Pitha, Pīṭha, Piṭha, Pītha: 30 definitions
Pitha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Peeth.
Images (photo gallery)
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Pīṭha (पीठ) refers to the “pedestal” of a liṅga. It is also known as piṇḍikā. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.Source: Google Books: The Canon of the Śaivāgama and the The Kubjikā Tantras
1) The word “pīṭha”, in a non-technical sense, means a stool, seat or bench and, by extension, the pedestal upon which an idol is installed. In the Tantras it commonly means a sacred place. In this present context, however, it means a “collection,” or “aggregate” (samūha) with reference to a group of scriptures and so denotes a class of Āgamas. It also signifies a range of matters that, taken collectively, concern a single Tantric topic. The two usages of the word are closely related: sometimes one applies, sometimes the other and, occasionally, both.
There are four pīṭhas, namely,
- Mudrā-pīṭha and
2) According to Abhinava’s exposition of the division of the pīṭhas found in the Ānandaśāstra:
‘Pīṭha’ [is a term referring] to a class [of Tantras]. It is of two types: right and left, called Mantra and Vidyā respectively, from which are derived the two associated with Mudrā and Maṇḍala.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Pīṭha (पीठ).—A demon. He was killed by Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Śloka 5, Chapter 11, Droṇa Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Pīṭha (पीठ).—The commander of Mura's forces; killed by Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 59. 12-14.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography
Pīṭha (पीठ).—Liṅgas are almost always set up in pedestals known as the piṇḍikā or pīṭha. In a square pīṭha, which is the one commonly met with, the length of one side of it may be twice the length of the pūjābhāga, or equal to the total length of the liṅga; in other words two-thirds of or equal to the total length of the liṅga. The pīṭha, the length of whose side is equal to the total length of the liṅga is said to belong to the uttamottama class and that whose side is equal to two-thirds the total length of the liṅga, to the adhamādhama class.
These pedestals (pīṭha, or, piṇḍikā) may be square, oblongular, octogonal, elongated octagon, hexagon, elongated hexagon, duodecagon, elongated duodecagon, 16-sided, regular or elongated, circular, elliptical, triangular and semi-circular in plan.Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images
Pīṭha (पीठ) refers to “pedestals”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Pīṭha (पीठ) refers to “pedestal”. It is sculptured as a part of the pillar (stambha).Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Pīṭha (पीठ, “pedestal”).—Part of the pillar (stambha);—It is the lowest member of the pillar. It has three major functions:
- It gives a solid support to the shaft of the pillar.
- It adds height to the pillar.
- It enriches the beauty of the pillar.
Pedestals are also decorated with decorations like kapota punctuated with nāsis and sometimes also with scalloped lotus petals.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Pīṭha (पीठ) refers to “- 1. pedestal §§ 2.16; 3.1; 4.7, 28; 5.3-4. - 2. substitute altar (in place of an image of an Assessor) § 5.13. - 3. - mahāpīṭha §§ 5.11, 12.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Hinglaj Devi
Pīṭha (पीठ).—The term pīṭha (Skt. seat, altar) specifically describes holy sites relating to Goddess worship all over South Asia.Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Pīṭha (पीठ) (“sacred seat”) is a general term for a place where a goddess or Yoginī resides. Internalized, these places may be represented as the ‘location’ of the fifty letters within the goddess’s triangular Yoni. When viewed in this form the Yoni is called the Meruprastāra. This is described in detail in chapter eight of the Kumārikākhaṇḍa.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Pīṭha (पीठ) is one of the Pīṭhādis (group of districts) present within the Cittacakra (‘circle of mid’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Khecarī (‘a woman going in the sky’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra.
The Pīṭhādi named Pīṭha within the Cittacakra contains the following four districts or seats:
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Pīṭha (पीठ) refers to one of the sons of king Vajrasena, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
“in the continent Jambūdvīpa, in the East Videhas, in the province Puṣkalāvatī in the vicinity of the ocean, in the city Puṇḍarīkiṇī, they were born in succession as the five sons of King Vajrasena by his wife Dhāriṇī. [...] The souls of the sons of the merchant and trader were named Pīṭha and Mahāpīṭha”.
