadvīpa are the chandoha [sites]. (6) The upacchandoha [sites] are Nagara, Sindhu, and Maru. Kulitā (for Kulatā or Kulutā) is also the upacchandoha. [...] Girls who are in these places are of [the nature of] the innate, born in their own birthplaces. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Nagara (नगर) refers to the “citadel (of the Dharma)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 3).—Accordingly, “[...] Having praised him thus, they said to Mahākāśyapa: ‘O venerable Kāśyapa! Do you know, O Śākya, the ship of the Dharma (dharmanāva) is broken. The citadel of the Dharma (dharma-nagara) is crumbling. The ocean of the Dharma (dharmadhārā) is drying up. The standard of the Dharma (darmapatākā) is being turned upside down. The lamp of the Dharma (dharma-pradīpa) is about to be extinguished. Those who proclaim the Dharma are about to leave. Those who practice the Path are becoming more and more rare. The power of the wicked is ever growing. In your great loving-kindness, it is necessary to found solidly the Buddhadharma’. [...]”.

2) Nagara (नगर) refers to “(large and small) cities”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 8).—Accordingly, “[Question: How does the Bodhisattva fulfill the virtue of wisdom (prajñāpāramitā)?]—[Answer]—When his great mind reflects and analyses. Thus the Brahmin Govinda, the great minister (mahāmātya), divided the great earth (mahāpṛthivī) of Jambudvīpa into seven parts; he also divided into seven parts a determined number of large and small cities (nagara), of villages (nigama) and hamlets (antarāpaṇa). Such is the virtue of wisdom”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Nagara (नगर) refers to “towns”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Save for those who were sitting in the pavilion in the sky, the rest of them in the great three-thousand of worlds, staying on the surface of the earth, as far as its foundations, thought that they disappeared. The king of the mountain (parvatarāja), Mount Sumeru, Mount Cakravāḍa, and Mount Mahācakravāḍa disappeared from the sight of living beings. Villages, towns (nagara), market-towns, royal cities, capitals disappeared as well. However, with the lion’s throne (simhāsana) of the Lord it was another matter, they perceived it as shining ten thousand yojanas high as placed in these pavilions placed in the vault of the sky”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Nagara (नगर) refers to a “city”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The meeting of beloved women is like a city in the sky (gagana-nagara-kalpa). Youth or wealth is like a mass of clouds. Relations, children and bodies, etc. are perishable as lightning. You must understand that the whole action of the cycle of rebirth is thus momentary”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Nagara (or, Nāgara) refers to one of the 84 castes (gaccha) in the Jain community according to various sources. The associated place of origin is known as Nagarachala (or, Nāgarachāla). The Jain caste and sub-caste system was a comparatively later development within their community, and it may have arisen from the ancient classification of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. Before distinction of these classes (such as Nagara), the society was not divided into distinct separate sections, but all were considered as different ways of life and utmost importance was attached to individual chartacter and mode of behaviour.

According to Dr. Vilas Adinath Sangava, “Jainism does not recognise castes (viz., Nagara) as such and at the same time the Jaina books do not specifically obstruct the observance of caste rules by the members of the Jaina community. The attitude of Jainism towards caste is that it is one of the social practices, unconnected with religion, observed by people; and it was none of its business to regulate the working of the caste system” (source).

The legendary account of the origin of these 84 Jain castes (e.g., Nagara) relate that once a rich Jain invited members of the Jain community in order to establish a vaiśya-mahāsabhā (i.e. Central Association of Traders). In response, 84 representatives came from different places (e.g., Nagarachala), and they were later seen as the progenitors of these castes. Various sources however mention differences in the list.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Nagara (नगर) or Nagarī means a “town”, a “city” and refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). We find the term being used by Pāṇini (IV.2.142). The word Nāgaraka (or Nāgarika) also occurs in Sanskrit literature as standing for “an inhabitant of a town” but sometimes its use was restricted for the chief of a town or a police-officer. In modern times nāgarika is used to refer to “a citizen of a state whether living in city or village”.

