Vyaya, Vyāya: 26 definitions


Vyaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Vyaya (व्यय, “loss”) refers to the second of āyādiṣaḍvarga, six principles that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object, according to the Mānasāra (IX, 63-73). Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

Vyaya signifies “loss”; its ten effects are:

  1. bhukti, “enjoyment”;
  2. mukti, “liberation”;
  3. śubhada, “granting auspiciousness”;
  4. samṛddhida, “granting prosperity”;
  5. sampat, “wealth”;
  6. artha, “material goods”;
  7. dhanavṛddhi, “increase of riches”;
  8. bhukti, “enjoyment”;
  9. nāśakalaha, “destruction of quarrel”;
  10. maitraka, “friendship”.

Again, like in the case of the fruits of āya, since none of the above are specified as inauspicious, in themselves all must be considered as auspicious. The auspicious-inauspicious aspect as applies to āya and vyaya (as “income” and “expenditure” respectively) is stated in the general rule that āya must be preferably greater than vyaya, or at least equal to it.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Vyaya (व्यय) refers to “n. of one of the āyādi formulas § 2.7.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Vyaya (व्यय) refers to the twentieth of the sixty-year cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The first year of the fourth yuga is known as Citrabhānu; in it mankind will be happy. The second is known as Subhānu. In it mankind will be neither happy nor miserable; there will however be disease in the land but no deaths in consequence. The next year is known as Tāraṇa; in it there will be abundance of rain. The next is known as Pārthiva; in it crops with thrive well and mankind will be happy. The fifth year is known as Vyaya; in it amorous sensastions will prevail over the land”.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Vyaya (व्यय) refers to the twentieth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native getting birth in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘vyaya’ is very much engrossed in enjoying worldly pleasures, subjected to addictions (like drinking), fearless in begging from someone, that is, always ready to beg without any hesitation and therefore always remains in debt, is restless and has a tendency of spending much.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year vyaya (2006-2007 AD) will be lustful, cowardly, immoral, staking his property in gambling, and addicted to wickedness.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Vyaya (व्यय).—Lit.loss; disappearance; the word is used in the sense of inflectional changes. An indeclinable is called अव्यय (avyaya) because it has no inflectional changes. cf. तत्कथमनुदात्तप्रकृति नाम स्यात् । दृष्टव्ययं तु भवति । (tatkathamanudāttaprakṛti nāma syāt | dṛṣṭavyayaṃ tu bhavati |) Nir. I.8; V.23.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Vyaya (व्यय) is the twentieth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Vyaya], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Vyaya (व्यय) represents the number 12 (twelve) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 12—vyaya] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Vyaya (व्यय) refers to “spending (money) unnecessarily”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.54 (“Description of the duties of the chaste wife”).—Accordingly, as a Brahmin lady said to Pārvatī: “[...] She shall partake of the leavings of her husband’s food or whatever is given by him saying ‘This is thy great grace’. She shall never take food without first offering due share to the gods, the Pitṛs, the guests, the servants, cows and saintly mendicants. A gentle lady of chaste rites shall always be clever to manage the household with limited requisites. She shall be averse to spend unnecessarily (vyaya-parāṅmukhī). [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Vyaya (व्यय) refers to “disappearance”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[...] being impermanent in nature (anityalakṣaṇa), all dharmas have no span of duration (sthitikāla). If mind lasted for a moment, it would also last during the second moment. It would then be eternal in duration and without the nature of disappearing (vyaya-lakṣaṇa). And yet, among the three characteristics of conditioned dharmas (saṃskṛtadharma-lakṣaṇa), the Buddha also mentioned the characteristic of disappearance (vyaya-lakṣaṇa). If the mind did not have disappearance, it would not show the characteristics of the conditioned. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism

Vyaya; The loss or going out of existence of the former modification is called disappearance or destruction.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Vyaya (व्यय, “destruction”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.7.—What is the meaning of destruction (vyaya)? leaving the old state at every time instant is called destruction.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.30, what is meant by destruction (vyaya)? The disappearance of the old mode is called destruction.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vyaya.—(HRS), government expenditure; cf. Tamil viyā- yam (SITI), expenditure, as opposed to āyam or income. (IE 7-1-2), ‘twelve’. Note: vyaya is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vyaya : (m.; nt.) (mano-group) age; loss; decay; expenditure. (see vaya).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vyaya, (vi+aya, of i; the assimilation form is vaya2) expense, loss, decay S. IV, 68, 140; Miln. 393 (as abbaya). avyayena (Instr.) safely D. I, 72. Cp. veyyāyika & vyāyika. (Page 653)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vyaya (व्यय).—m (S) Expenditure, expense, spending.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vyaya (व्यय).—m Expense, spending.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vyaya (व्यय).—a. Liable to change, mutable, pershable; cf. अव्यय (avyaya); सूक्ष्माभ्यो मूर्तिमात्राभ्यः संभवत्यव्ययाद् व्ययम् (sūkṣmābhyo mūrtimātrābhyaḥ saṃbhavatyavyayād vyayam) Manusmṛti 1.19.