Pīṭha and Bāhu later incarnated as twins from Sumaṅgalā (one of Ṛṣabha’s wifes), as mentioned in chapter 1.2.—Accordingly,
Source: HereNow4u: Lord Vṛṣabhanātha
“[...] when a little less than six pūrvas had passed after the wedding, while the Lord enjoyed himself with them, the Jīvas of Bāhu and Pīṭha fell from Sarvārthasiddhi and entered Sumaṅgalā’s womb as twins. Likewise the jīvas of Subāhu and Mahāpīṭha fell from Sarvārthasiddhi and entered Sunandā’s womb. [...] Sumaṅgalā bore children, Bharata and Brāhmī, as the east bears the sun and (morning) twilight lighting up the quarter of the sky”.
Pīṭha (पीठ) was one of the four friends and brother of Vajranābha: Vṛṣabhanātha’s eleventh incarnation (bhava).—After completing his life as a deva Jīvānanda was born in Puṣkalāvatī to the wife of king Vajrasena, Dharaṇī. At the time of conception the mother saw 14 great dreams. Vajrasena named his son Vajranābha, who went on to become a cakravartī (emperor). His four friends were born as his brothers Bāhu, Subāhu, Pīṭha and Mahāpīṭha and became provincial kings. When his father, Tīrthaṅkara Vajrasena, after attaining omniscience (kevalī), started delivering his religious sermons, the cakravartī Vajranābha (due to his past good merits) too accepted initiation (renounced the world).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Piṭha.—(Chamba), a grain measure; also spelt piḍā, peḍā, pyoḍā. Note: piṭha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
--- OR ---
Pīṭha.—(CII 4; IA 12), receptacle of a Śiva-liṅga; the ablution trough of a Śiva-liṅga; also called Yoni-paṭṭa. (SITI), pedestal for the image of a deity. Note: pīṭha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
pīṭha : (nt.) chair; a seat.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pīṭha, (nt.) (cp. Fpic Sk. pīṭha) a seat, chair, stool, bench.—4. kinds are given at Vin. IV, 40=168, viz. masāraka, bundikābaddha, kuḷirapādaka, āhaccapādaka (same categories as given under mañca).—Vin. I, 47, 180; II, 114, 149, 225; A. III, 51 (mañca°, Dvandva); IV, 133 (ayo°); Ps. I, 176; Vv 11 (see discussed in detail at VvA. 8); VvA. 295 (mañca°).—pāda° footstool J. IV, 378; VvA. 291; bhadda° state-chair, throne J. III, 410.—sappin “one who crawls by means of a chair or bench, ” i.e. one who walks on a sort of crutch or support, a cripple (pīṭha here in sense of “hatthena gahana-yogga” VvA. 8; exlpd by Bdhgh as “chinn’iriyāpatha” Vin. Texts I. 225) J. I, 76, 418; V, 426 (khujja+) VI, 4, 10; Miln. 205, 245, 276; Vism. 596 (& jaccandha, in simile); DhA. I, 194; II, 69; PugA 227; PvA. 282. (Page 461)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
piṭhā (पिठा).—m (A Bombay-word). A spirit-shop, or a liquor-tavern.
--- OR ---
piṭhā (पिठा).—a (pīṭha) Gritty, friable, crumbling--sorts of stone &c. 2 Clammy; like badly-baked dough--the pulp of certain fruits.
--- OR ---
pīṭha (पीठ).—n (piṣṭa S) Meal in general except that of wheat, which, par excellence, is termed kaṇīka (from kaṇa). Applied, sometimes however, to wheaten meal. 2 fig. Crushed, crumbled, ruined state: also defeated or overcome state: also the state of utter expenditure or dissipation, of consumption or exhaustion, of whatever subject or of whatever specific character. Used largely as its derivative piṭhāḍa, or as cūra, curāḍā, dhūḷa, mātī, rākha &c. &c. 3 Used enhancingly after gōrā; as gōrā gōrā pīṭha Surpassingly fair. 4 Used as ad in the sense Clearly and brightly of the shining of the moon. v paḍa; as cāndaṇēṃ pīṭha paḍatēṃ.
--- OR ---
pīṭha (पीठ).—n (S) A stool, a low chair or seat. 2 The seat of the religious student, made of the grass kuśa. 3 pīṭhaṃ, in the sense of Seat or spot of eminent residence or abiding, forms compounds such as gurupīṭha, vidyāpīṭha, rājapīṭha. 4 also pīṭhasthāna n A place where a limb of Parvati is supposed to have fallen when her dead body was cut to pieces by the cakra of viṣṇu. There are fifty-one such places. See mahāpīṭha.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
piṭhā (पिठा).—m A spirit-shop, or a liquor-tavern.
