Angula, Aṅgula: 20 definitions

Introduction

Angula means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Aṅgula: one of the two basic units of measurement, according to the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa; the other being called Tāla. The Aṅgula is the basic unit prescribed to calculate the measurements of images. Banerjea (1941, p. 347) explains that the term Aṅgula served as a unit of measurement in India from very early times. The term is used in the Ṛg-veda (X.90), in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa (X.2.1–2) in which prajāpati measures the fire altar by Aṅgulas, and in the Śulbasūtras which contain the rules for construction of raised altars (vedīs and agnis).

Dave (1991, p. 349) states that according to the Kapiñjala-saṃhitā (10.58–60) an Aṅgula is classified into three types:

  1. mānāṅgula (a unit comprising of 8 barley grains or yavas),
  2. mātrāṅgula (determined by the length of the middle phalanx of the patron’s right hand)
  3. and dehāṅgula (the aṅgula of the image itself)
Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Angula (अन्गुल) or simply Mānāṅgula refers to an “inch measure” and represents a type of absolute measurement, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—In the Indian value of measurement of length there are two different kinds of units, namely, the absolute and the relative. Of these, the first is based on the length of certain natural objects, while the second is obtained from the length of a particular part or limb of the person whose measurement is under consideration. They have been specified by R. N. Mishra, in his text in volume 1 of Kalātattvakośa.

24 aṅgulas or mānāṅgulas (inch measure) make 1 kiṣku (cubit). 25 mānāṅgulas make 1 prajapathya. 26 mānāṅgulas make 1 dhanurgraha (bowlength). 27 mānāṅgulas make 1 dhanurmuṣṭi (bowlength).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल): A unit of measurement of distance, according to the Vāyu Purāṇa (वायु पुराण). The following table gives some idea about their relations to each other:

8 Aṅgulas = Prādeśa (?);
21 Aṅgulas = Ratni;
24 Aṅgulas = Hasta;
2000 Dhanus = Gavyūti;
12 Aṅgulas = Vitasti;
2 Ratnis or 42 Aṅgulas = Kiṣku;
4 hastas = Dhanus;
8000 Dhanus = Yojana.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल).—Is eight times a yava. For other details see matsya p.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 96; IV. 2. 121; Matsya-purāṇa 258. 18-21; Vāyu-purāṇa 8. 102; 101. 121 and 122.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल, “finger-breadth”) is the Sanskrit name for a unit of measurement, used in Vāstuśāstra literature, according to the Mānasāra II.40-53. A single Aṅgula unit corresponds to 8 Yava units. It takes 12 Aṅgula units to make a single Vitasti unit. It takes 26 Aṅgula units to make a single Daṇḍa unit.

Below follows a table of the different units of measurement in relation to one another:

  • 8 Paramāṇu = 1 Rathadhūli, chariot-dust
  • 8 Rathadhūli = 1 Vālāgra, hair-end
  • 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likṣā, nit,
  • 8 Likṣā = 1 Yūka, louse
  • 8 Yūka = 1 Yava, barley-corn,
  • 8 Yava = 1 Aṅgula, digit (finger-breadth),
  • 12 Aṅgula = 1 Vitasti, span,
  • 2 Vitasti (24 aṅgulas) = 1 Kiṣku, cubit,
  • 4 Dhanurmuṣṭi (26 aṅgulas) = 1 Daṇḍa, rod,
  • 8 Daṇḍa = 1 Rajju, rope

The smallest unit, which is paramāṇu, atom is stated ta be perceived (only) by the sages. For all practical purposes, aṅgula is the smallest unit of measurement. For this reason, it is seen to be treated in a special way in the text with regards to its universality that significantly downplays its semantic reference to the body.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल, “finger-breadth”).—For all practical purposes, aṅgula is the smallest unit of measurement. For this reason, it is seen to be treated in a special way in the text with regards to its universality that significantly downplays its semantic reference ta the body.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Angula refers to “ a finger’s breadth”. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल).—1. Digit, as a unit of linear measure (finger-breadth). 2. Unit of length, 1/24th of a cubit. Note: Aṅgula is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Aṅgula; ancient Hindu unit of measurement of distance. 8 Yavas make a single Aṅgula and 24 Aṅgulas make 1 Hasta. Thus 768000 Aṅgulas make up for a single Yojana.

