Yava, Yāva: 39 definitions


Yava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Yav.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Yava (यव) is a Sanskrit word referring to Hordeum vulgare (“barley”) from the Poaceae (grasses) family. It is a type of “awned grain” (śūkadhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant Yava is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Yava is rough, cold, non-heavy and sweet in character. It produces abundance of flatus and faeces, promotes stability, is slightly astringent. It is also a tonic and alleviates disorders of kapha

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th century Ayurvedic work), this plant (Yava) is mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter.

Acording to the Pandanus database, it is a tufted annual herb up to 100 cm high, grows all over India, the leaves are few, flaccid, linear, and the upper ones are close to the spike. The fruit has an elliptic short pinted grooved caryopsis.

Source: bimbima: Hinduism

In Ayurveda, Yava kshara is prepared from barley and used for treatment of numerous diseases. It is an alkaline preparation containing Potassium bicarbonate. Yavakshar is indicated in treatment of stones, urine retention, abdominal diseases, piles, liver and spleen diseases.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Yava (यव) refers to “barley”, commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Barley (yava) is the ancient staple food known to Vedic Indians and thus it enjoyed the staple food status in this period. All other cereals, whether it is rice or wheat, get only a secondary status in this period. It can be seen that the rice gets an equal status of barley only in the period of Atharvaveda which states that barley and rice are the two immortal sons of heaven. Aṣṭāṅgasaṃgraha identifies two varieties of barley which are anuyava—the superior one and the veṇuyava—the inferior one.

Yava or “barley” is classified as a type of grain (dhānya) in the section on śūkadhānya (awned grains) in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises.—The author explains the characteristics and the properties of various food grains (dhānyas). [...] The section śūkadhānya includes the varieties and properties of rice (śāli), wheat (godhūma) and barley (yava).

Yava or “barley” is mentioned as being beneficial (hita) to the body according to the same work. Here In the śūkadhānya (awned grains) group Yava (barley) is mentioned as beneficial to the body (hita).

Yava (barley) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., yava (barley)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kitava (thorn apple)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Yava (यव) refers to the medicinal plant Hordeum vulgare L. Syn. Hordeum hexastichon L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the Ayurvedic Formulary of India (as well as the Pharmacopoeia).—Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal. The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Śvetasārivā] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant plant Hordeum vulgare L. Syn. Hordeum hexastichon L. (Yava) is known as Kāñjika or Dhānyāmla according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Yava (यव) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Hordeum vulgare Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning yava] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Yava (यव):—Cereal barely, 8 mustard seeds are equal to one yava

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Yava (यव, “barley-corn”) is the Sanskrit name for a unit of measurement, used in Vāstuśāstra literature, according to the Mānasāra II.40-53. A single Yava unit corresponds to 8 Yūka units. It takes 8 Yava units to make a single Aṅgula unit.

Below follows a table of the different units of measurement in relation to one another:

  • 8 Paramāṇu = 1 Rathadhūli, chariot-dust
  • 8 Rathadhūli = 1 Vālāgra, hair-end
  • 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likṣā, nit,
  • 8 Likṣā = 1 Yūka, louse
  • 8 Yūka = 1 Yava, barley-corn,
  • 8 Yava = 1 Aṅgula, digit (finger-breadth),
  • 12 Aṅgula = 1 Vitasti, span,
  • 2 Vitasti (24 aṅgulas) = 1 Kiṣku, cubit,
  • 4 Dhanurmuṣṭi (26 aṅgulas) = 1 Daṇḍa, rod,
  • 8 Daṇḍa = 1 Rajju, rope

The smallest unit, which is paramāṇu, atom is stated ta be perceived (only) by the sages. For all practical purposes, aṅgula is the smallest unit of measurement. For this reason, it is seen to be treated in a special way in the text with regards to its universality that significantly downplays its semantic reference to the body.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Yava (यव) refers to “barley grain (absolute or relative unit of measurement) §§ 2.1,4.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Yava (यव) refers to “barley grains”, used in ritualistic worship (pūjā), as mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“performance of the worship of Śiva with a hundred thousand barley grains is highly efficacious. Eight and a half Prasthas and two Palas of barley grains constitute a hundred thousand in number according to ancient calculation. The worship with barley grains (yava-pūjā), the sages say, increases heavenly pleasures”.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Yava (यव) refers to “barley”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Yava is described as the king of all the herbs, so it may have been an important item of food for the Kaśmīrīs. Like sesame it is also prescribed for various purposes (verses 679, 696, 697 f.). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Yava (यव).—The food of Naimiṣeyas; havis of, in a śrāddha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 159; II. 7. 144; 32. 13; III. 14. 11; 19. 3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 21, 24; II. 15. 30. Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 16. 6; IV. 10. 24.

