Chanda, Chandā, Chamda, Chamdaka: 30 definitions
Chanda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chhanda.
Ambiguity: Although Chanda has separate glossary definitions below, it also represents an alternative spelling of the word Canda. It further has the optional forms Chaṇḍa, Chaṇḍā and Chāṇḍa.
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Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Chanda (छन्द) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “shape”, or “appereance” and is used in the literature of Vāstuśāstra (branch of Hindu science dealing with architecture and construction).Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Chanda (छन्द) refers to “class of prāsāda § 4.5.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Chanda (छन्द) refers to “groves”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When Kāma (God of Love) reached the vicinity of Śiva, Spring spread all his splendour in accord with the inclination of the lord. [...] In this atmosphere, on that excellent mountain, Lord Śiva sported about for a long time among the groves (chanda), hedges (nikuñja) and streams (nadī) in the company of Satī”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 6. 1; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 5.
- 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 37; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 5. 19.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
See Chann.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
M (Might, wish, desire).Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
One of the Pakinnaka cetasikas. Chanda is wish. It is mere desire. It is a will. When chanda becomes the heading dhamma it becomes adhipati dhamma or leading dhamma. It is also one of 4 iddhipada or foot of success or root of success.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
intention, desire, will.
1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the sense of 'intention', it is one of those general mental factors (cetasika, q.v. Tab. II) taught in the Abhidhamma, the moral quality of which is determined by the character of the volition (cetanā, q.v.) associated therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' (kattu-kamyatā-chanda). If intensified, it acts also as a 'predominance condition' (s. paccaya 3).
2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', and is frequently coupled with terms for 'sensuality', 'greed', etc., for instance: kāma-cchanda, 'sensuous desire', one of the 5 hindrances (s. nīvarana); chanda-rāga, 'lustful desire' (s. kāma). It is one of the 4 wrong paths (s. agati).
3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or zeal (dhamma-chanda) and occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 4 right efforts (s. padhāna): "The monk rouses his will (chandam janeti)...." If intensified, it is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipāda).Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Chanda (“intention”).Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
Chanda, which is usually translated as zeal, desire or wish-to-do, is another cetasika among the six "particulars" which arises with cittas of the four jatis- but not with every citta.
The cetasika "chanda" which is classified as one of the "particulars" is not the same as lobha, it has its own characteristic and function.
Chanda can be kusala, akusala, vipaka or kiriya.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Chanda (छन्द) refers to one of the “five dharma practices” (pañcāṅga) for obtaining the first dhyāna according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “Chanda is zeal in kāmadhātu; when it is produced, the first dhyāna is obtained”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Chanda (छन्द) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘mālā’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., chanda) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism
Chanda (छन्द) is translated as “intention”, “interest”, or “desire to act”. It is defined as trying to possess a certain object–an interest or desire that supports the application of exertion. According to the Abhidharma-samuccaya: “What is chanda? It is the desire to endow a desired thing with this or that particular attribute, and has the function of laying the foundation for making a start on assiduous striving”.
India history and geographySource: Marathi language (Marāṭhī bhāṣā): Submission for Classical Status of Marathi Language
Chanda is the name of a district in Maharashtra corresponding the modern Chandrapur.—The Buddhist work, Mahavamsa, refers to Maharashtra. It suggests that a big area around Ujjain, that is, the present Central India could have been talked about as Maharashtra. As the legend goes there were (or might have been) 99,000 villages in this country. These days it is a practice to include all areas (Chanda) where Marathi language is in use into Maharashtra.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
chanda : (m.; nt.) (mano-group), metrics; prosody. (m.), impulse; will; wish.
