Janman, Janma: 28 definitions
Janman means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Janma (जन्म).—A Danāyuṣa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 30.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Janman (जन्मन्) refers to a “bed slab”. When a temple is built over a sheet of bedrock, a ‘bed slab’ (janman) is placed over the upper contour of the bedrock. This is done only after the rock itself is cut and dressed in order to make it uniformly flat.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Janman (जन्मन्) refers to “rebirths”, according to the Kālī teachings of Abhinava’s Jayadrathayāmala.—Accordingly, “That energy (called) Kuṇḍalinī resides in the Secret Wheel (in the genitals). O fair lady, that place which fulfils all desires should always be kept secret. Then (it is called) Guhyā (the Hidden One) and is always more secret than the secret. The nectar that comes out of this is hard to acquire by gods or demons. A thousand rebirths [i.e., janma] are destroyed in the Ocean of Kula [i.e., kulārṇava] of one who possesses it. [...] Amā, the energy of the (New) Moon is located in the Door of Brahmā. Pure water falls (from) there and, having fallen into the heart of Kuṇḍalī, the nectar which is the juice of Kuṇḍalī comes out of his body. By just eating this, (Yogis) become immortal and free of old age, wrinkles, white hair and all diseases.”.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Janman (जन्मन्) refers to “nativity” (in the science of horoscopy), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 1), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] In my work on Astronomy, I have treated of the rising and setting of the planets as well as their retrograde and reretrograde motions and the like. In my work on Horoscopy, I have fully treated of nativity [i.e., janman], of yātrā and of marriage. In the present treatise, I have rejected questions and re-questions, historical narrations, unimportant planetary phenomena and all that is useless; and my purpose is to speak clearly only of the vital truths of the several subjects treated of”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Janman (जन्मन्) refers to “[future] birth”, according to Kṣemarāja’s commentary on the Svacchandatantra verse 4.142b.—Accordingly, “For the purpose of supernatural powers, from the past pure and impure [karma] that maintains the [current] body he should only purify the impure [portion] for him, for in this way (evam) the achievement of enjoyment comes about without any obstacles. As for the pure and impure [karma] that is accumulated in other [past] births and which he will do in a [future] birth (janman), all those should be purified for him according to the proclaimed procedure, like in the case of the Putraka, apart from [those karmas for] the propitiation of mantras. Therefore he said, [prākkarmāgāmi caikasthaṃ bhāvayitvā ca dīkṣayet (Svacchanda 4.142cd)]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa
Janman (जन्मन्) refers to the “birth (of the Snakes)” and represents an aspect of Agadatantra—“the ancient Indian science that alleviates the effects of poison”, as taught in the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Agadatantra or Sarpavidyā).—Tradition has it that Brahmā himself expounded the sarpavidyā to sage Kaśyapa [including topics such Nāga-janman—the birth of the Snakes (Sarpas)].
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Janman (जन्मन्, “birth”).—How many types of birth (janman, method of getting born) are there? There are three types namely spontaneous generation (sammūrchina), uterus/womb (garbha) and by descent-in-the-special-bed (upapāda). What is the meaning of being born (birth)? Acquisition of the new body by the empirical soul is called birth or getting born.Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Janman (जन्मन्) refers to an “existence”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “[This self] whose intention is confounded by the poison of manifestly false knowledge, desire and so forth falls into an existence that is difficult to endure (janman-durgama), inflamed by the fire of endless suffering”.
