Gala, Gaḷa: 12 definitions


Gala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Gaḷa can be transliterated into English as Gala or Galia, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Gala (गल).—A type of moulding common to both the prastara (parapet) and adhiṣṭhana (plinth);—‘Gala’ is the term for a wide recess. Early Calukya plinths contain a gala treated as a separate moulding, occupying a separate course, though later its only vestige is a narrow recess at the base of the kapota. In the earlier temples the gala is the ‘habitable’ moulding of the plinth, often containing miniature friezes of figure sculpture. The moulding may be conceived as a colonnade, with miniature pillars bearing the kapota roof, but more common ‘supports’ are galapādas, block-like projections at intervals along the gala recess.

Source: Shodhganga: Development of temple architecture in Southern Karnataka

Gala (गल) means neck. It is an oblong recessed part of the plinth. It is found above the kumuda moulding and below kapota or or paṭṭikā mouldings. Gala is a recession the height of which may go up to two feet. Its surface is plain, often relieved at intervals by pilaster-like projections called galapādas. The surface of the neck many a times, contains relief of sculptures of various subject matter.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Gala (गल) refers to one of the twenty-two fishing methods applied by Saurikadatta, according to the Vipākasūtra (or, Vivāgasuya). Fishing was carried on by a certain class of people to earn their livlihood in ancient India. The fishermen (macchabandhā / matsyabandha) went out to the rivers and ponds early in the morning for fishing with their fishing hooks and nets. This occupation was carried on a large scale by some rich personswho engaged hired labour for fishing. Fish (matsya) was an important food of a large section of the people.

 The methods (eg., Gala) included roaming in the river on the boat and catching fishes by filtering water through a cloth, by different kinds of nets, by ropes, by diverting water through small water courses, catching fishes in muds, etc. The fishes were brought on boats, piled up at some place on the river side and sent to different places for sale. A large quantity of them were dried up, presumably for being preserved for sometime.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gala : (m.) the neck; the throat.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gala, (*gel to devour, to swallow=Lat. gula, Ohg. kela, cp. Sk. gala jalukā, and *gǔel, as Gr. dέlear, cp. also Sk. girati, gilati Dhtp 262 gives as meaning of gal “adana.” This root gal also occurs at Vism.410 in fanciful def. of “puggala”; the meaning here is not exactly sure (to cry, shout?)) the throat J.I, 216, 264, III, 26; IV, 494: I.194 (a dewlap); PvA.11, 104.

Note.—gala with many other words containing a guttural+liquid element belongs to the onomatopoetic roots kḷ & gḷ ; l (kṛ & gṛ ), usually reduplicated (iterative), the main applications of which are the following:

1. The (sounding) throat in designation of swallowing, mostly with a dark (guttural) vowel: gulp, belch, gargle, gurgle.

2. The sound produced by the throat (voice) or sound in general, particularly of noises or sounds either inarticulate, confused & indefinable or natural sounds striking enough per se to form a sufficient means of recognition (i.e. name) of the animal which utters this sound (cuckoo, e. g.). To be divided into:

A. palatal group (“light” sounds): squeak, yell, giggle, etc., applied to — (a) Animate Nature: the cackling, crowing noise of Palmipeds & related birds, reminding of laughter (heron, hen, cock; cp. P. koñca, Lat. gallus) — (b) Inanimate Nature: the grinding, nibbling, trickling, dripping, fizzing noises or sounds (P. galati, etc.).

B. guttural group (“dark” sounds): groan, growl, howl, etc., applied to — (a) Animate N.: the snorting, grunting noise of the Pachyderms & related quadrupeds (elephant, op. P. koñca, kuñjara; pig, boar) — (b) Inanimate N.: the roaring, crashing, thundering noises (P. gaḷagaḷāyati, ghurughurāyati).

3. The sound as indicating motion (produced by motion):

A. palatal group (“sharp” sounds, characteristic of quick motion: whizz, spin, whirl): P. gaggaraka whirlpool, Gr. kerkiζ spindle, bobbin.

B. guttural group (“dull” sounds, characteristic of slow and heavy motion: roll, thud, thunder). Sometimes with elimination of the sound-element applied to swelling & fullness, as in “bulge” or Gr. sfaragέw (be full).