If we consider a single Yojana to be 8 miles (~12.87km), one Aṅgula would correspond to roughly 0.66 inches (~1.67cm)

If we consider a single Yojana to be 5 miles (~8.04km), one Aṅgula would correspond to roughly 0.41 inc (~1.05cm)

More conversions based on the Aṅgula:

2 Aṅgulas = 1 Golaka or Kalā;
(1 Golaka = 1.32 inches or 3.35cm when a Yojana is 8 miles),
(1 Golaka = 0.83 inches or 2.1cm when a Yojana is 5 miles);

4 Aṅgulas = 1 Dhanu-graha;
(1 Dhanu-graha = 2.64 inches or 6.17cm when a Yojana is 8 miles),
(1 Dhanu-graha = 1.65 inches or 4.19cm when a Yojana is 5 miles);

8 Aṅgulas = 1 Prādeśa or Dhanu-musti;
(1 Prādeśa = 5.28 inches or 13.41cm when a Yojana is 8 miles),
(1 Prādeśa = 3.3 inches or 8.38cm when a Yojana is 5 miles);

12 Aṅgulas = 1 Vitasti or Tāla or Mukha;
(1 Vitasti = 7.95 inches or 20.12cm when a Yojana is 8 miles),
(1 Vitasti = 4.95 inches or 12.57cm when a Yojana is 5 miles);

21 Aṅgulas = 1 Ratni;
(1 Ratni = 13.86 inches or 35.20cm when a Yojana is 8 miles),
(1 Ratni = 8.66 inches or 22cm when a Yojana is 5 miles);

42 Aṅgulas = 1 Kiṣku;
(1 Kiṣku = 27.72 inches or 70.41cm when a Yojana is 8 miles),
(1 Kiṣku = 17.33 inches or 44.01cm when a Yojana is 5 miles);

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Prakrit Bharati Academy: Jainism - the Creed for all Times

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल, “the finger-measure”).—The basic Jaina units of measuring lengths is aṅgula or finger-measure. The practical unit of finger-measure is an utsedhāṅgula (UA – used for measuring heights of bodies and idols), which is 1/7,68000th of an utsedha-yojana.

  1. utsedhāṅgula,
  2. ātmāṅgula,
  3. pramāṇāṅgula

These three finger-measures (aṅgula) were used for measuring heights of bodies and idols, lengths of items of utility and lands, land and sea distances as well as astronomical distances.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Aṅgula.—(IE 8-6), a linear measure equal to the breadth of the middle finger. Note: aṅgula is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

See also (synonyms): Aṅguli.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

aṅgula : (nt.) an inch; a finger-breadth. (adj.), (in cpds:) measuring so many inches.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Aṅgula, (Vedic aṅgula, lit. “limblet” see aṅga for etym.) 1. a finger or toe M.I, 395 (vaṅk’ aṅgulaṇ karoti to bend the fingers, v. l. aṅguliṇ); A.III, 6 (id.); J V 70 (goṇ° adj. with ox toes, expld. by C. as with toes like an ox’s tail; vv. ll. °aṅguṭṭha and °aṅgulī). — 2. a finger as measure, i. e. a finger-breadth, an inch Vin.II, 294, 306 (dvaṅgula 2 inches wide); Mhvs 19, 11 (aṭṭh°); DhA.III, 127 (ek°).

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

aṅgula (अंगुल).—n (S) A measure of eight barleycorns joined side by side. 2 The measure of a finger's breadth.

--- OR ---

aṅgūḷa (अंगूळ).—n A measure. See aṅgula.

--- OR ---

āṅgūḷa (आंगूळ).—n (aṅgula S) A measure of eight barleycorns joined side by side. 2 The measure of a finger's breadth. 3 m f n (See agūḷa) A snood.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

aṅgula (अंगुल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—n The measure of a finger's breadth.

--- OR ---

āṅguḷa (आंगुळ).—n The measure of a finger's breadth.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल).—[aṅg-ul]

1) A finger.

2) The thumb, अङ्गौ पाणौ लीयते (aṅgau pāṇau līyate) (n. also).

3) A finger's breadth (n. also), equal to 8 barley-corns, 12 Aṅgulas making a वितस्ति (vitasti) or span, and 24 a हस्त (hasta) or cubit; शङ्कुर्दशाङ्गुलः (śaṅkurdaśāṅgulaḥ) Ms. 8.271.

4) (Astr.) A digit or 12th part.

5) Name of the sage Chāṇakya or Vātsyāyana.

Derivable forms: aṅgulaḥ (अङ्गुलः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Aṅgula (अङ्गुल).—m.

(-laḥ) 1. The thumb. 2. A finger. 3. A measure of eight barley corns. 4. The name of a saint. See vātsyāyana. 5. A digit, or onetwelvth part of any dimension. E. aṅga to count and ula aff.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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