Yava, aka: Yāva; 18 Definition(s)


Yava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Yava (यव) is a Sanskrit word referring to Hordeum vulgare (“barley”) from the Poaceae (grasses) family. It is a type of “awned grain” (śūkadhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant Yava is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Yava is rough, cold, non-heavy and sweet in character. It produces abundance of flatus and faeces, promotes stability, is slightly astringent. It is also a tonic and alleviates disorders of kapha

According to the Mādhavacikitsā (7th century Āyurvedic work), this plant (Yava) is mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers, as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) chapter.

Acording to the Pandanus database, it is a tufted annual herb up to 100 cm high, grows all over India, the leaves are few, flaccid, linear, and the upper ones are close to the spike. The fruit has an elliptic short pinted grooved caryopsis.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

In Ayurveda, Yava kshara is prepared from barley and used for treatment of numerous diseases. It is an alkaline preparation containing Potassium bicarbonate. Yavakshar is indicated in treatment of stones, urine retention, abdominal diseases, piles, liver and spleen diseases.

Source: bimbima: Hinduism
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Yava (यव, “barley-corn”) is the Sanskrit name for a unit of measurement, used in Vāstuśāstra literature, according to the Mānasāra II.40-53. A single Yava unit corresponds to 8 Yūka units. It takes 8 Yava units to make a single Aṅgula unit.

Below follows a table of the different units of measurement in relation to one another:

  • 8 Paramāṇu = 1 Rathadhūli, chariot-dust
  • 8 Rathadhūli = 1 Vālāgra, hair-end
  • 8 Vālāgra = 1 Likṣā, nit,
  • 8 Likṣā = 1 Yūka, louse
  • 8 Yūka = 1 Yava, barley-corn,
  • 8 Yava = 1 Aṅgula, digit (finger-breadth),
  • 12 Aṅgula = 1 Vitasti, span,
  • 2 Vitasti (24 aṅgulas) = 1 Kiṣku, cubit,
  • 4 Dhanurmuṣṭi (26 aṅgulas) = 1 Daṇḍa, rod,
  • 8 Daṇḍa = 1 Rajju, rope

The smallest unit, which is paramāṇu, atom is stated ta be perceived (only) by the sages. For all practical purposes, aṅgula is the smallest unit of measurement. For this reason, it is seen to be treated in a special way in the text with regards to its universality that significantly downplays its semantic reference to the body.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Yava (यव) refers to “barley”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Yava is described as the king of all the herbs, so it may have been an important item of food for the Kaśmīrīs. Like sesame it is also prescribed for various purposes (verses 679, 696, 697 f.). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Yava (यव).—The food of Naimiṣeyas; havis of, in a śrāddha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 1. 159; II. 7. 144; 32. 13; III. 14. 11; 19. 3; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 21, 24; II. 15. 30. Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 16. 6; IV. 10. 24.

1b) A measurement, eight times the yūkā (s.v.)*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 258. 18.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Yava (यव) refers to “barley” and represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings according to verse 25.57 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “rice (śāli), green gram (mudga), barley (yava), black gram (māṣa), wheat (godhūma), priyaṅgu (panic seed) and seasamum (tila)—these seven grown in the village are to be taken in the work of preparation of caru”.

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Yava (यव) refers to the “size of a barley grain” and represents a type of absolute measurement, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—In the Indian value of measurement of length there are two different kinds of units, namely, the absolute and the relative. Of these, the first is based on the length of certain natural objects, while the second is obtained from the length of a particular part or limb of the person whose measurement is under consideration. They have been specified by R. N. Mishra, in his text in volume 1 of Kalātattvakośa.

8 yūkas make 1 yava (the size of a barley grain). 8 yavas make 1 uttama-mānāṅgula (superior inch measure). 7 yavas make 1 madhyama-mānāṅgula (middling inch measure). 6 yavas make 1 adhama-mānāṅgula (inferior inch measure).

