Dravida, Draviḍā, Draviḍa, Drāviḍa: 23 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Dravida means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Draviḍa (द्रविड).—A King of the family of Priyavrata who was the son of Manu. (Bhāgavata, Skandha 5).

2) Draviḍa (द्रविड).—A gandharva who was the father of Kaṃsa. (See under Kaṃsa) Aṃśumatī was the daughter of this gandharva. (See under Aṃśumatī).

3) Draviḍa (द्रविड).—(DRĀVIḌA). In ancient days the whole of South India was known by the name Tamilaka, as Tamil was the language used throughout South India. Strictly speaking, all the languages used in South India were given the name Tamil. The word 'Tamil' underwent changes in the language of North India and took the form 'Drāvida'. Etymologists are of opinion that the changes that took place in the word Tamil were are follows:— Tamil—Damil—Damiḍ-Dramiḍ—Draviḍ—Drāviḍ. Reference to the Drāviḍa country occurs in most of the Purāṇas. Mahābhārata states that Sahadeva, one of the Pāṇḍavas, sent a note for collecting taxes from the people of Drāvida. Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 71.

"There are other countries also in the southern Bhārata such as Dravida, Kerala, Prācya, Mūṣīka, Vanavāsīka Karṇāṭaka, Mahiṣaka, Vikalpa and Mūṣaka." This statement (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9) throws light on the various countries which existed in South India at the time of Mahābhārata. In Bhāgavata, Skandha 10, it is mentioned that Kaṃsa, the uncle of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, was the son of Dramila, a gandharva. (See under Kaṃsa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Draviḍa (द्रविड).—The kingdom of Malayadhvaja Pāṇḍya; the country in which there is Venkaṭa;1 praise of Hari prevalent here in Kali;2 conquered by Kalki.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 28. 30; VIII. 4. 7; X. 79. 13.
  • 2) Ib. XI. 5. 39.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 35. 10; 73. 107.

1b) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Jāmbavatī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 12.

1c) People of Dravida; S. India; see Dakṣiṇātyās;1 ineligible for śrāddha;2 country of.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 31. 82; Vāyu-purāṇa 58. 82; 98. 107.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 16. 16.
  • 3) Ib. 144. 56.

2) Draviḍā (द्रविडा).—A daughter of Tṛṇabindu and mother of Viśravas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 16.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Draviḍa (द्रविड) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.48, II.31.12, III.48.18, V.158.20, VI.10.57, VIII.4.46) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Draviḍa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Draviḍa (द्रविड) refers to an ancient country which should be shunned, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—It looks upon Kurukṣetra, Matsya, Pāñcāla and Surasena as holy countries where Dharma is practiced. It advises people to shun Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Surāṣṭra, Gurjara, Ābhira, Kauṅkaṇa, Draviḍa, Dakṣiṇāpatha, Āndhra and Magadha.—(cf. verses 17.54-59)  Thus it appears that this Purāṇa was written somewhere about the north-western part of northern India.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Drāviḍa (द्राविड) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Śilparatna (32.6) and the Mayamata (18.14). In the Kamikāgama (57.8), this variety is known as Drāmiḍa.

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Drāviḍa (द्राविड).—A classification of prāsada (‘superstructure of a temple’);—The building that possesses a śikhara, which is octagonal, is drāviḍa.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Drāviḍa (द्राविड) refers to “n. of a type of prāsāda §§ 4.11; 5.14”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Draviḍa (द्रविड) is the name of a tribe, usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The are also known by the name Dramila (or Damila in Pali). The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Dravida in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Draviḍa (द्रविड) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—The use of the words Draviḍa and Dramila are the same as in the case of the word Gauḍa. These words mentioned by Rājaśekhara to denote the inhabitants of southern India, which is not the name of the country.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Drāviḍa (द्राविड) is the name of a country classified as Kādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Drāviḍa] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Draviḍa (द्रविड) refers to a sub-division of the Mlecchas: one of the two-fold division of men born in Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans. [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. [...] The Mlecchas—[e.g., the Draviḍas, ...] and other non-Āryas also are people who do not know even the word ‘dharma’”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

draviḍa (द्रविड).—& draviḍī See drāviḍa & drāviḍī.

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drāviḍa (द्राविड).—m (S) The coast of Coromandel from Madras to Cape Comorin. 2 A class of Brahmans, or an individual of it, natives of that country. Five distinctions are comprehended. See pañcadrāviḍa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

drāviḍa (द्राविड) [-dēśa, -देश].—m The coast of Coromandel.

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drāviḍa (द्राविड) [-ḍī prāṇāyāma, -डी प्राणायाम].—m A devious mode of speaking; a round-about way to a place.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Draviḍa (द्रविड).—

1) Name of a country on the east coast of the Deccan (pl.); अस्ति द्रविडेषु काञ्ची नाम नगरी (asti draviḍeṣu kāñcī nāma nagarī) Dk.13.

2) An inhabitant or native of that country; जरद्द्रविडधार्मिकस्ये- च्छया निसृष्टैः (jaraddraviḍadhārmikasye- cchayā nisṛṣṭaiḥ) K.229.