The word Nagara is changed into:

  1. nar as Kuśīnagara, Kusinar, Girinagara, Girnar;
  2. ner as Jīrṇanagara, Jooner.

In modern times the suffix nagara is sometimes used to denote an inhabitation or Mohalla e. g. Tilak Nagar, Subhash Nagar, Patel Nagar, Jawahar Nagar, Lajapat Nagar.

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Nagara (towns) refers to administrative divsions of viṣayas and khollas of during the rule of Kannaḍa-speaking Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1215 A.D.).—The viṣayas and khollas comprised nagaras or towns, and grāmas or villages. Very few towns in the kingdoms of the Śilāhāras find mention in their inscriptions. The deśa (administrative unit) was there divided into nāḍas or khollas.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Architecture (1): Early and Classical Architecture (h)

Nāgara Temples.—In Orissa, from the 7th century up to the 13th century temples of the Nāgara order were built. These temples, while retaining the blueprint of the earlier ones of this style, became far larger and more ornate. This regional school, called the Kalinga or Orissan style, had a long period of evolution. The curvilinear śikhara over the sanctum sanctorum is the most eye-catching feature as also the hall called the jagmohana. The walls are profusely decorated with sculptures.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Nagara (नगर) or Nagari is the name of an ancient locality situated in Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—The place is mentioned in the Barhut inscriptions. The location of the place is unknown. Is it identical with Nagarahāra mentioned in the Parāsaratantra, the Nang-go-lo-ho-lo of the Chinese, the Nagara or Dionysopolis of Ptolemy and identified with Jelalabad? If so, then it should be located in the Uttarāpatha division. But it may also be held to he identical with Nagarī or Nagara, 8 miles north of Chitorgadh State in Udaipur in Rajputana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nagara.—(IE 8-4), city; palace; cf. navara. (EI 21; SITI), a commercial guild; guild of merchants; a mercantile town; often spelt in Kannaḍa inscriptions as nakara or nakhara; cf. pañca-nagara. (CITD), in Telugu inscriptions, a territorial assembly like the sabhā and ūr; the merchant community in general or the organization of the merchant community of a town. In some places, the nagara and ūr carried on their functions side by side. The word is sometimes used to indicate occupational groups like śāleyanagarattom. Cf. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, The Coḻas, Vol. II, 1st ed., p. 294. (EI 4), same as Kaliṅga-nagara. Cf. śrī-Nagara-bhukti= Pāṭaliputra-bhukti (Ep. Ind., Vol. XVII, p. 311). (IA 17), represented in Prakrit by nera further corrupted to ner or nar. See nagarī. Note: nagara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: academia.edu: The Cakrasamvara Tantra (h)

Nagara (नगर) is the name of an ancient locality identified with “Laṅkāpura (the land of Rākṣasa)” according to Nāropāda (11th century A.D.). He is known for identifying unnatural or obscure names mentioned by the Cakrasaṃvara scriptures. Some say that Nagara is an area around a monastery standing on the border of Kaśmīra and northwest India.

There are three different descriptions of the geographical location of Nagara according to Nāropāda as mentioned in the previous paragraph; but according to the Yoginīlatantra (and the two commentaries on the Hevajratantra by Kāṅhapāda and Ratnākaraśānti), Nagara refers to Pāṭaliputra (east India).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Nagara in India is the name of a plant defined with Zingiber officinale in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Amomum angustifolium Salisb., nom. illeg. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Cytologia (1985)
· Zingiberaceae
· Cytologia (1997)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1998)
· Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (1981)
· Fl. Sichuanica (1992)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Nagara, for example extract dosage, diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nagara : (nt.) town; a citadel. || nāgara (adj. & n.), belonging to a city; urbane; polite; a citizen.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nāgara, (Sk. nāgara, see nagara) a citizen J. I, 150; IV, 404; V, 385; Dāvs II. 85; VvA. 31; PvA. 19; DhA. I, 41. (Page 349)