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Yava (यव) in the Rigveda appears to be a generic term for any sort of ‘grain’, and not merely ‘barley’. The latter sense is probably found in the Atharvaveda, and is regular later. The barley harvest came after spring, in the summer. That barley was cultivated in the period of the Rigveda is not certain, but on the whole very probable.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Son of Brahmadatta and afterwards king of Benares. For his story see the Musika Jataka.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Yava (यव)—One of the field-crops mentioned in the Jātakas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Yava (यव, “barley”) refers to one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

yava : (m.) barley. || yāva (ind.), up to; as far as; so far that.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Yava, (Vedic yava, corn; see Zimmer, Altind. Leben 239. Cp. Gr. zeά spelt; Lith. javaī corn; Oir. eorna barley) corn (in general), barley (in particular) Vin. IV, 264; S. IV, 220; A. IV, 169.

—karaṇa the preparation of corn A. IV, 169. —kalāpī (or °inī) a sheaf of barley S. IV, 201. —kāraṇḍava chaff of corn (or barley) A. IV, 169. —kummāsa barley-gruel VvA. 62. —khetta corn-field Vin. IV, 47, 266; VvA. 294. —dūsin spoiling the corn A. IV, 169. —majjhaka lying in the midst of a corn-field, in pācīna° of the c. -f. on the E. side (+dakkhiṇa° S.; pacchima° W.; uttara° N.); names of 4 market-places near Mithilā J. VI, 330. —sūka the awn or beard of corn (barley) A. I, 8; S. V, 10, 48. (Page 551)