1b) A measurement, eight times the yūkā (s.v.)*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 258. 18.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Yava (यव) refers to “barley” and represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings according to verse 25.57 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “rice (śāli), green gram (mudga), barley (yava), black gram (māṣa), wheat (godhūma), priyaṅgu (panic seed) and seasamum (tila)—these seven grown in the village are to be taken in the work of preparation of caru”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Yava (यव) refers to the “size of a barley grain” and represents a type of absolute measurement, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—In the Indian value of measurement of length there are two different kinds of units, namely, the absolute and the relative. Of these, the first is based on the length of certain natural objects, while the second is obtained from the length of a particular part or limb of the person whose measurement is under consideration. They have been specified by R. N. Mishra, in his text in volume 1 of Kalātattvakośa.

8 yūkas make 1 yava (the size of a barley grain). 8 yavas make 1 uttama-mānāṅgula (superior inch measure). 7 yavas make 1 madhyama-mānāṅgula (middling inch measure). 6 yavas make 1 adhama-mānāṅgula (inferior inch measure).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Yava (यव) refers to “barley”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “When Jupiter (bṛhaspati) reappears at the beginning of the constellation of Dhaniṣṭhā in the month of Māgha, the first year of the cycle of 60 years of Jupiter known as Prabhava commences. [...] The next year is known as Vibhava the third as Śukla, the fourth as Pramoda, and the fifth as Prajāpati: in each of these years mankind will be happier than in the next preceding year. In the same four years there will be good growth of the Śālī crop, of sugarcane, of barley [i.e., yava] and other crops in the land; mankind will be freed from all fears and they will live at peace, in happiness and without the vices of the Kaliyuga”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Addaiyan Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences: Tantra Literature of Kerala- Special Reference to Mātṛsadbhāva

Yava (यव) or “barley” refers to one of various seeds used in Bījāṅkurārpaṇa, according to the Mātṛsadbhāva, one of the earliest Śākta Tantras from Kerala.—Mātṛsadbhāva is a Kerala Tantric ritual manual dealing with the worship of Goddess Bhadrakālī (also known as Rurujit) along with sapta-mātṛs or Seven mothers. [...] There are many descriptions about the flora and fauna in Mātṛssadbhāva. Different types of Seeds, dhātūs, metals, etc. are describing in this text. In the seventh chapter of Mātṛsadbhāva is describing the bījāṅkurārpaṇa part, tells seven types seeds need to be used [e.g., yava].

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Yava (यव) in the Rigveda appears to be a generic term for any sort of ‘grain’, and not merely ‘barley’. The latter sense is probably found in the Atharvaveda, and is regular later. The barley harvest came after spring, in the summer. That barley was cultivated in the period of the Rigveda is not certain, but on the whole very probable.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Son of Brahmadatta and afterwards king of Benares. For his story see the Musika Jataka.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Yava (यव) refers to “barley” (suitable for a pacification ritual), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān teaches a pacification ritual]: “A pacification rite should be performed at four places in the field. One should offer barley (yava), sesame, mustard seed and rice grain anointed with ghee; there will be great peace. Furthermore, even animals are unable to cause harm. This dhāraṇī should be written down according to the complete offering manual. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Yava (यव)—One of the field-crops mentioned in the Jātakas.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Yava (यव, “barley”) refers to one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Yava (यव) refers to the “lines beneath the joints”.—(e.g., vāpī is one of the marks on hand or foot.)

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Yava.—one-fifteenth of a māṣa (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 45); equal to 2 dhānyamāṣas (ibid., p. 48); (1/3) of a rati. Note: yava is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Yava.—(1/15) of māṣa; (1/3) of rati. [Page443-a+ 43] Note: yava is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Yava in India is the name of a plant defined with Altingia excelsa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Liquidambar altingiana Blume.