Synonyms: Saṃbhava, Sūti, Bhava, Jāti.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Janma (जन्म).—m n (S) Birth or production. 2 Life-time. Ex. mī janmānta khōṭēṃ bōlalōṃ nāhīṃ khōṭēṃ bōlāyācā nāhīṃ. 3 In comp. From birth, or throughout life. Ex. janmakaraṇṭā, janmakhōḍa, janmagāṇṭha. Pr. janmīṃ nāhīṃ tēṃ karmīṃ (Used of an evil event.) That which has never happened in my life-time was yet in my destiny (reserved for me). anya janmīṃ In another birth. janma ghēṇēṃ To draw birth; to come into existence. janma jāṇēṃ g. of s. To spend one's life (idly or vainly). janma dēkhaṇēṃ or -pāhaṇēṃ To have the catamenia or menstrual flux beginning to flow. janma dēṇēṃ To give birth to, to bear. janmācā Relating to birth; as janmācā khōṭā A liar from the mother's womb; janmācā rōga An inherited or a connate disease; janmācā rōgī Sickly from birth. 2 Lasting through life; as janmācā jōḍā or janmācā sōbatī A companion for life: viz. a husband, wife, firm friend, incurable malady; janmācī bhākara A provision or maintenance for life; janmācī bēgamī A provision or stock for life; janmācēṃ sārthaka The end, purpose, object of one's existence. v kara. To obtain the end &c. janmācā pāṭāvaravaṇṭā ghēṇēṃ To engage to support one through life. janmācē karmīṃ or janmācē karmāṃ As, or in the manner of, one of those acts which are never repeated in life. Used adverbially in construction with nouns expressing actions either singular or of extremely infrequent occurrence. Ex. tyānēṃ ja0 ēka muñja kēlī parantu damaḍī damaḍī dakṣiṇā dilhī. janmāsa ghālaṇēṃ To bring into existence. janmāsa ghāla- ṇārāsa raḍaṇēṃ To cry out against one's Maker; " to curse the day of one's birth." janmāsa yēṇēṃ To come into being. janmācā patakara ghēṇēṃ g. of o. To take upon one's self the charge (of feeding, clothing, providing for, or of doing any thing) for the life-time of. janmācī aṭhavaṇa rāhaṇēṃ in. con. To remember as long as one lives. navā janma hōṇēṃ in. con. To obtain a new birth. Said upon any remarkable recovery or escape.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Janma (जन्म).—m n Birth or production. Life-time. In comp. From birth or throughout life. Ex. janmakaraṇṭā janmakhōḍa. janma ghēṇēṃ Draw birth, come into existenee. janma jāṇēṃ Spend one's life (idly or vainly). janma dēṇēṃ Give birth to, bear. janmācā khōṭā A liar from the mother's womb. janmā- cā rōgī Sickly from birth. janmācā rōga An inherited or a connate disease. janmācā jōḍā or sōbatī A companion for life: viz. a husband, wife, firm friend, incurable malady. janmācī bēgamī A pro- vision or stock for life. janmācī bhākara A provision or maintenance for life. janmācēṃ sārthaka The end, purpose, object of one's existence. janmācē karmīṃ As, or in the manner of, one of those acts which are never repeated in life. Used adverbially in construction with nouns expressing actions either singular or of extremely infrequent occurrence. janmāsa ghālaṇēṃ Bring into ex- istence. janmāsa yēṇēṃ Come into being. janmācā patkara ghēṇēṃ To take upon oneself the charge (of feeding, clothing, providing for, or of doing anything) for the life-time of. janmācī āṭhavaṇa rāhaṇēṃ To remember as long as one lives. navā janma hōṇēṃ To obtain a new birth.
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janma (जन्म).—p Born, caused; that is to be born.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Derivable forms: janmam (जन्मम्).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Janman (जन्मन्).—n. [jan bhāve manin]
1) Birth; तां जन्मने शैलवधूं प्रपेदे (tāṃ janmane śailavadhūṃ prapede) Kumārasambhava 1.21.
2) Origin, rise, production, creation; आकरे पद्मरागाणां जन्म काचमणेः कुतः (ākare padmarāgāṇāṃ janma kācamaṇeḥ kutaḥ) H. Pr.44; Kumārasambhava 5.6; (at the end of comp.) arising or born from; सरलस्कन्धसंघट्ठजन्मा दवाग्निः (saralaskandhasaṃghaṭṭhajanmā davāgniḥ) Meghadūta 53.
3) Life, existence; पूर्वेष्वपि हि जन्मसु (pūrveṣvapi hi janmasu) Manusmṛti 9.1;5.38; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 4.5.
6) A father, giver of birth, progenitor; Ś.7.18.
7) Natal star.
8) (In astr.) Name of the first mansion or Nakṣatra.
9) A creature, being.
11) The people of a household.
12) Kind, race.
13) Nature; property, quality.
14) Custom, manner.
-adhipaḥ 1 an epithet of Śiva.
2) the regent of a constellation under which a person is born (in astrology); होराजन्माधिपयोर्जन्मर्क्षे वाशुभो राज्ञः (horājanmādhipayorjanmarkṣe vāśubho rājñaḥ) Bṛ. S.34.11.
-antaram 1 another life.
2) the preceding life, former birth; मनो हि जन्मान्तरसंगतिज्ञम् (mano hi janmāntarasaṃgatijñam) R.7.15.
4) the other world.
-antarīya a. belonging to or done in another life; जन्मान्तरीयैः साम्राज्यं मया प्रापीति चिन्तयन् (janmāntarīyaiḥ sāmrājyaṃ mayā prāpīti cintayan) Rāj. T.6.85.
-andhaḥ a. born blind.
-aṣṭamī the eighth day of the dark fortnight of Srāvaṇa, the birth-day of Kṛsna.
-īśaḥ = 2 जन्माधिप (janmādhipa);
-kīlaḥ an epithet of Viṣṇu.