These three categories are not always kept clearly separate, so that often a palatal group shifts into the sphere of a guttural one & vice versa.—The formation of kḷ gḷ roots is by no means an extinct process, nor is it restricted to any special branch of a linguistic family, as examples show. The main roots of Idg. origin are the foll. which are all represented in Pāli ‹-› (the categories are marked Acc. to the foregoing scheme 1, 2A, 2B, 3): kal (2A): klάzw, clango, Goth. hlahjan laugh; kār (2 A): kh_ruc, Sk. kāru (cp. P. kitti), cārmen; kel (2 A): kέlados, calo (cp. P. kandati), Ohg. hellan; ker (2 Aa): karkaiρw, kόrkoros=querquedula=kakkara (partridge); kol (2 B): cuculus, kokila (a); kolāhala and halāhala (b); kor (2 Ba): cornix (cp. P. kāka), corvus=crow=raven; Sk. krośati; P. koñca.—gǔel (1) Lat. gula, glutio, dέlear; gǔer: (1) bόros, bibrwζkw, Lat. voro, Sk. girati, Ohg. querka; (3) baρaqron (whirlpool) Sk. gargara: gel (1) Sk. gilati, Ohg. kela — gal (2 A): gallus (a) gloria (b); gar (2 Ab): gh_rus, garrulus, Ohg. kara: gel (2 A): xelidw/n (a) hirrio (to whine), Ohg. gellan (b): ger: (1) gargari/zw (gargle) Sk. gharghara (gurgling). (2 Aa) gέranos = crane, Ger. krähen, Lat. gracillo (cackle); (2 Ba) Ohg. kerran (grunt), Sk. gṛṇāti (sing); (2 Ab) Sk. jarate (rustle); gur (2 Ba): gru/zw=grundio= grunt; Lat. gurgulio; Sk. ghurghura.

With special reference to Pāli formations the foll. list shows a few sound roots which are further discussed in the Dictionary s. v. Closely connected with Idg. k̊l gḷ is the Pāli cerebral ṭ, tḥ, ḷ, ṇ, so that roots with these sounds have to be classed in a mutual relation with the liquids. In most cases graphic representation varies between both (cp. gala & gaḷa) — kil (kiṇ) (2 Ab): kikī (cp. Sk. kṛka°), kilikilāyati & kiṅkiṇāyati (tinkle), kili (click), kiṅkaṇika (bell); kur (2 B): ākurati to hawk, to be hoarse; khaṭ (1) khaṭakhaṭa (hawking), kākacchati (snore); (2 Aa) kukkuṭa (cock); gal (1) gala (throat) uggilati (vomit); (2 Ab) galati (trickle): (2 Ba) Pk. galagajjiya (roar) & guluguliya (bellow); (2 Bb) gaḷagaḷāyati (roar); gar (2 A); gaggara (roar & cackle, cp. Sk. gargara to 3); (2 B); gaggarāyati (roar); (3) gaggaraka (whirlpool); ghar (1) Sk. gharghara (gurgling); (2 Ab) gharati (trickle), Sk. ghargharikā (bell); (2 Bb) ghurughurāyati (grunt).—See also kakaca, kaṅka, kaṅkaṇa, cakora (caṅkora), cakkavaka, jagghati, ciṭiciṭāyati, taṭataṭayati, timingala, papphāsa. (Page 246)

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Gaḷa, (same as gala, see note on prec.) 1. a drop, i.e. a fall: see gaḷāgala.-2. a swelling, a boil (=gaṇḍa) J.IV, 494 (mattā gajā bhinnagaḷā elephants in rut, with the temple-swellings broken; expl. p. 497 by madaṃ gaḷantā); Sn.61 (? v. l. gaṇḍa).—3. a hook, a fishhook Sn.61 (?), expl. at SnA 114 by ākaḍḍhanavasena baḷiso.

gaḷāgaḷaṃ gacchati to go from drop to drop, i.e. from fall to fall, w. ref. to the gatis J.V, 453 (expl. by apāyaṃ gacchati). (Page 247)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gala (गल).—f The hole made at marbles, iṭīdāṇḍū &c.