2) Yava is also identified with Hordeum vulgare It has the synonym Zeocriton distichum P. Beauv. (etc.).

3) Yava is also identified with Triticum aestivum It has the synonym Zeia vulgaris var. aestiva (L.) Lunell (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Flora Taurico-Caucasica (1808)
· Journal of Integrative Plant Biology (2005)
· Taxon (2000)
· La flore adventice de Montpellier (1912)
· A Class-book of Botany (1847)
· Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1977)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Yava, for example side effects, health benefits, chemical composition, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

yava : (m.) barley. || yāva (ind.), up to; as far as; so far that.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Yava, (Vedic yava, corn; see Zimmer, Altind. Leben 239. Cp. Gr. zeά spelt; Lith. javaī corn; Oir. eorna barley) corn (in general), barley (in particular) Vin. IV, 264; S. IV, 220; A. IV, 169.

— or —

Yāva, (adv.) (Vedic yāvat as nt. of yāvant used as adv. in meanings 1 & 2. The final t is lost in Pāli, but restored as d in certain combinations: see below 2.—Cp. tāva & kīva). 1 (as prep.) up to (a point), as far as, how far, so far that (cp. tāva I), both temporal and local, used either with absolute form of noun or adj. (base), or Nom. or Abl. or Acc.—(a) absolute: y. sahassa up to 1000. PvA. 21; y. sattama up to the seventh D. I, 238. ‹-› (b) Nom. : y. deva-bhava-sampatti up to the attainment of a deva existence PvA. 167; y. satta divasā up to 7 days, as long as 7 days PvA. 31. (c) with Abl. : y. brahmalokā up to the highest heaven A. III, 17; y. mekhalā down to her girdle PvA. 46; yāva āyu-pariyosānā up to the end of life PvA. 200; y. ajjadivasā till the present day Mhvs 32, 23; y. kapp’âvasānā up to the end of the world Vism. 688 (where SnA 5 in same passage reads Acc. °âvasānaṃ); y. kāla-ppavedanā J. I, 118+DhA. I, 248; y. mukhasmā up to the brim Miln. 238; yāva bhumm’âvalambare hang down to the ground Pv. II, 102.—(d) with Acc. y. Bodhimaṇḍaṃ as far as the Bodhimaṇḍa Mhvs 30, 88; y. tatiyakaṃ for the 3rd time (i.e. the last time; ascending scale!) D. I, 95; y. tatiyaṃ id. Vin. IV, 236 samanubhāsitabba); Sn. 1116; J. IV, 126.—frequent in phrase yāva jīvaṃ (see under cpds.). Sattamāsaṃ cha pañca cattāro ti vatvā yāva temāsaṃ yāciṃsu “after having said 7, 6, 5, 4, months they begged down to 3 months” PvA. 20.—With startingpoint, local: pādatalato ... yāvakesaggaṃ from the sole of the foot to the tip of the hair (“from tip to toe”) DhA. I, 70; (in modal sense: ) paṭhavī-kasiṇato paṭṭhāya yāva odāta-kasiṇaṃ “from the one to the other” Vism. 374. Similarly in correlation yāva-tāva (see tāva 1.) as far-so far, until-so long: y. rājā āgacchati tāva ubho ramissāma J. IV, 190; heṭṭhā pi yāva Avīci upari yāva Akaniṭṭha-bhavanaṃ, tāva addasa Vism. 392; yāva naṃ ānemi tāva idh’eva tiṭṭha DhA. III, 194.—2. (as adv.) how, how much, to which or what extent, as great or as much (as) (cp. tāva II. 2), usually in combination yāva mahā (mahantaṃ), e.g. yāva mahantaṃ how big PvA. 77 (=yādisaṃ of Pv. II, 119); VvA. 325=DhA. I, 29 (yāva mahantaṃ). Also in other combinations, like yāva dukkhā nirayā how (or as) many painful purgatories Sn. 678; yāva dukkhā tiracchānayoni M. III, 169; yāva pāpo ayaṃ Devadatto alakkhiko ... “how very wicked is this D.Vin. II, 196 Further in combination with attha(ṃ), and eva, in which cases the final d is restored, or may be regarded as euphonic. Thus yāvad-atthaṃ as far as need be, as much as you like (with imper.) Pv IV. 57 (khādassu y.); UbhA 504 (=yattakaṃ icchati tattakaṃ); J. V, 338; PvA. 217 (gaṇhāhi). Cp. Vin. III, 37 (yāvadatthaṃ katvā “pleasing herself”).