Bandha: 22 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Bandha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: WikiPedia: Yoga

Bandha (bond, arrest) is a term for the “body locks” in Hatha Yoga, treated under the heading of mudra. Specific bandhas are:

  1. mula-bandha, contraction of the perineum
  2. uddiyana-bandha, contraction of the abdomen into the rib cage
  3. jalandhara-bandha, tucking the chin close to the chest
  4. maha-bandha, combining all three of the above bandhas
Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Bandha (बन्ध):—There are three principel bandhas (“locks” or “contractions”), according the haṭhayoga, which, affected at the levels of the abdomen, thorax, and head, work hydraulically to effect internal changes in pressure, such that breath and seed become immobilized or begin to be drawn upward.

These are the:

  1. mūla-bandha,
  2. uḍḍiyāna-bandha
  3. and jālandhara-bandha.

The conjoined aim of the three bandhas is to gradually restrict the field in which the volatile breath, seed, and mind may move. First forcing them up out of the abdomen, they “lock” them into the torso; they next “contract” them inside the neck and head; and lastly, they “bind” them there.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Bandha (बन्ध) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in jurisdiction, referring to “penalty”. It is placed after a numeral word and stands for the ‘tenth part’. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya 8.107)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Bandha (बन्ध) refers to “bondage”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.18. Accordingly, “a Jīva is said to be in bondage (bandha) if he is tied up by the noose of eight-fold primary essences, Prakṛti etc. When freed from them he is called liberated (mukta). Perfect control and subjugation of Prakṛti and its offshoots is Salvation. A Jīva in bondage when freed from it is called a liberated soul (muktajīva). The set of eight that binds is:—Prakṛti, Buddhi (cosmic intellect), Ahaṃkāra (cosmic ego) of the nature of attributes, and the five Tanmātrās (cosmic principles of Ether etc.) The body is evolved out of these eight. The body carries on activities. The activities generate the body. Thus birth and activities continue in a series”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Bandha (बन्ध).—The place of Budha in the maṇḍalam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 74.

1b) Three, prākṛta, vaikārika and dakṣiṇa, which have their origin in ignorance.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 59, 60.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Bandha (बन्ध) refers to “decorative bands”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—The Āgamas and Śilpa-works pay more attention to several type of bands or bandhas (kūcabandha, stanabandha, kaṭibandha, udarabandha), threads or sūtras (including the sacred cord yajñasūtra, kaṭisūtra, urassūtra/ plambasūtra etc.), girdles, strings and belts which adorn the torso (like the channavīra cross-belt), the waist and hip (mekhalā, ūrudāma, kañcīdāma etc.) down to the thighs. According to Bharata, variety of garlands set with jewels and made with artistic perfection are the ornaments of chest and jewelled strings are embellishment for the breast.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Bandha (बन्ध) refers to one of the transgressions (aticāra) of the Ahiṃsā-vrata (vow of non-violence).—Bandha according to Haribhadra (commentary on the Āvaśyaka-sūtra) applies to the tying up or keeping in captivity of men or beasts. Siddhasena Gaṇin (commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra) stresses that bandha is very often utterly wanton as when ants, or other insects, are tied for amusement. It may, however, be quite legitimate when an unruly child, or slave, or servant has to be corrected or when horses, cattle, buffaloes, or elephants are kept for domestic use. The general view seems to be that such action—and this applies to the other contraventions of this vrata—ranks as an aticāra when done in anger.

Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism

Bondage; That particular relationship (between two or more than two substances) which conveys the knowledge of oneness in many (separate) things is called bondage (bandha).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Bandha (बन्ध, “bondage”) according to the Tattvārthasūtra 1.4, “the soul, the non-soul, influx, bondage (bandha), stoppage, gradual dissociation and liberation constitute reality (tattva)”.—What is meant by bondage (bandha)? Getting together of space-points of soul with karma particles is called bondage.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Bandha (बन्ध, “union”) refers to one of the forms of matter according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.24.—How many types of union (bandha) are there? There are two types of union namely contrived (prāyogika) and natural (vaistrasika). What is natural (vaisrasika) union? The union caused without the involvement/effort of living beings is called natural union. What is the characteristic of contrived (prāyogika) union? Necessity of human effort is the characteristic of contrived union.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.33, combination (bandha) of sub-atoms (paramāṇu) takes place by virtue of smoothness (snigdha) and dryness (rough) (rūkṣatva) properties associated with them. What causes union /combinations? The two attributes of matter namely oily and roughness are the causes of unison /bondage. What is meant by union (bandha)? Combining of two oily and dry sub-atoms together is called union.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Bandha (बन्ध, “binding”) refers to one of the five transgressions (aticara) of the “minor vow of non-violence” (ahiṃsā-aṇuvrata) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.25.—What is meant by binding (bandha)? To fasten a living being with cord or chain or to keep in a cage or cell as to prevent their free movement is called binding.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Bandha (बन्ध, “bondage”) refers to the “bonding of the matter particles fit to be karmas with the soul (in the state of passions)” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.2.—Whenever the empirical soul is tainted with passion and gets involved in activities, it creates vibrations in the surroundings filled with matter particles capable of becoming karma. These matter particles then get attracted towards the soul and get bonded like red hot iron when dipped in water attracts water from all sides. How are the new karmas bonded with the soul (bandha)? Bondage of the empirical soul with karmas exists from beginning-less time. When the existing (already bonded) karmas rise they cause passions in the soul’s disposition which if not checked by the soul cause new bondage of karmas.

Also, “The five causes of bondage are wrong belief (mithyādarśana), non-abstinence (avirati), negligence (pramāda), passions (kaṣāya) and activities (yoga)”.

According to verse 8.3, “bondage (bandha) is of four kinds namely species (prakṛti), duration (sthiti), potency (anubhāga) and quantity of space-points (pradeśa). What are the causes of these four types of bondage (bandha)? The species and space-points bondage are caused by activities while the potency and duration bondage is caused by passions. Which influx type has all four kinds of bondage (bandha)? Influx towards soul tainted with passion (sāmparāyika) has all kinds of bondage. Till which stage of spiritual purification all four kinds of bondage (bandha) are possible? Till the tenth stage of spiritual purification, all four kinds of bondage can take place”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Bandha.—(EI 31), a dam or highway. Note: bandha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

bandha : (m.) bound; fetter; attachment; imprisonment.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Bandha, (adj.) (cp. Vedic bandha, fr. bandh) 1. bond, fetter It. 56 (abandho Mārassa, not a victim of M.); Nd1 328 (taṇhā°, diṭṭhi°); ThA. 241.—2. one who binds or ties together, in assa° horsekeeper, groom J. II, 98; V, 441, 449; DhA. I, 392.—3. a sort of binding: maṇḍala° with a circular b. (parasol) Vin. IV, 338, salāka° with a notched b. ibid.—4. a halter, tether Dpvs. I, 76.—Cp. vinibandha. (Page 481)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bandha (बंध).—m (S) A regulation, law, rule, bond; a restriction or restraint in general. 2 Restriction, limitation, confinement. 3 A mode of writing stanzas &c.--disposing of the letters, according to a certain order, in the cells or compartments of a particular figure. 4 A piece of string, tape &c., anything to tie with: also any tie or fastening; and fig. a bond, fetter, shackle, let, hinderance. In this sense used also in comp. as mōhabandha, āśābandha, māyābandha, bhavabandha. See other compounds under the more commonly employed words jāla & pāśa.

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bāndha (बांध).—m A dam, embankment, dyke. v ghāla. 2 The raised boundary (of a field): also, sometimes, a passage through or along the margin. 3 Tying, fastening, binding. 4 (Better banda) A piece of string, tape &c., anything to tie with: also any tie or fastening; and fig. a bond or fetter.