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gaḷa (गळ).—m A fish-hook. 2 An iron ring connecting five or six hooks, and used to catch hold of things under water, a drag-hook. 3 The hook on which devotees suspend themselves by the back. 4 The hangman's hook. 5 n R The gasping or agonized breathing under asthma. 6 f An oozing or a trickling; a constant running or flow (as of rheum from the eyes, of pus from a sore): a regular and consecutive falling (as of fruits or blossoms in a high wind). 7 f The hole at games of marbles. gaḷa ghālaṇēṃ To force, constrain, coerce: also to importune or press earnestly. gaḷa ghēṇēṃ To swing. gaḷīṃ lāgaṇēṃ To be on the point of strangulation--a calf &c. from tightness of its tether: also fig. to be in torture; to hang upon the hooks (of expectation, hope &c.); to be on tenter-hooks. gaḷa ṭākūna pāhaṇēṃ (To cast the hook and try.) To make attempt or essay. gaḷīṃ dēṇēṃ (To put upon the hook.) To hang (a person). 2 fig. To cast into great danger or trouble.

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gaḷā (गळा).—m (gala S) The throat, the forepart of the neck and the passages within. 2 In singing. The voice. 3 The neck of a pitcher, bottle, and similar things. gaḷāṃ On the throat or neck. gaḷāṃ ōraḍūna paḍaṇēṃ To fall upon in full cry. gaḷā kēsānēṃ kāpaṇēṃ To kill or ruin by deep or refined policies, observing meanwhile a bland and gentle deportment; to make a show of affection or kindness; to destroy as by a hair or invisible instrument. gaḷā kāpaṇēṃ To deceive, trick, gull. 2 To ruin by disappointing expectations. gaḷā kāpalā khōkalā miṭalā or vāralā Used where a remedy is worse than the evil. gaḷā guntaṇēṃ or aṭakaṇēṃ g. of s. To be restricted or bound down: also to be involved (in some difficulty). gaḷā gōvaṇēṃ To restrict or confine; to tie one's hands (by exacting a promise &c.) 2 To involve or implicate (in a troublesome business &c.) gaḷā dāṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To be under some vehement emotion (of grief, tenderness &c.); to be choking. gaḷā dharaṇēṃ g. of o. To attack or seize the throat--a disease, an acrid or a rancid article. 2 To stop, detain, obstruct (by unfaithfulness to engagements &c.) 3 g. of s. To become speechless; to lose one's voice. gaḷā tāṅgaḍūna bōlaṇēṃ To speak ratingly, fiercely, vehemently. gaḷā paḍaṇēṃ-phuṭaṇēṃ-basaṇēṃ g. of s. To become hoarse or cracked in one's voice. gaḷā piñjaṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's throat excoriated or rough-drawn (as through vomiting bile or crudities). gaḷā basaṇēṃ g. of s. To sink in the neck; to become low, flattish, or squat. gaḷā bāndhaṇēṃ To restrict or confine; to tie up one's hands. gaḷāṃ or gaḷīṃ bāndhaṇēṃ To force upon; to oblige to accept. 2 To fix an accusation or a slur wrongfully. gaḷā bharūna yēṇēṃ g. of s. To swell and heave under some violent passion or affection; to feel stifling in the throat; to choke. gaḷā lāgaṇēṃ To get one's voice in tune; to catch the key. gaḷā sōḍaviṇēṃ To cut the throat of. gaḷīṃ or gaḷāṃ paḍaṇēṃ To fall upon one's neck, i. e. to embrace. 2 To importune, urge, dun; to hang upon in entreaty or enforcement. 3 To accuse wrongfully. 4 To fall upon with abuse and reproaches. 5 To lie upon one's hands; to be a load, clog, encumbrance unto. 6 To attach itself unto--an evil habit. gaḷīṃ lāgaṇēṃ To importune, urge, hang upon--a child, a dun, a task-master. 2 To bawl, bellow, vociferate. Ex. gaḷīṃ kāya lāgatōsa lāhanānēṃ kāṃ bōlēnāsa? gaḷyākhālīṃ utaraṇēṃ To be gulped--a bribe, a peculation or picking. gaḷyācā lākhōṭā hōṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's throat stopped up, stuffed, clogged &c. gaḷyācī phuṅkaṇī hōṇēṃ g. of s. To become hoarse. gaḷyācī āṇa or śapatha or (abridged) gaḷyācēṇa An oath upon one's throat or life. Ex. tulā mājhyā gaḷyācī śapatha āhē I adjure you upon my throat or life. gaḷyānta asaṇēṃ To have (duties, cares, troubles) lying upon one. gaḷyānta gōṇī yēṇēṃ g. of s. To get a burden or trouble aggravated by injudicious measures to remove it. (The figure is that of a bullock which, in his endeavors to throw his load, throws it forward upon his neck, and becomes pinned to the ground by it.) 2 To incur a loss, or failure, or a misfortune. gaḷyānta dhōtara ghālaṇēṃ To force a man to prove his assertions. gaḷyānta pāya yēṇēṃ g. of s. To be involved in inextricable embarrassment. gaḷyānta māḷa or māḷakhaṇḍa ghālaṇēṃ To commit unto or charge with the conduct of a business. 2 (The object of the māḷa or māḷa- khaṇḍa being a male or a female,) to elect (respectively) a person to be one's husband or one's wife. gaḷyānta yēṇēṃ To devolve or fall upon--some care or business. gaḷyānta hāta ghālaṇēṃ To clasp round the neck, i. e. to conciliate or persuade. gaḷyāparyanta yēṇēṃ To arrive at the highest bearable degree--a pain or an affliction. gaḷyālā dōrī-phāsa-rasāyaṇa &c.--lāgaṇēṃ To have an ōḍha or drawing towards (some business &c.) gaḷyāvara or gaḷyānta gāṇēṃ To sing openly, clearly, sonorously; to sing with the voice duly exerted. gaḷyāvara bōlaṇēṃ To speak lightly, thoughtlessly insincerely. gaḷyāvara surī ṭhēvaṇēṃ To threaten the life of. gaḷyāśīṃ gaḷā miḷaviṇēṃ To suit voice with voice in singing. mōṭhā gaḷā karūna raḍaṇēṃ To cry loudly; to bawl, bellow, roar.

