Sthapati: 15 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Sthapati means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Sthapati (स्थपति):—One of the four types of Śilpin (“the architectural student”), according to the Śilparatna, which was written by Śrī Kumāra. The Śilparatna is a classical Hindu literary work on arts and crafts (this tradition is also known as śilpa-śāstra). The Śilpin learns his profession first from his teacher (guru), but later from various specialists.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Sthapati (स्थपति).—The sthapati, “master-builder”, who possesses the highest “theoretical” knowledge (which encompasses knowledge of the sciences as well as metaphysics and theology), is the head of the guild. He is capable of overseeing and directing all construction, passessing an “intuitive foresight so as to be able to calculate and decide everything quickly”. He is, thus, the guru, teacher, of the other three members. Under his direction, the sūtragrāhin and others carry out the building work in accordance with the precepts of śāstra. The text bestows upon him the titles of sthāpanādhipati, “master of installation”, and ācārya, “instructar of highest repute”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Sthapati in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Sthapati (स्थपति).—The state architect.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 215. 40.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Illustrated Dictionary of Hindu Iconography

Sthapati (स्थपति) refers to an “architect”, “sculptor”, “metal worker” or a “master-craftsman”.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Sthapati (स्थपति) refers to the “metal workers or the sculptors”, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Strict and most elaborate rules were laid down for the measurements of the various parts of the body and their relative proportions and the different postures. In course of time, representations of gods and goddesses were made. An impression of their power and personality was created by the sthapatis (the metal workers or the sculptors).

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Sthapati (स्थपति) is the name of a royal official mentioned in the Atharvaveda, and often later. The exact sense of the term is not certain: ‘governor’ is possible, but perhaps ‘chief judge’ is more likely; as in the case of the early English judges, his functions may have been both executive and judicial. He is inferior in position to the king’s brother.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sthapati.—(EI 4; BL; HD), a mason or architect. See Viṣṇudharmottara, II. 24. 39. Note: sthapati is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (history)

Sthapati (स्थपति) refers to “metal workers”.—In the ancient days the temples were loaded with numerous gifts from princes and peasants and the demand for images was great. The demand had its supply and was kept alive with unstinted patronage by a school of sculpture and bronze workers who are commonly known as sthapatis. They existed long before the Chola ascendancy, but their highest contribution to their field was between the 10th and the 13th centuries.

The builders or the craftsmen–sthapatis and the śilpins –who belonged to the same guilds of artisans, had common principles and set methods of design and construction; and they worked in collaboration with the priests who knew the rituals, the nature of the objects of veneration, and the modes of their worship. They together determined the forms of the temples with such modifications as suited the respective cases, as also the fixing of the principal deities and the decorations of the structure with iconic and other sculptural embellishments. All that was known and necessary in the creation of the temple and the conduct of worship therein was codified.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sthapati (स्थपति).—a. [sthā-ka tasya patiḥ] Chief, principal.

-tiḥ 1 A king, sovereign; 'स्थपतिरधिपतौ तक्ष्णि बृहस्पतिसचिवयोः (sthapatiradhipatau takṣṇi bṛhaspatisacivayoḥ)' इति वैजयन्ती (iti vaijayantī); जगत्त्रयैकस्थपतिस्त्वमुच्चकैः (jagattrayaikasthapatistvamuccakaiḥ) Śi.1.34.

2) An architect; स्थपतिर्बुद्धिसंपन्नो वास्तुविद्याविशारदः (sthapatirbuddhisaṃpanno vāstuvidyāviśāradaḥ) Mb.1.51.15.

3) A wheel-wright, master-carpenter.

4) A charioteer.

5) One who offers a sacrifice to Bṛhaspati.

6) An attendant on the women's apartments.

7) Name of Kubera.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthapati (स्थपति).—mfn. (-tiḥ-tiḥ-ti) Chief, best, principal. m.

(-tiḥ) 1. The performer of the Vrihaspati-sacrifice. 2. A guard or attendant of the women’s apartments. 3. A sovereign, a chief. 4. An architect, a master-carpenter or builder. 5. A carpenter, a wheel-wright. 6. A charioteer. 7. Kuvera. E. stha who is or who is placed, and pati master, lord.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthapati (स्थपति).—i. e. sthā, [Causal.], + ati, and perhaps stha-pati, I. m. 1. An architect, [Pañcatantra] 10, 4. 2. A carpenter, a wheelwright, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 63, 2, Seramp. 3. The performer of the Vṛhaspati sacrifice, Mahābhārata 1, 2029. 4. A carioteer. 5. A king or chief. 6. A guard or attendant of the womens' apartment. Ii. adj. Chief, best.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sthapati (स्थपति).—[masculine] chief or governor of a district; architect.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sthapati (स्थपति):—[=stha-pati] a See p. 1262, col. 3.

2) [=stha-pati] [from stha > sthā] b m. ([according to] to some sthapati, [from] caus. of √1. sthā) ‘place-lord’, a king, chief, governor, head official ([according to] to [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra], ‘a Vaiśya or even a person of lower caste, who has celebrated the Go-sava sacrifice after being chosen king’; [according to] to others, ‘an Āyogava who is a town official’; cf. niṣāda-sth), [Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa; ???; Rāmāyaṇa; Śiśupāla-vadha]

3) [v.s. ...] an architect, master builder, carpenter, wheelwright, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. ([Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 185])

4) [v.s. ...] one who sacrifices to Bṛhas-pati, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a guard or attendant on the women’s apartments, chamberlain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a charioteer, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of Bṛhas-pati, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] of Kubera, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] mfn. chief, best, principal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [from sthā] c See stha-pati above.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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