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bāndhā (बांधा).—m (bāndhaṇēṃ) Make, structure, compacture, shape, form.

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bāndhā (बांधा).—a (Better bandā) Whole, unchanged into smaller coin--a rupee &c. 2 fig. Determined or defined--service, duties, wages.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bandha (बंध).—m A regulation. Restriction. A mode of writing stanzas. Tie. A bond, fetter.

--- OR ---

bāndha (बांध).—m A dam, dyke, Binding. A bond. f Any tie or fasting.

--- OR ---

bāndhā (बांधा).—m Make; form. a See bandā.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bandha (बन्ध).—[bandh-ghañ]

1) A tie, bond (in general) (āśābandha &c.).

2) A hair-band, fillet; रतिविगलितबन्धे केशहस्ते सुकेश्याः (rativigalitabandhe keśahaste sukeśyāḥ) (sati) V.4.22; Ś.1.29.

3) A chain, fetter.

4) Fettering, confining, imprisoning, confinement, imprisonment; बन्धं चानिच्छता घोरं त्वयासौ पुरुषर्षभ (bandhaṃ cānicchatā ghoraṃ tvayāsau puruṣarṣabha) Rām.5. 21.19; अधार्मिकं त्रिभिर्न्यायैर्निगृह्णीयात् प्रयत्नतः । निरोधनेन बन्धेन विविधेन वधेन च (adhārmikaṃ tribhirnyāyairnigṛhṇīyāt prayatnataḥ | nirodhanena bandhena vividhena vadhena ca) || Ms.8.31.

5) Catching, capturing, catching hold of; गजबन्ध (gajabandha) R.16.2.

6) (a) Forming, constructing, arranging; सर्गबन्धो महाकाव्यम् (sargabandho mahākāvyam) S. D.6. (b) Building, erecting.

7) Feeling, conceiving, cherishing; हे राजानस्त्यजत सुकविप्रेमबन्धे विरोधम् (he rājānastyajata sukavipremabandhe virodham) Vikr.18.17; R.6.81.

8) Connection, union, intercourse.

9) Joining or folding together, combining; प्रासादवातायनदृश्यबन्धैः साकेतनार्योऽ- ञ्जलिभिः प्रणेमुः (prāsādavātāyanadṛśyabandhaiḥ sāketanāryo'- ñjalibhiḥ praṇemuḥ) R.14.13; अञ्जलिबन्धः (añjalibandhaḥ) &c.

1) A bandage, ligature.

11) Agreement, harmony.

12) Manifestation, display, exhibition; मनसिजतरुपुष्पं रागबन्धप्रवालम् (manasijatarupuṣpaṃ rāgabandhapravālam) (yauvanam) R.18.52.

13) Bondage, confinement to this world (opp. mukti which is 'complete emancipation from the trammels of the world'); बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी (bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī) Bg.18.3; बन्धोन्मुक्त्यै खलु मखमुखान् कुर्वते कर्मपाशान् (bandhonmuktyai khalu makhamukhān kurvate karmapāśān) Bv.4.21; R.13.58;18.7.

14) Result, consequence.

15) A position, posture in general; आसनबन्धधीरः (āsanabandhadhīraḥ) R.2. 6; पर्यङ्कबन्धस्थिरपूर्वकायम् (paryaṅkabandhasthirapūrvakāyam) Ku.3.45,59.

16) A particular position in sexual intercourse, or a particular mode of sexual enjoyment (these are said in Ratimañjarī to be 16, but other writers increase the number to 84).

17) A border, frame-work.

18) Arrangement of a stanza in a particular shape; e. g. खड्गबन्ध, पद्मबन्ध, मुरजबन्ध (khaḍgabandha, padmabandha, murajabandha) (vide K. P.9. ad loc.).

19) A sinew, tendon.

2) The body.

21) A deposit, pledge.

22) An embankment, throwing a bridge across (a river).