—As adj. sufficient, plenty M. I, 12 (paripuṇṇa ... suhita y.); PvA. 24 (=pahūta). yāvad-eva (cp. the similar tāva-d. -eva) “as much as it is (in extent)” i.e. with limitation as far as is necessary, up to (i.e. not further or more than), ever so much, as much as you like, at least; (then: ) as far as, in short, altogether, indeed.—The same idea as our definition is conveyed by Bdhgh’s at SnA 503 (on Sn. p. 140) “paricched’âvadhāraṇa-vacanaṃ, ” and at DhA. II, 73 “avadhiparicchedana”: giving a limitation, or saying up to the limit. S. II, 276; Sn. p. 140; Dh. 72; and in stock phrase “n’eva davāya ... yāvad eva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā ... ” (“in short”); see passages under yātrā. The explanation of yāvad eva in this phrase as given at DhsA. 403 runs: “āhār’āharaṇe payojanassa pariccheda-niyamadassanaṃ, ” of which the translation Expos. II. 512 is “so as to suffice signifies the limit of the result of taking food. ” Neumann’s translation at M. I, 10 is “but only. ” — Note. In the stock phrase of the Buddha’s refusal to die until his teaching has been fully proclaimed (Mahāparinibbānasutta) “among gods and men” D. II, 106 (=114, 219; III, 122; A. IV, 311) “yāva-deva-manussehi suppakāsitaṃ” (translation Dial. II. 113: “until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed among men”) we are inclined to consider the reading yāva deva° as original and better than yāvad-eva, although Rhys Davids (Dial. II. 236) is in favour of the latter being the original. Cf. K. S. II. 75 n. The phrase seems to require yāva only as continuation of the preceding yāva’s; moreover the spirit of the message is for the whole of the worlds Cp. BSk. yāvad-deva manusyebhaḥ Divy 201. It is not a restriction or special definition of meaning at this passage. But may it not be taken as a summing up= “in short”? It is left doubtful. If it is=yāva, then we should expect yāva na, as in the preceding sentence, if it is yāvad eva the meaning “not more than made known by men” seems out of place; in this case the meaning “at least” is preferable. A similar case of insertion of a euphonic consonant m (or is it the a- stem nt in °ṃ instead of °t as in yāvat?) we find in the phrase yāvam pi at J. V, 508 (with Pot. tiṭṭheyya; see below 3; C. explanation by yattakaṃ kālaṃ).—The form yāvade (for yāvad eva) also occurs (like tāvade for tāvad eva) at M. II, 207.—For yad-idaṃ we find yāvañ c’idaṃ at A. III, 34; M. III, 169.—The latter form (yāvaṃ, as above J. V, 508) is better to be grouped directly under yāvant, where more & similar cases are given.—3. (as conj.) so long as, whilst, until (cp. tāva II. 3, 4; III, ); either with Fut. or Pot. or Prohibitive. E. g. ‘S. I, 202 (ahu pure dhammapadesu chando y. virāgena samāgamimha; translation “until I met with that Pure thing and Holy”); J. VI, 266 (y. āmantaye); PvA. 4 (tāva ayyo āgametu yāva ayaṃ puriso ... pānīyaṃ pivissati or: “you shall wait please, until he shall drink”). Neg. yāva ... na not until, unless, as long as not D. II, 106 (na paribbāyissāmi ... yāva ... na bhavissati); S. I, 47 (y. na gādhaṃ labhati); Dh. 69 (yattakaṃ kālaṃ na ... DhA. II, 50).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yava (यव).—m (S) Barley, Hordeum hexastichon. 2 A natural line across the fingers of the shape of a grain of barley. 3 The measure of a barley corn, considered as equal to six mustard seeds.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

yava (यव).—m Barley; the measure of a barley corn.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Yava (यव).—[yu-ac]

1) Barley; यवाः प्रकीर्णा न भवन्ति शालयः (yavāḥ prakīrṇā na bhavanti śālayaḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 4.17.

2) A barley-corn or the weight of a barleycorn; Manusmṛti 8.134.