-kuṇḍalī a diagram in a horoscope in which the positions of different planets at the time of one's birth are marked.
-kṛt m. a father.
-tithiḥ m., f.,
-dinam, -divasaḥ birth-day; सुखाय तज्जन्मदिनं बभूव (sukhāya tajjanmadinaṃ babhūva) Kumārasambhava 1.23.
-daḥ a father.
-nakṣatram, -bham the natal star.
-nāman n. the name received on the 12th day after birth.
-paḥ the regent of a planet under which a person is born.
-patram, -patrikā a horoscope.
-pādapaḥ a family-tree; उत्तराः कुरवोऽविक्षंस्तद्भयाज्जन्मपादपान् (uttarāḥ kuravo'vikṣaṃstadbhayājjanmapādapān) Rāj. T.4.175.
-pratiṣṭhā 1 a birth-place.
2) a mother; Ś.6 (between verses 9th and 1th).
-bhāj, bhṛt m. a creature, living being; मोदन्तां जन्मभाजः सततम् (modantāṃ janmabhājaḥ satatam) Mṛcchakaṭika 1.6. -a. one whose life is fruitful; अहो भोजपते यूयं जन्मभाजो नृणामिह (aho bhojapate yūyaṃ janmabhājo nṛṇāmiha) Bhāgavata 1.82. 29.
-bhāṣā a mother-tongue; यत्र स्त्रीणामपि किमपरं जन्मभाषा- वदेव प्रत्यावासं विलसति वचः संस्कृतं प्राकृतं च (yatra strīṇāmapi kimaparaṃ janmabhāṣā- vadeva pratyāvāsaṃ vilasati vacaḥ saṃskṛtaṃ prākṛtaṃ ca) Vikr.18.6.
-bhūmiḥ f. birth-place, native country.
-yogaḥ a horoscope.
-rogin a. sickly from birth.
-lagnam, -rāśiḥ the sign of the zodiac under which a person is born.
-vartman n. the vulva.
-vasudhā native country; पश्यद्भिर्जन्मवसुधाम् (paśyadbhirjanmavasudhām) Rāj. T.4.147.
-śodhanam discharging the obligations derived from birth.
-sāphalyam attainment of the ends of existence; एतद्धि जन्मसाफल्यं ब्राह्मणस्य विशेषतः (etaddhi janmasāphalyaṃ brāhmaṇasya viśeṣataḥ) Manusmṛti 12.93. Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.28.
-sthānam 1 birth-place, native country, home.
2) the womb.
-hetuḥ cause of birth, author of one's being; पितरस्तासां केवलं जन्महेतवः (pitarastāsāṃ kevalaṃ janmahetavaḥ) R.1.24.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Janman (जन्मन्).—(for closest approach to this meaning which I have found, see [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 11), circumstance, condition, case; iha janmani, in this case, under these circumstances: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 56.18 meha janmani avandhyā me mantrasiddhiḥ; 56.29 iha janmani (Tibetan skabs der = en ce cas, Lalou, Icono- graphie, 21) saṃhartavyaḥ (see saṃharati). See also bodhisattva-janman.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-nmaḥ-nmaṃ) Birth: see janman. E. jana-vā-man . janmani .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Janman (जन्मन्).—n. (-nma) Birth, production. E. jan to be born, and manin Unadi affix, or with a final vowel janma.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Janman (जन्मन्).—[jan + man], n. 1. Birth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 42. 2. Production, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 20, 31. 3. Sowing, planting, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 5, 60. 4. Appearance, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 23. 5. Existence, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 38. 6. A father, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 177. 7. Creature,
Janman (जन्मन्).—[neuter] birth, origin, new birth; existence, life; birthplace, home; progenitor, father ([especially] —° begotten by); creature, being; relatives, people i.[grammar]; race, kind; nature quality.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Janma (जन्म):—[from janīya] a in [compound] for nman
2) [v.s. ...] n. birth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]
3) [from janman > janīya] b ind., through the whole life, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan iv, 7]
4) c nman, etc. See √jan.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Janman (जन्मन्):—[from janīya] n. birth, production (kṛta-janman mfn. ‘planted’ [Kumāra-sambhava v, 60]), origin (ifc. ‘born from’ e.g. śūdra. q.v.), [Ṛg-veda iii, 26, 7; vii, 33, 10; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] existence, life, [Manu-smṛti; Bhagavad-gītā iv, 5; Yoga-sūtra ii, 12] (dṛṣṭādṛṣṭaj, ‘present and future life’), etc. (ma [accusative] ind. through the whole life, [Hemacandra’s Pariśiṣṭaparvan iv, 7])