— or —

Yāva, (adv.) (Vedic yāvat as nt. of yāvant used as adv. in meanings 1 & 2. The final t is lost in Pāli, but restored as d in certain combinations: see below 2.—Cp. tāva & kīva). 1 (as prep.) up to (a point), as far as, how far, so far that (cp. tāva I), both temporal and local, used either with absolute form of noun or adj. (base), or Nom. or Abl. or Acc.—(a) absolute: y. sahassa up to 1000. PvA. 21; y. sattama up to the seventh D. I, 238. ‹-› (b) Nom. : y. deva-bhava-sampatti up to the attainment of a deva existence PvA. 167; y. satta divasā up to 7 days, as long as 7 days PvA. 31. (c) with Abl. : y. brahmalokā up to the highest heaven A. III, 17; y. mekhalā down to her girdle PvA. 46; yāva āyu-pariyosānā up to the end of life PvA. 200; y. ajjadivasā till the present day Mhvs 32, 23; y. kapp’âvasānā up to the end of the world Vism. 688 (where SnA 5 in same passage reads Acc. °âvasānaṃ); y. kāla-ppavedanā J. I, 118+DhA. I, 248; y. mukhasmā up to the brim Miln. 238; yāva bhumm’âvalambare hang down to the ground Pv. II, 102.—(d) with Acc. y. Bodhimaṇḍaṃ as far as the Bodhimaṇḍa Mhvs 30, 88; y. tatiyakaṃ for the 3rd time (i.e. the last time; ascending scale!) D. I, 95; y. tatiyaṃ id. Vin. IV, 236 samanubhāsitabba); Sn. 1116; J. IV, 126.—Freq. in phrase yāva jīvaṃ (see under cpds.). Sattamāsaṃ cha pañca cattāro ti vatvā yāva temāsaṃ yāciṃsu “after having said 7, 6, 5, 4, months they begged down to 3 months” PvA. 20.—With startingpoint, local: pādatalato ... yāvakesaggaṃ from the sole of the foot to the tip of the hair (“from tip to toe”) DhA. I, 70; (in modal sense: ) paṭhavī-kasiṇato paṭṭhāya yāva odāta-kasiṇaṃ “from the one to the other” Vism. 374. Similarly in correlation yāva-tāva (see tāva 1.) as far-so far, until-so long: y. rājā āgacchati tāva ubho ramissāma J. IV, 190; heṭṭhā pi yāva Avīci upari yāva Akaniṭṭha-bhavanaṃ, tāva addasa Vism. 392; yāva naṃ ānemi tāva idh’eva tiṭṭha DhA. III, 194.—2. (as adv.) how, how much, to which or what extent, as great or as much (as) (cp. tāva II. 2), usually in combn yāva mahā (mahantaṃ), e.g. yāva mahantaṃ how big PvA. 77 (=yādisaṃ of Pv. II, 119); VvA. 325=DhA. I, 29 (yāva mahantaṃ). Also in other combns, like yāva dukkhā nirayā how (or as) many painful purgatories Sn. 678; yāva dukkhā tiracchānayoni M. III, 169; yāva pāpo ayaṃ Devadatto alakkhiko ... “how very wicked is this D.Vin. II, 196 Further in combn with attha(ṃ), and eva, in which cases the final d is restored, or may be regarded as euphonic. Thus yāvad-atthaṃ as far as need be, as much as you like (with imper.) Pv IV. 57 (khādassu y.); UbhA 504 (=yattakaṃ icchati tattakaṃ); J. V, 338; PvA. 217 (gaṇhāhi). Cp. Vin. III, 37 (yāvadatthaṃ katvā “pleasing herself”).—As adj. sufficient, plenty M. I, 12 (paripuṇṇa ... suhita y.); PvA. 24 (=pahūta). yāvad-eva (cp. the similar tāva-d. -eva) “as much as it is (in extent)” i.e. with limitation as far as is necessary, up to (i.e. not further or more than), ever so much, as much as you like, at least; (then: ) as far as, in short, altogether, indeed.—The same idea as our defn is conveyed by Bdhgh’s at SnA 503 (on Sn. p. 140) “paricched’âvadhāraṇa-vacanaṃ, ” and at DhA. II, 73 “avadhiparicchedana”: giving a limitation, or saying up to the limit. S. II, 276; Sn. p. 140; Dh. 72; and in stock phrase “n’eva davāya ... yāvad eva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā ... ” (“in short”); see passages under yātrā. The expln of yāvad eva in this phrase as given at DhsA. 403 runs: “āhār’āharaṇe payojanassa pariccheda-niyamadassanaṃ, ” of which the trsln Expos. II. 512 is “so as to suffice signifies the limit of the result of taking food. ” Neumann’s trsln at M. I, 10 is “but only. ” — Note. In the stock phrase of the Buddha’s refusal to die until his teaching has been fully proclaimed (Mahāparinibbānasutta) “among gods and men” D. II, 106 (=114, 219; III, 122; A. IV, 311) “yāva-deva-manussehi suppakāsitaṃ” (trsln Dial. II. 113: “until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed among men”) we are inclined to consider the reading yāva deva° as original and better than yāvad-eva, although Rhys Davids (Dial. II. 236) is in favour of the latter being the original. Cf. K. S. II. 75 n. The phrase seems to require yāva only as continuation of the preceding yāva’s; moreover the spirit of the message is for the whole of the worlds Cp. BSk. yāvad-deva manusyebhaḥ Divy 201. It is not a restriction or special definition of meaning at this passage. But may it not be taken as a summing up= “in short”? It is left doubtful. If it is=yāva, then we should expect yāva na, as in the preceding sentence, if it is yāvad eva the meaning “not more than made known by men” seems out of place; in this case the meaning “at least” is preferable. A similar case of insertion of a euphonic consonant m (or is it the a- stem nt in °ṃ instead of °t as in yāvat?) we find in the phrase yāvam pi at J. V, 508 (with Pot. tiṭṭheyya; see below 3; C. expln by yattakaṃ kālaṃ).—The form yāvade (for yāvad eva) also occurs (like tāvade for tāvad eva) at M. II, 207.—For yad-idaṃ we find yāvañ c’idaṃ at A. III, 34; M. III, 169.—The latter form (yāvaṃ, as above J. V, 508) is better to be grouped directly under yāvant, where more & similar cases are given.—3. (as conj.) so long as, whilst, until (cp. tāva II. 3, 4; III, ); either with Fut. or Pot. or Prohibitive. E. g. ‘S. I, 202 (ahu pure dhammapadesu chando y. virāgena samāgamimha; trsln “until I met with that Pure thing and Holy”); J. VI, 266 (y. āmantaye); PvA. 4 (tāva ayyo āgametu yāva ayaṃ puriso ... pānīyaṃ pivissati or: “you shall wait please, until he shall drink”). Neg. yāva ... na not until, unless, as long as not D. II, 106 (na paribbāyissāmi ... yāva ... na bhavissati); S. I, 47 (y. na gādhaṃ labhati); Dh. 69 (yattakaṃ kālaṃ na ... DhA. II, 50).