3) Name of a degraded tribe; cf. Ms.1.22.

3) A collective name for five peoples (āndhra, karnāṭaka, gurjara, tailaṅga and mahārāṣṭra); see द्राविड (drāviḍa).

Derivable forms: draviḍaḥ (द्रविडः).

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड).—[draviḍadeśo'bhijano'sya-aṇ]

1) A Dravidian, Dravida.

2) A general name for a Brāhmaṇa of any of the five southern tribes (the pañcadraviḍa); द्राविड, कर्णाट, गुर्जर, महाराष्ट्र (drāviḍa, karṇāṭa, gurjara, mahārāṣṭra) and तैलङ्ग (tailaṅga). कर्णाटाश्चैव तैलङ्गा गुर्जरा राष्ट्रवासिनः । आन्ध्राश्च द्राविडा पञ्च विन्ध्यदक्षिणवासिनः (karṇāṭāścaiva tailaṅgā gurjarā rāṣṭravāsinaḥ | āndhrāśca drāviḍā pañca vindhyadakṣiṇavāsinaḥ) || Skanda P.

3) Name of the five chief Dravidian languages (Tamil, Telugu, Kanarese, Malayalam and Tulu).

-ḍāḥ (pl.) The Dravida country and its people.

-ḍī Cardamoms.

Derivable forms: drāviḍaḥ (द्राविडः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Draviḍa (द्रविड).—m.

(-ḍaḥ) A man of an outcaste tribe, descended from a degraded Kshetriya. f. (-ḍī) One of the Raginis or female personifications of the modes of music.

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड).—m.

(-ḍaḥ) 1. A country, properly the coast of Coromandel from Madras to Cape Comorin, or the country in which Tamil is spoken. 2. A native of Dravira or Dravida. 3. A Brahman of Dravira, of rather of the south five Draviras being specified, or Dravira, Karnata, Gujrata, Maharashtra, and Tailanga. 4. A particular number. 5. Zedoary. E. draviḍa, and aṇ aff. draviḍo deśo'bhijano’sya .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Draviḍa (द्रविड).—m. 1. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 14, 832. 2. The son of a Vrātya or degraded Kṣatriya, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 22.

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड).—i. e. draviḍa + a, I. adj., f. ḍī, Belonging to the Draviḍas, Mahābhārata 8, 454. Ii. m. pl. = Draviḍa, Mahābhārata 1, 6683. Iii. f. ḍī, Cardamom, [Suśruta] 1, 142, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Draviḍa (द्रविड).—[masculine] [Name] of a country, [plural] of a people (considered also as a caste); [feminine] ī [with] strī a Dravidian woman.

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड).—[feminine] ī belonging to the Draviḍas; [masculine] sgl. & [plural], [feminine] ī = draviḍa, ī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Draviḍa (द्रविड) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Pradīpa [dharma] Quoted by Śrīdharasvāmin Oxf. 286^a.

2) Draviḍā (द्रविडा):—draviḍāḥ Quoted by Kṣīrasvāmin and in Mādhavīyadhātuvṛtti.

Draviḍā can also be spelled as Drāviḍā (द्राविडा).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Draviḍa (द्रविड):—m. Name of a people (regarded as degraded Kṣatriyas and said to be descendants of Draviḍa, sons of Vṛṣabha-svāmin, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]) and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan, [Manu-smṛti; Varāha-mihira; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) collect. Name for 5 peoples, viz. the Āndhras, Karṇāṭakas, Gurjaras, Tailaṅgas, and Mahārāṣṭras (cf. dāviḍa below)

3) Name of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) of an author, [Catalogue(s)]

5) [plural] of a school of grammarians, [ib.]

6) Drāviḍa (द्राविड):—[from draviḍa] a mf(ī)n. Drāvidian, a Draviqa, [Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] the D° people, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] m. also collect. Name for the above 5 peoples, and of the 5 chief D° languages, Tamil, Telugu, Kanarese, Malayālam and Tulu

9) [v.s. ...] sg. a [patronymic] [from] Draviḍa, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a [Scholiast or Commentator] on the Amara-koṣa, [Colebrooke]

11) [v.s. ...] a [particular] number, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] Curcunia Zedoaria or a kindred plant, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

13) b See p. 501, col. 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Draviḍa (द्रविड):—(ḍaḥ) 1. m. An outcaste. f. A Rāginī.