--- OR ---
piṭhā (पिठा).—a Gritty, crumbling. Clammy.
--- OR ---
pīṭha (पीठ).—n Meal. Crushed, or ruined state. ādhī piṭhōbā (pōṭōbā) maga viṭhōbā Let us satisfy the belly, then we'll think of worship.
--- OR ---
pīṭha (पीठ).—n A low chair. The seat, as gurupīṭha, vidyāpīṭha, rājapīṭha. See mahāpīṭha.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Piṭha (पिठ).—Affliction, distress.
Derivable forms: piṭhaḥ (पिठः).
--- OR ---
1) A seat (a stool, chair, bench, sofa &c.); जवेन पीठादुदतिष्ठदच्युतः (javena pīṭhādudatiṣṭhadacyutaḥ) Śi.1.12; R,4.84;6.15.
2) The seat of a religious student made of Kuśa grass.
3) The seat of a deity, an altar.
4) A pedestal in general, basis.
5) A particular posture in sitting.
6) (In geometry) The complement of a segment.
7) Name of various temples; पीठं जालंधरं नाम तिष्ठत्यत्र चतुर्मुख (pīṭhaṃ jālaṃdharaṃ nāma tiṣṭhatyatra caturmukha) Yoga- śikhopaniṣad, 5.11.
8) A royal seat, throne.
9) A district, province.
Derivable forms: pīṭham (पीठम्).
--- OR ---
Pītha (पीथ).—1 The sun.
5) Drink; यस्याध्वरे भगवानध्वरात्मा मघोनि माद्यत्युरुसोमपीथे (yasyādhvare bhagavānadhvarātmā maghoni mādyatyurusomapīthe) Bhāg.5.15.12.
-tham 1 Water.
Derivable forms: pīthaḥ (पीथः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṭhaḥ) Pain, distress. E. piṭha, and ka aff.
--- OR ---
(-ṭhaḥ-ṭhī-ṭhaṃ) 1. A stool, a seat, a chair. 2. The seat of the religious student, made properly of Kuśa grass. 3. A place where some limb of Parvati is supposed to have fallen, as after Daksha’s sacrifice, her dead body was carried about by Siva, and cut in pieces by the discus of Vishnu: there are fifty-one such places. 4. Complement of a segment, (in Geometry.) 5. A pedestal. 6. A particular posture in sitting. E. piṭh to be weary, to feel pain, aff. ghañ; deriv. irr. or pā-ṭhak piṭha-ka vā pṛṣo0 dīrghaḥ .
--- OR ---
(-thaḥ) 1. The sun. 2. Fire. 3. Time. n.
(-thaṃ) Water. E. pā to drink, Unadi aff. thak, and the radical vowel changed.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pīṭha (पीठ).— n. and m. 1. A stool, a seat, a chair, Mahābhārata 5, 1399; a bench. 2. A base or pedestal, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 2, 126. 3. The seat of a deity, an altar, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 46; 473. 4. A kind of ornament, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 8063.
--- OR ---
Pītha (पीथ).—i. e. 1. pā + tha, I. m. A drink. Ii. n. Water.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Pīṭha (पीठ).—[neuter] seat, stool, bench, pedestal.
--- OR ---
Pītha (पीथ).—[masculine] drink or protection.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Piṭha (पिठ):—[from piṭh] m. pain, distress, [Horace H. Wilson]
2) Pīṭha (पीठ):—n. (rarely f(ī). ; possibly corrupted [from] pi-sad, to sit upon) a stool, seat, chair, bench, [Gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) a religious student’s seat (made properly of Kuśa grass), [Horace H. Wilson]
4) case, pedestal ([especially] of an idol), [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Varāha-mihira [Scholiast or Commentator]]
5) royal seat, throne, [Rāmatāpanīya-upaniṣad]
6) place, office (cf. pīṭhādhikāra)
7) Name of various temples (erected on the 5 1 spots where the limbs of Pārvatī fell after she had been cut to pieces by the discus of Viṣṇu), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) a district, province, [Pañcatantra]
9) a [particular] posture in sitting, [Catalogue(s)]
10) (in [geometry]) the complement of a segment, [Colebrooke]
11) m. a kind of fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) the sun, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
13) Name of an Asura, [Mahābhārata]
14) of a minister of Kaṃsa, [Harivaṃśa]
15) Pītha (पीथ):—[from pīta] 1. pītha m. a drink, draught (cf. go-p, surā-p, soma-p)
16) [v.s. ...] n. water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] melted butter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [from pīti] 2. pītha m. idem (See go-p).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Piṭha (पिठ):—(ṭhaḥ) 1. m. Pain.