3) A measure of length equal to 1/6 or 1/8 of an aṅgula.

4) A mark on the fingers of the hand resembling a barley-corn and supposed according to its position to indicate wealth, progeny, good fortune &c.; समग्रयवमच्छिद्रं पाणिपादं च वर्णवत् (samagrayavamacchidraṃ pāṇipādaṃ ca varṇavat) Rām.6.48.13.

5) The first half of a month; also याव (yāva).

6) Name of a particular astronomical Yoga.

7) Speed, velocity; cf. जव (java).

8) A double convex lens.

9) Name of an island.

Derivable forms: yavaḥ (यवः).

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Yāva (याव).—a. Relating to, consisting of or prepared from barley.

-vaḥ 1 Food prepared from barley.

2) Lac, red dye.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Yāva (याव) or Yāvat.—(1) (= Pali yāva, Vin. ii.196.5 yāva pāpo ayaṃ Devadatto; see also Childers s.v.), how (ex- clamatory)…! Sanskrit would use an interrog., not rel.; the origin of the idiom may be seen in such a sentence as: āścaryam adbhutam idaṃ paśyatha yāvat mahard- dhikaḥ śāstā Mahāvastu i.206.11 = ii.10.5 (verse), see this wonder and marvel, the extent to which the Teacher is…!; aho yāva kalyāṇā…dhārmikā ca Mahāvastu i.350.7; so also i.301.16; 303.8 (according to Senart; I am not certain of this); 365.7; ii.10.7; iii.412.10; see yādṛśa, once used similarly; (2) as far as, indicating omission of part of a quoted or repeated passage, which is to be supplied (this usage seems not recorded): yāva Mahāvastu i.52.9; ii.428.14 (v.l. yāvad); yāvad Mahāvastu i.339.7, 12; Śikṣāsamuccaya 6.1 etc., very common here. Differs from peyālaṃ and equivalents in that yāva(t) is always followed by the concluding word(s) of the passage, while peyālaṃ need not be; (3) yāvac ca…yāvac ca (spatially) from…to (this usage not noted elsewhere); the nouns are in acc., nom., rarely abl.; after the second, the phrase may (but need not) be concluded by atrāntare, in the space between (Mahāvastu ii.150.2; Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.74.15; Divyāvadāna 574.28), atrāntarā (Avadāna-śataka i.107.10—11), antarāt (q.v., Divyāvadāna 386.9—10), tasminn antare (Lalitavistara 273.9—10), etad antaram (Divyāvadāna 250.7); the ca after the first yāvat is rarely omitted (so in the first ex.): yāvad rājakulaṃ yāvac ca udyānabhūmiṃ atrāntare Mahāvastu ii.150.2; so, yāva(c) ca…yāva(c) ca, withs accs., ii.150.7; 151.19; 153.14; 156.6; yāvac ca Mathurāṃ yāvac ca Pāṭaliputram Divyāvadāna 386.9—10; veṇuvanaṃ… rājagṛham Avadāna-śataka i.107.10—11; with noms., Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.74.15; yāva(c) ca bodhi (or bodhir) yāva(c) ca Vārāṇasī (v.l. °sīṃ, once °sīyo), from the bodhi-tree to Benares, Mahāvastu iii. 323.10, 14; 324.3; vihāro…nagaram Divyāvadāna 250.7; gṛhaṃ …nadī, from the house to the river, Divyāvadāna 574.28; with abl., yāvac ca nadyā Nairañjanāyā yāvac ca bodhimaṇ- ḍādes (vv.ll. °maṇḍād, °maṇḍas) Lalitavistara 273.9, from the river N. to the bodhi-tree. See also yāvatā, yāvad etto (s.v. etto), yāvad eva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yava (यव).—m.

(-vaḥ) 1. Barley, (Hordeum hexastichon.) 2. The measure of a barley-corn, considered as equal to six mustard seeds. 3. A measure of length equal to one-eighth of an Angula. 4. A natural line across the thumb at the second joint, when it may be compared to a grain of barley, and supposed to indicate good fortune. 5. Speed, velocity. 6. A double convex lens. E. yu to join, aff. ac .

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Yāva (याव).—mfn.

(-vaḥ-vī-vaṃ) Relating to barley. m.