2) Drāviḍa (द्राविड):—(ḍaḥ) 1. m. A country, Coromandel coast; zedoary.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Draviḍa (द्रविड):—

1) m. Nomen proprium eines Volkes (und des von ihm bewohnten Gebietes) an der Ostküste des Dekhan's, welches im System als zu Śūdra herabgesunkene Kṣatriya betrachtet wird, [Pariśiṣṭa des Atharvaveda] in [Weber’s Verzeichniss 93.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 10, 22] (sg). [44.] [Mahābhārata 14, 832. 2476. 2, 1174. 3, 10217. 13, 2158.] [Harivaṃśa 9600. 12831.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 4, 23. 9, 15. 19. 14, 19. 16, 2. 11. 31, 15.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 28, 30. 8, 4, 7. 24, 13.] te svecchayā mama girāṃ draviḍāṅganoktavācāmivārthamavicārya vikalpayanti [Prabodhacandrodaja 106, 16.] śiśu [Oxforder Handschriften No. 168.] deśīya ebend. [No. 170.] draviḍe viṣaye [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 457.] Collectivname für 5 Völker: āndhrāḥ karṇāṭakāścaiva gurjarā draviḍāstathā . mahārāṣṭrā iti khyātāḥ pañcaite draviḍāḥ smṛtāḥ .. [VAJRAS. 256]; vgl. u. drāviḍa und [Colebrooke II, 28. fg.] Der Name des Volkes und Landes zurückgeführt auf einen Sohn Vṛṣabhasvāmin’s: itaśca vṛṣabhasvāmisūnurdraviḍa ityabhūt . yannāma (sic) draviḍo deśaḥ paprathe bahuśasyabhūḥ .. [Śatruṃjayamāhātmya 7, 1.] —

2) f. ī Name einer Rāgiṇī [Halāyudha im Śabdakalpadruma] — Vgl. drāviḍa .

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड):—(von draviḍa)

1) adj. f. ī Draviḍisch, zum Volke der Draviḍa gehörig, ein Draviḍa [Medinīkoṣa ḍ. 30.] drāviḍaiḥ sainikaiḥ saha [Mahābhārata 8, 454.] māntrika [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 593. 603.] brāhmaṇa [Colebrooke II, 179.] bhāṣā [Sāhityadarpana 173, 7.] māna [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 58, 4.] —

2) m. a) pl. das Volk der Draviḍa [Mahābhārata 1, 6683. 3, 1988. 5, 656. 6. 366] [?(Viṣṇupurāṇa 192). 13, 2104. Rāmāyaṇa 4, 41, 18.] lipi [Rgva tch’er rol pa 123.] Collectivname für fünf Völker (vgl. u. draviḍa und [Colebrooke II, 28. fg.]): kārṇāṭāścaiva tailaṅgā gujjarā rāṣṭravāsinaḥ . āndhrāśca drāviḍā pañca vindhyadakṣiṇavāsinaḥ .. [SKANDA-Pāṇini’s acht Bücher im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) patron. von draviḍa [Śatruṃjayamāhātmya 7, 2.] — c) Nomen proprium eines Scholiasten des Amarakoṣa [Colebrooke II, 55,] [Nalopākhyāna] — d) eine best. Zahl [Medinīkoṣa] — e) Curcuma Zedoaria Rosc., = vedhamukhya [Medinīkoṣa] = karcūra (hier als verschieden von vedhamukhya aufgefasst) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

3) f. ī Kardamomen [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] [Suśruta 1, 142, 4.]

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Draviḍa (द्रविड):—

1) pl. [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 10,79,13.] [Sāhityadarpana 173,7.] [Oxforder Handschriften 258,a,23.] deśa [352,b,17.] draviḍyaḥ striyaḥ [217,b,15.] draviḍāḥ als Grammatiker [161,b,7.] sg. Nomen proprium eines Sohnes Kṛṣṇa’s [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 10, 61, 12.] eines Autors [Oxforder Handschriften 286,a, No. 670.]

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड):—

2) a) sg. Bez. des Landes [Spr. (II) 7563.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Draviḍa (द्रविड):——

1) m. Nomen proprium — a) Pl. eines Volkes in Südindien (auch Bez. einer grammatischen Schule ) ; Sg. eines Landes in Südindien — b) verschiedener Männer. —

2) f. ī — a) in Verbindung mit strī eine Frau aus dem Volke der Draviḍa. — b) eine best. Rāgiṇī.

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Drāviḍa (द्राविड):——

1) Adj. (f. ī) zum Volke der Draviḍa gehörig.

2) m. — a) Nomen proprium — α) Pl. Nomen proprium eines Volkes , = draviḍa. Sg. Name des Landes. — β) eines Scholiasten. — b) Patron. von draviḍa. — c) *eine best. Zahl. — d) Curcuma Zedoaria oder eine verwandte Pflanze [Rājan 6,119.] [Bhāvaprakāśa 1,191.] —

3) f. ī — a) eine Draviḍa-Frau [Vikramāṅkadevacarita 7,71.] — b) kleine Kardamomen [Rājan 6,87.] [Bhāvaprakāśa 1,188.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Dravida in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Draviḍa (द्रविड):—(a) Dravidian, (nm); the Dravidian country; a Dravidian; —[deśa] the Dravidian country; —[prāṇāyāma] lit. catching the nose for holding the breath ([prāṇāyama]) by bringing the right hand over the head —a round about way of doing a thing; making a detour.

2) Drāviḍa (द्राविड):—(a and nm) see [draviḍa]; hence [draviḍī] (nf).

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