3) [v.s. ...] nativity, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā i, 10]
4) [v.s. ...] re-birth, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha xi]
5) [v.s. ...] birthplace, home, [Ṛg-veda ii, 9, 3; viii, 69, 3; x, 5, 7; Atharva-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]
6) [v.s. ...] a progenitor, father, [Śakuntalā vii, 18]
7) [v.s. ...] natal star, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iv, 28]
8) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) Name of the 1st lunar mansion, [civ]
9) [v.s. ...] a creature, being, [Ṛg-veda; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa ii; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa iv, 10]
10) [v.s. ...] people, [Ṛg-veda ii, 26, 3; iii, 15, 2]
11) [v.s. ...] the people of a household, kind, race, [Ṛg-veda] (ubhayaj sg., [dual number] and [plural], ‘both races’ id est. gods and men or [x, 37, 11] men and animals)
12) [v.s. ...] nature, quality, [i, 70, 2]
13) [v.s. ...] custom, manner (pratnena janmanā, according to ancient custom), [, i, 87, 5; ix, 3, 9; Sāma-veda] ([varia lectio] manm, [Ṛg-veda]), [Harivaṃśa 15718] (dūta-janmanā, ‘like a messenger’)
14) [v.s. ...] water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Janma (जन्म):—[(nmaḥ-nmaṃ)] 1. m. n. Birth.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Janman (जन्मन्):—(nma) 5. n. Birth, production.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Janman (जन्मन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Jamma.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Janma (जन्म) [Also spelled janm]:—(nm) birth; origin; genesis; ~[kuṃḍalī] a short horoscope; ~[gata] by or relating to birth; innate; inborn; ~[tithi] date of birth; ~[dātā] progenitor; father; originator; -[dara] birth-rate; -[dina/divasa] birth-day; ~[nāma] christian name; ~[patra/patrikā/patrī] a horoscope; ~[bhūmi] motherland; -[maraṇa] birth and death; ~[sthāna] birth-place; —[gaṃvānā] to waste one’s life.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the act, fact or an instance of being born; birth.
2) [noun] the duration of a person’s life (sometimes, including the condition of living, activities of life etc.).
3) [noun] ಜನ್ಮ ಕೊಡು [janma kodu] janma koḍu to bear or bring forth an offspring; to give birth to.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+39): Jamantakara, Janmabandha, Janmabhava, Janmabhaya, Janmacarita, Janmadhara, Janmadurgama, Janmagahana, Janmagama, Janmagraha, Janmakaya, Janmakrita, Janmamandala, Janmamarana, Janmamdhaki, Janmamdhe, Janmamrityu, Janmamta, Janmamtarajnana, Janmamtriya.
Ends with (+101): Agnijanman, Agrajanman, Ajanajanman, Ajanman, Ambajanman, Ambhojajanman, Ambhojanman, Ambujanman, Ananyajanman, Antarjanman, Antyajanman, Anujanman, Anulomajanman, Anyajanman, Aparajanman, Aprameyajanman, Apunarjanman, Asrajanman, Atmajanman, Avyaktajanma.
Full-text (+377): Antyajanman, Ekajanman, Jamma, Agrajanman, Sindhujanman, Atmajanman, Kashmirajanman, Kritajanman, Anyajanman, Dvijanman, Cittajanman, Nabhijanman, Punarjanman, Janmajanman, Janmabhumi, Janmavartman, Janmashodhana, Janmajanmantara, Janmajanmani, Janmakila.
Search found 84 books and stories containing Janman, Janma; (plurals include: Janmans, Janmas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 2.31 - The different kinds of birth (janman) < [Chapter 2 - Category of the Living]
Verse 2.35 - Birth by pontaneous generation (sammūrcchana-janma) < [Chapter 2 - Category of the Living]
Verse 2.34 - Birth in special beds (upapāda-janma) < [Chapter 2 - Category of the Living]
Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 3.1.21 < [Sukta 1]
Rig Veda 3.1.20 < [Sukta 1]
Rig Veda 8.69.3 < [Sukta 69]
The Tattvasangraha [with commentary] (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 696-697 < [Chapter 12 - Examination of the Category of ‘Action’]
Verse 2923-2924 < [Chapter 25 - Examination of the Doctrine of ‘Self-sufficient Validity’]
Verse 1127-1130 < [Chapter 16 - Examination of the Import of Words]
The Markandeya Purana (Study) (by Chandamita Bhattacharya)
Division of Varṇa (D): The Śūdras < [Chapter 2]
Family Structure (Introduction) < [Chapter 2]
Sahitya-kaumudi by Baladeva Vidyabhushana (by Gaurapada Dāsa)