(-vaḥ) Lac, the red animaldye. E. yu to join, aff. aṇ; the nest yielding a sort of resinous substance used as sealing-wax: or yata barley, to which the grains of the dye are compared, and ap-aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yava (यव).—m. 1. Barley, Hordeum hexastichon, [Pañcatantra] 224, 4. 2. The measure of a barleycorn, equal to six mustard seeds. 3. A natural line across the thumb, supposed to indicate good fortune. 4. Velocity (vb. ).

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Yāva (याव).—I. yava + a, adj. Relating to barley. Ii. m. Lac, the red animal dye.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Yava (यव).—1. [masculine] any grain or corn, [especially] barley or a barley-corn.

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Yava (यव).—2. [masculine] [plural] the bright halves of the months.

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Yava (यव).—3. [adjective] warding off, keeping away.

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Yāva (याव).—1. [masculine] [plural] = 2 yava.

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Yāva (याव).—2. [adjective] consisting or made of barley.

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Yāva (याव).—3. [masculine] lac-dye.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yava (यव):—1. yava m. the first half of a month (generally in [plural]; [according to] to [commentator or commentary] = pūrva-pakṣāḥ; also written yāva), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kāṭhaka]

2) 2. yava mfn. (√1. yu) warding off, averting, [Atharva-veda; Yājñavalkya]

3) 3. yava m. barley (in the earliest times, [probably] any grain or corn yielding flour or meal; [plural] barley-corns), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

4) a barley-corn (either as a measure of length = 1/6 or 1/8 of an Aṅgula, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]; or as a weight = 6 or 12 mustard seeds = 1/2 Guñjā, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya])

5) any grain of seed or seed corn, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

6) (in palmistry) a figure or mark on the hand resembling a barley-corn (supposed to indicate good fortune), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) Name of a [particular] [astronomy] Yoga (when the favourable planets are situated in the 4th and 10th mansions and the unfavourable ones in the 1st and 7th), [ib.]

8) speed, velocity, [Horace H. Wilson] ([probably] [wrong reading] for java); a double convex lens, [ib.]

9) cf. [Zend] yava; [Greek] ζειά; [Lithuanian] javaí.

10) Yāva (याव):—1. yāva m. = yava1 [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

11) 2. yāva mf(ī)n. ([from] 3. yava, of which it is also the Vṛddhi form in [compound]) relating to or consisting of or prepared from barley, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

12) m. a kind of food prepared from b°, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) 3. yāva m. lac or the red dye prepared from the cochineal insect, [Naiṣadha-carita]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Yava (यव):—(vaḥ) 1. m. Barley; length of a barley corn; speed; a line on the thumb; double convex lens.

2) Yāva (याव):—[(vaḥ-vī-vaṃ) a.] Of barley. m. Lac.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Yava (यव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Java.

[Sanskrit to German]

Yava in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Yava (यव) [Also spelled yav]:—(nm) barley; ~[kṣāra] nitrate of potash.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Yava (ಯವ):—

1) [noun] the cereal grass Hordeum distichon of Poaceae family; barley.

2) [noun] its grain, used in making malt, soups, etc.; barley.

3) [noun] a unit of linear measure (equal to the eigth part of an inch).

4) [noun] a piece of glass having curved surfaces that brings together or spreads rays of light passing throughit; a lens.

5) [noun] (palm.) a barley-shaped mark on the hand which is supposed to indicate good fortune.

6) [noun] (astrol.) a particular conjugation of favourable planets in fourth and tenth mansions, while unfavourable ones in first and seventh mansions.

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Yāva (ಯಾವ):—[adjective] (used as an interrogative) what one or ones (of the number mentioned or implied).

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Yāva (ಯಾವ):—

1) [pronoun] (used as an interrogative) what one (or ones) of the number of persons, things or events mentioned or implied? which?2) [pronoun] who, whom or that (used as a relative in a restrictive or nonrestrictive clause referring to the thing or event (or, archaically, person) to be specified).

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Yāva (ಯಾವ):—[adjective] made of or relating to barley.

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Yāva (ಯಾವ):—

1) [noun] any food prepared using barley.

2) [noun] any of various solid or semisolid, viscous, usu. clear or translucent, yellowish or brownish organic substances exuded from various plants and trees; resin; shellack.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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