Vriksha, Vṛkṣa, Vṛkṣā: 14 definitions

Introduction

Vriksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Vṛkṣa and Vṛkṣā can be transliterated into English as Vrksa or Vriksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष, “tree”).—One the classifications of plants according to their stature. Vṛkṣas are plants that bear flowers and fruits and have trunks and branches such as Kovīdara (Bauhinia). The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Vṛkṣa is listed as a classification for plants in the following sources:

The Manusmṛti 1.46-48 by Manu (also known as the Manusaṃhitā and Mānavadharmaśāstra).
The Suśrutasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna I.23) by Suśruta.
The Praśastapādabhāṣya by Praśastapāda and its two commentaries Nyāyakaṇḍalī and Kiraṇāvalī.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

1) Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष) or Vṛkṣavarga is another name for Prabhadrādi: the ninth chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Vṛkṣa-varga].

2) Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष) refers to a “tree”, as mentioned in a list of twenty-five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Vṛkṣa] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—(trees) It is stated in Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Sarga 14, Stanza 29, as follows about the origin of Vṛkṣas (trees).

Prajāpati Kaśyapa married Analā, the daughter of Dakṣa. Trees yielding good fruits were given birth to by Analā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vṛkṣā (वृक्षा).—Sacred as houses for the primitive man and supplied him with honey, fruits and clothing; Gandharvas live in them; these kalpavṛkṣās deteriorated and man who took to caves began to build houses on the model furnished by the trees with the upward, downward and crosswise trees;1 milked the cow-earth; the essence was tender leaves; the vessel was of pālāśa wood and the plakṣa tree acted as the calf.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 75-91, 117-20.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 10. 27.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष) is the ordinary term for ‘tree’ in the Rigveda and later. In the Atharvaveda it denotes the coffin made from a tree, no doubt by hollowing it out. The Ṣaḍviṃśa-brāhmaṇa refers to the portent of a tree secreting blood.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Vṛkṣa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—m (S) A tree, shrub, or plant in general.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—m A tree, shrub, or plant in general.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—[vraśc-ksa Uṇ.3.66]

1) A tree; आत्मापराधवृक्षाणां फलान्येतानि देहिनाम् (ātmāparādhavṛkṣāṇāṃ phalānyetāni dehinām).

2) A tree bearing visible flowers and fruit; अपुष्पाः फलवन्तो ये ते वनस्पतयः स्मृताः । पुष्पिणः फलिनश्चैव वृक्षास्तूभयतः स्मृताः (apuṣpāḥ phalavanto ye te vanaspatayaḥ smṛtāḥ | puṣpiṇaḥ phalinaścaiva vṛkṣāstūbhayataḥ smṛtāḥ) || Ms.1.47.

3) Wrightia Antidysenterica (Mar. iṃdrajava, kuḍā).

Derivable forms: vṛkṣaḥ (वृक्षः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—nt. (Sanskrit only m., and so app. Pali rukkha), tree: imāni ca ratnavṛkṣāṇi Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 410.12 (prose); anyatamad vrkṣam upaśritya Avadāna-śataka i.100.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—m.

(-kṣaḥ) A tree in general. E. vṛkṣ to cover, (to shade,) aff. ghañ; or vraśc to cut and ksa Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—probably akin to vṛh, m. A tree, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 47; [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 107.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vṛkṣa (वृक्ष).—[masculine] tree, plant, [especially] a tree with (visible) flowers or fruits.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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