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chandaka : (nt.) vote; a voluntary collection.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Chanda, (cp. Vedic and Sk. chanda, and skandh to jump). 1. impulse, excitement; intention, resolution, will; desire for, wish for, delight in (c. Loc.). explained at Vism.466 as “kattu-kāmatāy” adhivacanaṃ; by Dhtp 587 & Dhtm 821 as chand=icchāyaṃ.—A. As virtue: dhammapadesu ch. striving after righteousness S.I, 202; tibba° ardent desire, zeal A.I, 229; IV, 15; kusaladhamma° A.III, 441. Often combined with other good qualities, e.g. ch. vāyāma ussāha ussoḷhi A.IV, 320; ch. viriya citta vīmaṃsā in set of samādhis (cp. iddhipāda) D.III, 77 (see below), & in cpd. °âdhipateyya.—kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati viriyaṃ ārabhati, etc., see citta V. 1 db. ‹-› M.II, 174; A.I, 174 (ch. vā vāyāmo vā); III, 50 (chandasā Instr.); Sn.1026 (+viriya); Vv 2412 (=kusala° VvA.116); J.VI, 72; DhA.I, 14.—B. As vice: (a) kinds & character of ch.—With similar expressions: (kāya-) ch. sneha anvayatā M.I, 500.—ch. dosa moha bhaya D.III, 182; Nd2 3372 (See also below chandâgati). Its nearest analogue in this sense is rāga (lust), e.g. ch. rāga dosa paṭigha D.I, 25 (cp. DA.I, 116); rūpesu uppajjati ch. vā rāgo S.IV, 195. See below °rāga. In this bad sense it is nearly the same as kāma (see kāma & kāmachanda: sensual desire, cp. DhsA.370, Vism.466 & Mrs. Rh. D. in Dhs.trsl. 292) & the combination kāmachanda is only an enlarged term of kāma. Kāye chanda “delight in the body” M.I, 500; Sn.203. bhave ch. (pleasure in existence) Th.2, 14 (cp. bhavachanda); lokasmiṃ ch. (hankering after the world) Sn.866; methunasmiṃ (sexual desire) Sn.835 (expl. by ch. vā rāgo vā peman Nd1 181).—Ch. in this quality is one of the roots of misery: cittass’upakkileso S.III, 232 sq.; V, 92; mūlaṃ dukkhassa J.IV, 328 sq.—Other passages illustrating ch. are e.g. vyāpāda° & vihiṃsā° S.II, 151; rūpa-dhātuyā° S.III, 10; IV, 72; yaṃ aniccaṃ, etc... . tattha° S.III, 122, 177; IV, 145 sq.; asmī ti ch. S.III, 130; atilīno ch. S.V, 277 sq., cp. also D.II, 277.—(b) the emancipation from ch. as necessary for the attainment of Arahantship.—vigata° (free from excitement) and a° S.I, 111; III, 7, 107, 190; IV, 387; A.II, 173 sq.; D.III, 238; ettha chandaṃ virājetvā Sn.171=S.I, 16. Kāye chandaṃ virājaye Sn.203. (a)vīta° A.IV, 461 sq. °ṃ vineti S.I, 22, 197; °ṃ vinodeti S.I, 186; ch. suppaṭivinīta S.II, 283. na tamhi °ṃ kayirātha Dh.117. ‹-› 2. (in the monastic law) consent, declaration of consent (to an official act: kamma) by an absentee Vin.I, 121, 122. dhammikānaṃ kammānaṃ chandaṃ datvā having given (his) consent to valid proceedings Vin.IV, 151, 152; cp. °dāyaka II.94.—Note. The commentaries follow the canonical usage of the word without adding any precision to its connotation. See Nd2 s. v.; DhsA.370; DhA.I, 14, J.VI, 72, VvA.77.
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Chandaka, a voluntary collection (of alms for the Saṅgha), usually as °ṃ saṃharati to make a vol. coll. Vin.IV, 250; J.I, 422; II, 45, 85 (saṃharitvā v. l. BB; text saṅkaḍḍhitvā), 196, 248; III, 288 (nava°, a new kind of donation); Cp. BSk. chandaka-bhikṣana AvŚ vol. II.227. (Page 275)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
chanda (छंद).—m (S) Metre. 2 A liking or fondness for; a predilection or propensity (for a pursuit good or evil). v ghē, dhara, kara, lāga. 3 A longing or hankering after; impatient desire. v ghē, dhara 4 Will, pleasure, discretion. Ex. yajamānācē chandānēṃ āmhāsa vāgāvēṃ lāgatēṃ. 5 Mischievous tricks; lawless pranks; freaks and frolics; wild and wilful conduct gen. 6 A particular bracelet: also a particular ornament for the feet. 7 Any treatise on prosody: also a name for the Vedas. chandāsa lāgaṇēṃ or bharaṇēṃ g. of o. To be taken up with; to be full of; to be enchanted and engrossed by.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
chanda (छंद).—m Metre. A liking for. A hankering after. Will. Miscnievous tricks.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Chanda (छन्द).—a. [chand-ac]
1) Pleasing, fascinating, inviting, alluring.