— or —

Nagara, (nt.) (Ved. nagara, Non-aryan? Connection with agāra is very problematic) a stronghold, citadel, fortress; a (fortified) town, city. As seat of the government & as important centre of trade contrasted with gāma & nigama (village & market-place or township) Vin. III, 47 (°bandhana), 184; cp. gāma 3 b. deva° deva-city JI. 3, 168, 202; DhA. I, 280 etc.; cp. yakkha° J. II, 127.—Vin. I, 277, 342, 344; II, 155, 184; D. II, 7; S. II, 105 sq.; IV, 194 (kāyassa adhivacanaṃ); V, 160; A. I, 168, 178; IV, 106 sq. (paccantima); V, 194 (id.) Dh. 150 (aṭṭhīnaṃ); Sn. 414, 1013 (Bhoga°); J. I, 3, 50 (Kapilavatthu°); II, 5; III, 188; VI, 368 etc.; Pug. 56; DhA. IV, 2; PvA. 3, 39, 73; Dpvs XIV. 51 (+pura). Cp. nāgara.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nagara (नगर).—n (S) A city or town. 2 Applied by eminence to Ahmednugger, Satara &c.

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nagārā (नगारा).—m ( A) A kettledrum. na0 vājaṇēṃ or nagāṛyāvara ṭiparūṃ paḍaṇēṃ g. of s. To be noised abroad; to become notorious. nagāṛyāvara ṭiparūṃ ṭākaṇēṃ-vājaviṇēṃ To make a noise in the world.

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nāgara (नागर).—m (S) A tribe of the gujarāthī brāhmaṇa or an individual of it.

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nāgara (नागर).—a (S) Relating to a city or town, urban, oppidan. Hence Clever, sharp, knowing, knavish.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nagara (नगर).—n A city or town.

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nagārā (नगारा).—m A kettle-drum. nagārā vājaṇēṃ or nagāṛyā- vara ṭiparūṃ paḍaṇēṃ To be noised abroad; to become notorious. nagāṛyāvara ṭiparūṃ ṭākaṇēṃ- vājaviṇēṃ To make a noise in the world.

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nāgara (नागर).—m A tribe of the gujarāthī brāhmaṇa or an individual of it.

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nāgara (नागर).—a Relating to a city or town, urban. Clever, sharp.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nagara (नगर).—[nagā iva prāsādāḥ santyatra bā° ra; cf. P.V.2.17 Vārt.] A town, city (opp. grāma); नगरगमनाय मतिं न करोति (nagaragamanāya matiṃ na karoti) Ś2. पण्यक्रियादिनिपुणैश्चातुर्वर्ण्यजनैर्युतम् । अनेकजातिसंबद्धं नैकशिल्पिसमाकुलम् । सर्वदैवतसंबद्धं नगरं त्वभिधीयते (paṇyakriyādinipuṇaiścāturvarṇyajanairyutam | anekajātisaṃbaddhaṃ naikaśilpisamākulam | sarvadaivatasaṃbaddhaṃ nagaraṃ tvabhidhīyate) ||

Derivable forms: nagaram (नगरम्).

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Nāgara (नागर).—a. (- f.) [नगरे भवः अण् (nagare bhavaḥ aṇ)]

1) Town-born, town-bred.

2) Relating to a town, civic.

3) Spoken in a town.

4) Polite, civil.

5) Clever, sharp.

6) Bad, vile, one who has contracted the vices of a town. नाग- नागरयोर्मध्ये वरं नागो न नागरः । नागो दशति कालेन नागरस्तु पुनः पुनः (nāga- nāgarayormadhye varaṃ nāgo na nāgaraḥ | nāgo daśati kālena nāgarastu punaḥ punaḥ) || Subhāṣita.

7) Nameless.

