Vama, aka: Vāma, Vāmā; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Vama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

Vāmā (वामा).—An attendant of Subrahmaṇya. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 46, Stanza 12).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Vāma (वाम).—A name of Śiva.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 3. 8.

1b) A son of Bhūta and Sarūpā: a Rudra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 17.

1c) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Bhadrā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 17.

1d) A horse of the moon's chariot;1 sons of Kratu.2

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 53.
  • 2) Ib. 62. 9.

2) Vāmā (वामा).—A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 73; 44. 140.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Vāma (वाम, “hostile”) refers to a term to be used by women who is angered addressing their beloved, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “he who even being forbidden to do anything does that very thing, and resolutely, is called ‘hostile’ (vāma)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Itihasa (narrative history)

Vāmā (वामा) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.16). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vāmā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Vāma (वाम) or Vāmāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Cintyāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Vāma Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Cintya-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Vāma (वाम) or Vāmatantra refers to one of the thirty-three Dakṣiṇatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Vāma-tantra belonging to the Dakṣiṇa class.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Vāma (वाम) or Vāmasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a tāmasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa. c. Tāmasa (eg., Vāma-saṃhitā).

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Vāmā (वामा) is the mother of Pārśvanātha according to Śvetāmbara (but she is named Varmilā according to Digambara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Pārśvanātha is the twenty-third of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Vāmā is Aśvasena. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

vāma : (adj.) left; agreeable.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Vāma, (adj.) (Vedic vāma) 1. left, the left side (always opposed to dakkhiṇa) J. IV, 407 (°akkhi); Pv IV. 78; Miln. 295 (°gāhin left-handed); PvA. 178 (°passa left side). As “northern” at J. V, 416. vāmaṃ karoti to upset J. IV, 101.—Instr. vāmena on the left Sn. p. 80. ‹-› Abl. vāmato from or on the left J. III, 340; Pv. II, 320 (as much as “reverse”; PvA. 87=vilomato).—2. beautiful; only in cpd. vām-ūru having beautiful thighs D. II, 266; J. II, 443. So read at both places for vāmuru. (Page 609)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

vāma (वाम).—a (S) Left, not right. 2 Reverse, contrary, inverted. vāmabāhu The left arm; vāmahasta The left hand; vāmāṅga The left side.

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vāma (वाम).—n ( A Used only in conjunction with the word karja, as karjavāma) Debt.

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vāma (वाम).—m pl P Spasms (esp. in the epidemic Cholera). v vaḷa. 2 f m See vāmba f m.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vāma (वाम).—a Left. Reverse. n Debt. m pl Spasms.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vama (वम).—Ejecting, vomiting, giving out.

Derivable forms: vamaḥ (वमः).

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Vāma (वाम).—a. Left (opp. dakṣiṇa); विलोचनं दक्षिणमञ्जनेन संभाव्य तद्वञ्चितवामनेत्रा (vilocanaṃ dakṣiṇamañjanena saṃbhāvya tadvañcitavāmanetrā) R.7.8; Me.8,98.

2) Being or situated on the left side; वामश्चायं नदति मधुरं चातकस्ते सगन्धः (vāmaścāyaṃ nadati madhuraṃ cātakaste sagandhaḥ) Me.9; (vāmena is used adverbially in the same sense; e. g. vāmenātra vaṭastamadhvagajanaḥ sarvātmanā sevate K. P.1).

3) (a) Reverse, contrary, opposite, adverse, unfavourable; तदहो कामस्य वामा गतिः (tadaho kāmasya vāmā gatiḥ) Gīt.12; Māl.9.8; Bk.6.17; (b) Acting contrary, of an opposite nature; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयो वामाः कुलस्याधयः (yāntyevaṃ gṛhiṇīpadaṃ yuvatayo vāmāḥ kulasyādhayaḥ) Ś.4.18. (c) Perverse, crooked-natured, refractory; Ś.6. (d Coy (in love). (e) Hard, cruel.

4) Vile, wicked, base low, bad; उवाच वामं चक्षुर्भ्यामभिवीक्ष्य दहन्निव (uvāca vāmaṃ cakṣurbhyāmabhivīkṣya dahanniva) Bhāg.4.2.8; आसक्तास्तास्वमी मूढा वामशीला हि जन्तवः (āsaktāstāsvamī mūḍhā vāmaśīlā hi jantavaḥ) Ki.11.24.

5) Lovely, beautiful, charming; as in वामलोचना (vāmalocanā); वामोरू (vāmorū); वामभ्रूः वामस्वभाव (vāmabhrūḥ vāmasvabhāva) q. v.

6) Short.

-maḥ 1 A sentient being, an animal.

2) Name of Śiva.

3) Of Cupid, the god of love.

4) A snake.

5) An udder, a breast.

6) Prohibited or forbidden act or practice (as drinking wine).

7) The left hand.

-mam 1 Wealth, possessions.

2) Any lovely or desirable thing.

3) Adversity, misfortune.

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Vāmā (वामा).—

1) A woman.

2) A lovely woman; मधु द्राक्षा साक्षादमृतमथ वामाधरसुधा (madhu drākṣā sākṣādamṛtamatha vāmādharasudhā) Bv.4.39,42.

3) Name of Gaurī.

4) Of Lakṣmī.

5) Of Sarasvatī.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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