23) A disease in which the eyelids cannot be wholly closed.

Derivable forms: bandhaḥ (बन्धः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bandha (बन्ध).—m.

(-ndhaḥ) 1. A pledge, a deposit. 2. A binding, a tie or fetter, &c. 3. Binding, tying. 4. The body. 5. Joining. 6. Forming. 7. A ligature, a bandage. 8. Connection, intercourse. 9. Agreement, union. 10. Result. 11. Border, frame-work. 12. The body. 13. Manifestation, display. 14. Bondage, (opposite to annihilation.) 15. A posture. 16. The different forms of sexual intercourse mentioned in Kama Shastra. 17. Feeling. 18. Laying snares. 19. A stanza which can be arranged in a particular shape, as “Padma bandha,” &c. E. bandh to tie, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bandha (बन्ध).—[bandh + a], m. 1. Binding. [Pañcatantra] 248, 12; laying (snares), [Pañcatantra] 114, 11. 2. Holding in fetters, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 310. 3. The body. 4. Building, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 114. 5. Forming, 344. 6. Agreement, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 183, 19; union, [Pañcatantra] 60, 19. 7. A tie, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 85; fetter, knot, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 49, M. M. 8. A pledge, a deposit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bandha (बन्ध).—[masculine] binding, tying to ([especially] the sacrificial post), fettering, capturing; custody, prison; band, string, sinew (of the body); chain, tether, bondage ([opposed] mukti); joining together, connection, position ([especially] of hands, feet, etc.); union, intercourse with (—°); forming, constructing; embankment, covering with a bridge; fixing or turning upon ([locative]); manifestation, exhibition, show, display (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bandha (बन्ध):—[from bandh] m. binding, tying, a bond, tie, chain, fetter, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a ligature, bandage, [Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] damming up (a river), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] capture, arrest, imprisonment, custody, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] connection or intercourse with ([compound]), [Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa] (ifc. = connected with, conducive to, [Mahābhārata])

6) [v.s. ...] putting together, uniting, contracting, combining, forming, producing, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] joining (the hollowed hands), [Raghuvaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] anything deposited (dhe-√sthā = to remain deposited), [Campaka-śreṣṭhi-kathānaka]

9) [v.s. ...] a deposit, pledge, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

10) [v.s. ...] any configuration or position of the body ([especially] of the hands and feet), [Raghuvaṃśa; Kumāra-sambhava]

11) [v.s. ...] a [particular] mode of sexual union (there are said to be 16, 18, 36, or even 84 [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Caur.]

12) [v.s. ...] constructing, building (of a bridge etc.), [Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

13) [v.s. ...] bridging over (the sea), [Vikramāṅkadeva-carita, by Bilhaṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] knitting (the brows), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

15) [v.s. ...] fixing, directing (mind, eyes, etc.), [Catalogue(s)]

16) [v.s. ...] assumption, obtainment (of a body), [Raghuvaṃśa]

17) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) conceiving, cherishing, feeling, betraying, [Harivaṃśa; Kālidāsa]

18) [v.s. ...] a border, framework, inclosure, receptacle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] a sinew, tendon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] (in [philosophy]) mundane bondage, attachment to this world, [Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Bhagavad-gītā] etc. (opp. to mukti, mokṣa, ‘final emancipation’, and regarded in the Sāṃkhya as threefold, viz. prakṛti-, vaikārika-, and dakṣiṇā-b)

22) [v.s. ...] combination of sounds (in [rhetoric]), construction or arrangement of words, [Kāvyādarśa; Pratāparudrīya]

23) [v.s. ...] arrangement of a stanza in a [particular] shape, [Kāvyaprakāśa]

24) [v.s. ...] arrangement of musical sounds, composition, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

25) [v.s. ...] a disease which prevents the eyelids from quite closing, [Suśruta]

26) [v.s. ...] (ifc. with numerals) a part (cf. pañca-, daśa-b).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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