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gāla (गाल).—m (galla S) A cheek, jowl. gāla ghaḍaṇēṃ g. of o. (To forge or fashion, i. e. to beat, the cheeks.) To chastise (some sauciness or pertness). Also gāla raṅgaviṇēṃ or gālānta basaviṇēṃ and, neuter, gālānta basaṇēṃ g. of s. gāla nipaṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To get lantern jaws (through sickness or fasting). gāla phugaviṇēṃ To puff out the cheeks; to pout or sulk. 2 To puff and swell; to vaunt and vapor. gālāvara gāla caḍhaṇēṃ or yēṇēṃ To fill out or get plump--cheeks or countenance (from good living &c.) gālīṃ or gālīnta or gālīṃ gālīṃ or gālāvara hāṃsa- ṇēṃ To laugh in the countenance--to smile, to smirk, to simper.

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gāḷa (गाळ).—m Refuse or sweepings; dross or feculence; dregs, draff, lees, sediment. 2 Mud, mire, slime.

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gāḷa (गाळ).—f (gāli S) Abuse. v .

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gāḷā (गाळा).—m (gāḷaṇēṃ) Dirt, dregs, lees, grounds remaining after sifting or straining. 2 Straws, sticks, rubbish, or mud hitching on the bushes of the bank (after an overflow of the stream), alluvium. 3 The included space betwixt the pieces composing a frame; i. e. the wasted space, the vacuity. 4 Carded cotton.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gala (गल).—f The hole made at marbles. iṭīdāṇḍū, &c.

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gaḷa (गळ).—m A fish-hook. A drag-hook. A hook gen. f An oozing or trickling, a con- stant running or flow. The hole at games of marbles. gaḷa ghālaṇēṃ Force, coerce; also to importune or press earnestly.