2) Pīṭha (पीठ):—[(ṭhaḥ-ṭhī-ṭhaṃ) a.] A stool, a seat of kusa grass; a sacred spot; complement of a segment.
3) Pītha (पीथ):—(thaḥ) 1. m. Idem; time. n. Water.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Pīṭha (पीठ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pīḍha.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Pīṭha (पीठ) [Also spelled peeth]:—(nf) the back; spine; (nm) a seat; an institute; —[kā/-para kā] born next in succession; —[cārapāī se laganā] to be bedridden; to be confined to bed; to be reduced to skeleton; —[ṭhokanā] to pat on the back appreciatively; to praise; to give encouragement; —[dikhānā] to show the white feather, to turn tails, to flee from the battlefield; —[denā] to turn tails, to flee, to part company (in a venture); —[para hātha pheranā] to part appreciatively, to give encouragement, —[para hātha rakhanā] to support; —[para honā] to be at the back of; —[pīche, ke] in the absence of; —[pheranā] to turn one’s back upon; —[meṃ churā ghoṃpanā/bhoṃkanā] to stab in the back, to play (one) foul; —[meṃ chūla/miṭṭī milanā] to be felled, to suffer defeat; —[moḍanā] to turn to go, to leave the scene; —[laganā, kisī kī] to be defeated (in Indian style wrestling); to be thrown flat on the back; —[sahalānā] to soothe.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a piece of furniture to sit on; a seat.
2) [noun] a solid base on which an idol is placed, installed, etc.
3) [noun] a small, circular platform for keeping the offferings made to a god.
4) [noun] the supporting part of the wall, which usu. lies below the surface of the earth; foundation; basement.
5) [noun] the office, authority of a religious pontifs or political leaders.
6) [noun] a centre for education (as a school, university, etc.).
7) [noun] a facility created in a university or research centre, for studying a subject or conducting a research on a particular discipline of knowledge.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+54): Pitha Jataka, Pitha Vagga, Pithabhu, Pithacakra, Pithacalana, Pithachakra, Pithacintamani, Pithada, Pithadhikara, Pithadhyaksha, Pithadi, Pithaga, Pithaganthya, Pithagarbha, Pithaka, Pithakeli, Pithakshetra, Pithakuta, Pithala, Pithalakshana.
Ends with (+109): Acarya-pitha, Adipitha, Adityapitha, Adyapitha, Aishrvaryapitha, Amburutpitha, Amkapitha, Amsapitha, Anamtapitha, Anandapitha, Antahpitha, Apisomopitha, Attasomapitha, Balipitha, Bhaddapitha, Bhadrapitha, Bhrigupitha, Bindupitha, Cakrapitha, Candanapitha.
Full-text (+441): Padapitha, Pithasarpin, Jalandhara, Pugapitha, Pithasthana, Pithakeli, Pithanyasa, Bhadrapitha, Kamarupa, Oddiyana, Pithaga, Pithasarpa, Pithacakra, Devikotta, Omkarapitha, Simhagiri, Varanasi, Jayantika, Shirahpitha, Tarkupitha.
Search found 40 books and stories containing Pitha, Pīṭha, Piṭhā, Piṭha, Pītha; (plurals include: Pithas, Pīṭhas, Piṭhās, Piṭhas, Pīthas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 132 - Greatness of Siddhalakṣmī < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 35 - Installation of Citreśvara Pītha < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
Chapter 189 - Greatness of Karmamotī < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Lalitopakhyana (Lalita Mahatmya) (by G.V. Tagare)
Cidgaganacandrika (study) (by S. Mahalakshmi)
Verse 298 [Cakranavaka] < [Chapter 4 - Fourth Vimarśa]
Verse 260 [Human body is Śakti’s] < [Chapter 4 - Fourth Vimarśa]
Verse 300 [Śambhava-Śākta-Guru kramas] < [Chapter 4 - Fourth Vimarśa]
Preceptors of Advaita (by T. M. P. Mahadevan)
(ii) Kāmakoṭi and Nayanmars < [58. (various)]
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Bronze, group 3: Age of Parantaka I (a.d. 907 - 950) < [Chapter XI - Sculpture]
Bronze, group 1: Late Pallava and Early Chola—Age of Vijayalaya (a.d. 785-871) < [Chapter XI - Sculpture]
Introduction < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)