-raḥ 1 A citizen (paura); यः पण्यस्त्रीरतिपरिमलोद्गारिभिर्नागराणामुद्दामानि प्रथयति शिलावेश्मभि- र्यौवनानि (yaḥ paṇyastrīratiparimalodgāribhirnāgarāṇāmuddāmāni prathayati śilāveśmabhi- ryauvanāni) Meghadūta 25; Śānti.4.19; Bhāgavata 1.56.17.

2) A husband's brother.

3) A lecturer.

4) An orange.

5) Fatigue; hardship, toil.

6) Desire of final beatitude.

7) A term applied to a prince engaged in war under certain circumstances and also to a planet when in opposition to other planets (in astrol.)

8) Denial of knowledge.

-ram 1 Dry ginger; खर्बूरं मरिचं पूर्णं देवदारु च नागरम् (kharbūraṃ maricaṃ pūrṇaṃ devadāru ca nāgaram) Śiva B.3.16. पिप्पली सैन्धवं चैव नागरं च गुडान्वितम् । प्रातर्दत्तं तुरङ्गाणां नस्यं श्लेष्मविनाशनम् (pippalī saindhavaṃ caiva nāgaraṃ ca guḍānvitam | prātardattaṃ turaṅgāṇāṃ nasyaṃ śleṣmavināśanam) || Śālihotra.

2) A kind of coitus.

3) One of the three styles of architecture; it is quadrangular in shape; चतुरस्राकृतिं यत्तु नागरं तत् प्रकीर्तितम् (caturasrākṛtiṃ yattu nāgaraṃ tat prakīrtitam) Māna.18.94.

-rī 1 The character in which Sanskrit is generally written; cf. देवनागरी (devanāgarī).

2) A clever, intriguing or shrewd woman; हन्ताभीरीः स्मरतु स कथं संवृतो नागरीभिः (hantābhīrīḥ smaratu sa kathaṃ saṃvṛto nāgarībhiḥ) Ud. D.16.

3) The plant स्नुही (snuhī)

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Nāgara (नागर).—a kind of steel.

Derivable forms: nāgaram (नागरम्).

Nāgara is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms nāga and ra (र).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nāgara (नागर).—name of a locality: Mahā-Māyūrī 64.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nagara (नगर).—nf. (-raṃ-rī) A town, a city. E. naga a tree, or according to some, a mountain, ral affix; having trees or houses like mountains. nagā iva prāsādāḥ santi atra bā0 ra .

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Nāgara (नागर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) 1. Clever, sharp, knowing, (as a buck, a blood, a wag. &c.) 2. Town-born or bred, citizen. 3. Nameless. 4. Relating to a city. 5. Polite, civil 6. Bad, vile. n.

(-raṃ) 1. Dry ginger. 2. A short of grass, (Cyperus pertenuis). 3. A form of writing, the “Devanagari alphabet.” m.

(-raḥ) 1. A husband’s brother. 2. An orange. 3. A lecturer. 4. Denial of knowledge. 5. Fatigue. 6. Desire of final beautitude. f. (-rī) 1. A sort of Euphorbia. 2. A clever or intriguing woman. E. nagara a city aṇ aff. nagare bhavaḥ aṇ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nagara (नगर).—[naga + ra], n. and f. , A town, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 107.

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Nāgara (नागर).—i.e. nagara + a, I. adj. 1. Belonging to a town, Mahābhārata 1, 5682; m. A citizen, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 17, 34. 2. Referring to a town, Mahābhārata 2, 256. 3. Polite, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 94, 10 C. Ii. f. , A crafty woman, Haeb. Anth. 351, 16. Iii. n. Dry ginger, [Suśruta] 1, 161, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nagara (नगर).—[neuter] ([masculine]), ī [feminine] town, city.

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Nāgara (नागर).—[adjective] born or bred in town, civic, urbance; clever, cunning ([abstract] [feminine]).