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gaḷā (गळा).—m The throat. (In singing) The voice. The neck of a pitchor, bottle &c. -kēṃsānēṃ gaḷā kāpaṇēṃ To kill or ruin by deep or refined policies, observing mean- while a bland and gentle deport- ment, to make as how of affection or kindness. gaḷā kāpaṇēṃ Ruin by disappoint- ing expectations. Deceive, trick. gaḷā guntaṇēṃ or aṭakaṇēṃ To be restricted or bound down, also to be involved (in some difficulty). gaḷā gōvaṇēṃ To restrict or con- fine. To involve or be implicated in a troublesome business &c. gaḷā dāṭaṇēṃ Be choking. gaḷā dharaṇē Attack the throat- a disease &c. Become speechless, lose one's voice. gaḷā phuṭaṇēṃ-basaṇēṃ Become hoarse in one's voice. gaḷī dēṇēṃ Hang (a person). Cast into great danger.gaḷīṃ- gaḷāṃ paḍaṇēṃ Importune, urge, dun, hang upon in entreaty or enforcement. Ac- cuse wrongfully. gaḷīṃ-gaḷāṃ bāndhaṇēṃ Force upon, oblige to accept. Fix an accusa- tion or slur wrongfully. gaḷyācī āṇa- śapatha, gaḷayācēṇa An oath upon one's throat or life. gaḷyānta taṅgaḍyā ghālaṇēṃ Catch a man in his own trap. gaḷyānta pāya yēṇēṃ To be involved in inextricable em- barrassment.gaḷyānta māḷa ghālaṇēṃ To commit to or charge with the conduct of a business. To elect a person to be one's husband or one's wife. gaḷyāta yēṇēṃ Devolve or fall upon. gaḷyānta hāta ghālaṇēṃ To clasp round the neck, i. e. to conci- liate or persuade. gaḷyāparyanta yēṇēṃ To arrive at the highest bearable degree–a pain or an affliction. gaḷyāvara gāṇēṃ Sing sono- rously. Sing with the voice duly ex- erted. gaḷyāvara surī ṭhēvaṇēṃ Threaten the life of. mōṭhā gaḷā karūna raḍaṇēṃ Cry loudly.

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gāla (गाल).—m A cheek, jowl. gāla phugaviṇēṃ Puff out the cheeks. gālāvara gāla caḍhaṇēṃ Get plump -cheeks, &c. gāla ghaḍaṇēṃ To chastise (some sauciness or pertness). gālānta hāṃsaṇēṃ To smile, smirk, simper.

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gāḷa (गाळ).—m Refuse or sweepings. Feculence or dross. Dregs. Sediment, mud, mire. Abuse. v .

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gāḷā (गाळा).—m Dirt, dregs. Straws, mud &c. hitching on the bushes of the bank (after an overflow of the stream), alluvium. Carded cotton. The includ- ed space betwixt the pieces compos- ing a frame.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gala (गल).—[gal-bhakṣaṇe bā° karaṇe ac]

1) The throat, neck; शितिना गलेन विलसन्मरीचिना (śitinā galena vilasanmarīcinā) Ki.12.23; न गरलं गले कस्तूरीयम् (na garalaṃ gale kastūrīyam); cf. अजागलस्तन (ajāgalastana); Bh.1.64; Amaru.88.

2) The resin of the Śāla tree.

3) A kind of musical instrument.

4) A rope.

5) A kind of fish.

6) A large kind of grass (bṛhatkāśa).

Derivable forms: galaḥ (गलः).

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Gāla (गाल).—

1) Flowing, liquefying.

2) Dropping.

3) A flux.

Derivable forms: gālaḥ (गालः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gala (गल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. The throat. 2. The resin of the Sal tree. 3. A reed, a large kind of the Saccharum cylindricum. 4. A rope. 5. A musical instrument. 6. A kind of fish, a small kind of cyprinus, a subgenus of that class, (Cyprinus garra. Ham.) E. gal to eat, to drop, &c. affix ac, or gṝ to swallow, with ac, gara, and ra changed to la.

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Gāla (गाल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. Flowing, liquefying. 2. Flowing, dropping. 3. A flux. E. gal to flow, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gala (गल).—[masculine] throat, neck.

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Gāla (गाल).—[adjective] produced by the throat.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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