—kālika (cp. tāva II. 1) “as far as the time or occasion goes, ” occasional, temporary, at Vin. I, 251 in foll. context (cp. yāmakālika): “kappati ... yāvakālikena, yāmakālikaṃ na kappati, kappati yāvakālikena sattāha kālikaṃ na k. etc. with foll. yāvajīvikaṃ & the same with kappati yāma-kālikena, sattāha-kālikenana k.; kappati satt°, yāvajīv, na k. ” The reply of the Buddha is: yāvakālikena yāmakālikaṃ tadahu paṭiggahitaṃ kāle kappati vikāle na kappati (same with sattāhakālikaṃ & yāvajīvikaṃ); followed by yāmakālikena ... sattāhakālikaṃ & yāvajīvikaṃ; sattāhakālikena ... jāvajīvikaṃ. ” —jivaṃ (adv.) for the length of one’s life, life-long, all one’s life, for life (-time) Vin. I, 80; II, 197; III, 23; It. 78; Dh. 64, 284; Vism. 94; DhA. I, 45; PvA. 76, 110 (=satataṃ). Cp. BSk. yāvajīva-sukhya AvŚ II. 37. —tajjanī (-vinīta) led only as long as kept under a threat A. I, 285 (one of the 3 parisā’s; so read with v. l. for T. yāvatajjhā°). —tatiyaka “as much as 3 times, ” name of the last 4 Saṅghādisesa offences, because before the punishment is inflicted warning must have been given 3 times: see passage of Vin. III, 186 under yāva t-ihaṃ. —tihaṃ (read as yāvat-ihaṃ, the latter=aha2 day) as many days as ... ; in foll. passage: uddiṭṭhā ... terasa saṅghādisesā dhammā, nava patham-āpattikā cattāro yāvatatiyakā, yesaṃ bhikkhu aññataraṃ vā aññataraṃ vā āpajjitvā yāvatihaṃ jānaṃ paṭicchādeti tāvatihaṃ tena bhikkhunā akāmā parivatthabbaṃ (for as many days as he knowingly conceals his sin, for so many days ... ), parivuttha-parivāsena bhikkhunā uttariṃ chārattaṃ bhikkhumānattāya paṭipajjitabbaṃ. Vin. III, 186. (Page 554)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

yava (यव).—m (S) Barley, Hordeum hexastichon. 2 A natural line across the fingers of the shape of a grain of barley. 3 The measure of a barley corn, considered as equal to six mustard seeds.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yava (यव).—m Barley; the measure of a barley corn.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Yava (यव).—[yu-ac]

1) Barley; यवाः प्रकीर्णा न भवन्ति शालयः (yavāḥ prakīrṇā na bhavanti śālayaḥ) Mk.4.17.

2) A barley-corn or the weight of a barleycorn; Ms.8.134.

3) A measure of length equal to 1/6 or 1/8 of an aṅgula.

4) A mark on the fingers of the hand resembling a barley-corn and supposed according to its position to indicate wealth, progeny, good fortune &c.; समग्रयवमच्छिद्रं पाणिपादं च वर्णवत् (samagrayavamacchidraṃ pāṇipādaṃ ca varṇavat) Rām.6.48.13.

5) The first half of a month; also याव (yāva).

6) Name of a particular astronomical Yoga.

7) Speed, velocity; cf. जव (java).

8) A double convex lens.

9) Name of an island.

Derivable forms: yavaḥ (यवः).

--- OR ---

Yāva (याव).—a. Relating to, consisting of or prepared from barley.

-vaḥ 1 Food prepared from barley.

2) Lac, red dye.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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