— [masculine] citizen; [neuter] dry ginger.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nagara (नगर):—n. (m. only, [Mahābhārata iii, 3014]; ifc. f(ā). , [Harivaṃśa 2951]; [probably] not [from] naga + ra, but cf. [gana] aśamādi; the n cannot be cerebralized [gana] kṣubhnādi) a town, city, Name of sub voce cities, [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata etc.]

2) Nāgara (नागर):—mf(ī)n. ([from] nagara) town-born, t°-bred, relating or belonging to a t° or city, t°-like, civic, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) spoken in a t° (said of a [particular] Apabhraṃśa dialect; cf. upa-n), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

4) polite, civil, [Śakuntalā v, 1/2] ([varia lectio] for rika)

5) clever, dexterous, cunning, [Dhūrtanartaka]

6) bad, vile, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) nameless, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) m. a citizen, [Mahābhārata] etc.

9) (= paura) a prince engaged in war under [particular] circumstances (opp. to yāyin etc. and also applied to planets opposed to each other), [Varāha-mihira]

10) a husband’s brother, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) a lecturer, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) an orange, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. nāga-raṅga)

13) toil, fatigue, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) desire of final beatitude, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) denial of knowledge, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) n. dry ginger, [Suśruta]

17) the root of Cyperus Pertenuis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) a [particular] written character, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

19) a kind of coitus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) Name of sub voce places, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nagara (नगर):—[(raṃ-rī)] 1. n. f. A town or city.

2) Nāgara (नागर):—[(raḥ-rī-raṃ) a.] Town-born; vile; clever. m. A husband’s brother; an orange; a lecturer. f. Euphorbia; intriguing woman. n. Dry ginger; grass; Nāgari alphabet.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nagara (नगर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇagara, Ṇāgara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nagara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Nagara (नगर) [Also spelled nagar]:—(nm) a city; town; —[] urban; -[nigama] municipal corporation; ~[pālikā] municipality, municipal committee; ~[pitā] city father, municipal councillor; -[pramukha] the mayor; —[prāṃta] urban area; a suburb; skirt of a city; -[rakṣā] civil defence; -[rājya] a city-state; -[vadhū] a prostitute; ~[vāsī] a citizen; townfolk.

2) Nāgara (नागर) [Also spelled nagar]:—(a) urban; civil, civic, civilian; wise; (nm) a civilian; a subcaste of Brahmans of Gujarat; Nagri:(Devnagri:) letters/alphabet; also —[akṣara; ~tā] civility; urbanity.

context information

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Ṇagara (णगर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit words: Nakara, Nagara.

2) Ṇāgara (णागर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Nāgara.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nagara (ನಗರ):—

1) [noun] a centre of population larger or more important than a town or village; a city.

2) [noun] a federation or association of merchants or members of a particular trade, of a city.

3) [noun] a member of such an association.

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Nāgara (ನಾಗರ):—[noun] = ನಾಗರು [nagaru].

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Nāgara (ನಾಗರ):—[adjective] of a city, city-life, city customs, etc.

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Nāgara (ನಾಗರ):—

1) [noun] a man living in a city.

2) [noun] an intelligent man.

3) [noun] a courteous man.

4) [noun] a deceitful man; a cheat.

5) [noun] a man who promotes amusements for a king or a man of rank, by keeping his company.

6) [noun] an obstacle; an impediment.

7) [noun] weariness resulting from physical or mental exertion.

8) [noun] desire for final beatitude.

9) [noun] the rhizome of the herb Zingiber officinale, used as a spice or perfume and in medicine.

10) [noun] the alphabet of Saṃskřta language, which is adapted by Hindi, Marāṭhi, etc.

11) [noun] the plant Allium asealonicum of Agavaceae family.

12) [noun] the plant Cyperus bulbosus of Cyperaceae family.

13) [noun] (archit.) one of the three styles of architecture in India (in which the buildings are constructed in quadrangular in shape.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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