-yaḥ 1 (a) Loss, disappearance, destruction; आपाद्यते न व्ययमन्तरायैः कच्चिन्महर्षेस्त्रिविधं तपस्तत् (āpādyate na vyayamantarāyaiḥ kaccinmaharṣestrividhaṃ tapastat) R.5.5;12.23. (b) Cost, sacrifice; प्राणव्ययेनापि मया विधेयः (prāṇavyayenāpi mayā vidheyaḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 4.5; Kumārasambhava 3.23.

2) Hindrance, obstacle; भूयस्तपोव्ययो मा भूत् (bhūyastapovyayo mā bhūt) R.15.37.

3) Decay, decline, overthrow, downfall.

4) Expenditure, expense, outlay, spending, applying to use (opp. āya); आये दुःखं व्यये दुःखं धिगर्थाः कष्टसंश्रयाः (āye duḥkhaṃ vyaye duḥkhaṃ dhigarthāḥ kaṣṭasaṃśrayāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.163; आया- धिकं व्ययं करोति (āyā- dhikaṃ vyayaṃ karoti) 'he lives beyond his means'; R.5.12; 15.3; Manusmṛti 9.11.

5) Extravagance, prodigality.

6) wealth, money; भक्तावकाशाग्न्युदकमन्त्रोपकरणव्ययान् (bhaktāvakāśāgnyudakamantropakaraṇavyayān) Y.2.276.

7) (In gram.) Inflection, declension.

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Vyāya (व्याय).—The way of stretching the bow before shooting the arrow; कैशिकः केशमूले वै शरशृङ्गे च सात्त्विकः । श्रवणे वत्सकर्णश्च ग्रीवायां भरतो भवेत् । अंसके स्कन्धनामा च व्यायाः पञ्च प्रकीर्तिताः (kaiśikaḥ keśamūle vai śaraśṛṅge ca sāttvikaḥ | śravaṇe vatsakarṇaśca grīvāyāṃ bharato bhavet | aṃsake skandhanāmā ca vyāyāḥ pañca prakīrtitāḥ) || Dhanur.92-93.

Derivable forms: vyāyaḥ (व्यायः).

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Vyāya (व्याय).—1 P.

1) To strech out, extend.

2) To struggle, contend, fight.

3) To try, strive, endeavour.

4) To sport, dally.

Derivable forms: vyāyam (व्यायम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyaya (व्यय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Expenditure, spending. 2. Destruction, disappearance. 3. Misfortune, downfall, decline. 4. Obstacle. 5. Loss, waste. f.

(-yā) Mutable, liable to decay. E. vyay to expend, &c., aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyaya (व्यय).—i. e. vi-i + a, I. adj. Mutable, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 19. Ii. m. 1. Disappearance, loss, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 59, 1; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 179; [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 70, 14 (risk). 2. Destruction, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 5, 5; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 181, 5 (detriment). 3. Expenditure, expense, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 287; [Pañcatantra] 138, 4. 4. Squandering away, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 75, 13. 5. Misfortune, decline.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyaya (व्यय).—[masculine] going asunder, perishing, disappearance, loss, destruction, waste, prodigality, expense, money.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vyaya (व्यय):—[from vyay] mfn. (or vy-aya, [from] 3. vi + √5. i) passing away, mutable, liable to change or decay (only as opp. to or connected with a-vyaya), Mn, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) disappearance, decay, ruin, loss, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] m. spending, expense, outlay, disbursement (opp. to āya, ‘income’, and often with kośasya, vittasya, dhanasya etc.; without a [genitive case] = ‘extravagance, waste, prodigality’; with [locative case] or ifc. = ‘outlay for or in’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] cost, sacrifice of ([genitive case] or [compound]; vyayena ifc. = ‘at the cost of’), [Rāmāyaṇa; Kālidāsa]

5) [v.s. ...] wealth, money, [Yājñavalkya ii, 276]

6) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) inflection, declension, [Nirukta, by Yāska]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of the 20th (or 54th) year of Jupiter’s cycle, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] of a serpent-demon, [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] of Pradhāna, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

9) [v.s. ...] m. or n. = -gṛha, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vyaya (व्यय):—(yaḥ) 1. m. Expenditure; destruction; decline.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vyaya (व्यय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Vaya, Vāya, Via.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vyaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vyaya (व्यय) [Also spelled vyay]:—(nm) expense, expenditure; cost, outlay; consumption; ~[sādhya] expensive, costly.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vyaya (ವ್ಯಯ):—

1) [noun] a losing or being lost; a loss.

2) [noun] a spending of money, energy, time, etc.; expense; outlay.

3) [noun] the twentieth year in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.

4) [noun] (astrol.) the twelfth house from one’s birth house.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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