2) Private, solitary, secret.
1) Wish, desire, fancy, liking, will; विज्ञाप्यतां देवी यस्ते छन्द इति (vijñāpyatāṃ devī yaste chanda iti) V.3 just as you like; Pt.1.69. एते ते मृत्युना ये चिरमनवसिता (ete te mṛtyunā ye ciramanavasitā) ... श्छन्दं मृगयता (śchandaṃ mṛgayatā) Pratimā.3.7.
2) Free will, one's own choice, whim, free or wilful conduct; षष्ठे काले त्वमपि दिवसस्यात्मनश्छन्दवर्ती (ṣaṣṭhe kāle tvamapi divasasyātmanaśchandavartī) V.2.1; Gīt.1; Y.2.195; स्वच्छन्दम् (svacchandam) according to one's free will, independently.
3) (Hence) subjection, control.
4) Meaning, intention, purport.
6) Appearance, look, shape.
7) Pleasure, delight.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Chanda (छन्द).—(1) m. (rarely nt., Lalitavistara 262.8), = Sanskrit and Pali id., used in both bad and good sense; more often in bad, desire, whim, caprice, passion, see e.g. acchanda- gāmin; in good sense, zeal, a characteristic of a Bodhi- sattva or a Buddha; often associated with vīrya: asti me (sc. Bodhisattvasya) chando 'sti vīryaṃ Lalitavistara 239.1, same passage as: mahyaṃ pi khalu asti chando…Mahāvastu ii.118.10; asti chandaṃ (n. sg.! one ms. °as) tathā vīryaṃ Lalitavistara 262.8 = asti chando ca vīryaṃ ca Mahāvastu ii.239.9 (verse; note chandaś ca Lalitavistara 262.5, just above); nāsti chandasya hāniḥ Mahāvastu i.160.12 (one of the 18 āveṇika Buddha-dharma); (āryasmi- taṃ, of the Bodhisattva) chandopastabdhaṃ Mahāvastu ii.280.16, based on zeal; janemi chandaṃ Sukhāvatīvyūha 9.6; (2) (m.; this meaning in Pali, see [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary] s.v. 2), approval, consent, as object of dā-, give: dadāti…tathāgataś chandam…Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 248.8, the Tathāgata (who sends this message; not Śākyamuni; neither Burnouf nor Kern understands the passage) gives his consent (to the opening of this stūpa); chandārhibhyaś [Page235-a+ 71] (= Pali chandāraha, see especially Vin. i.318.11, one who has the right to a valid vote) ca chandenānītā bhavanti (are agreed in consenting) Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.210.3; (3) name of Buddha's charioteer, oftener called Chandaka (4), q.v.: Lalitavistara 133.6; Divyāvadāna 391.24; both times in verses, the -ka possibly dropped m.c., compare § 22.24 (note that Chandaka is the form used in prose two lines before in Divyāvadāna); but in Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.28.8 ff. (prose) also Chanda, = Pali Channa, assumed in Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names) to be this same person; here as in Vin. ii.21.7 ff. subjected to utkṣepaṇīya; MPS 29.15; the corresponding name in Pali is Channa; (4) name of one of the ṣaḍvārgika monks: Mahāvyutpatti 9474.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ndaḥ-ndā-ndaṃ) Solitary, secret, private. m.
(-ndaḥ) 8. Meaning, intention, purport, opinion. 2. Subjection. 3. Poison. n.
(-ndaṃ) Wish, desire. E. chad to cover, affix ac; see chandas.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Chanda (छन्द).—[chand + a], I. adj. Flattering,
Chanda (छन्द).—[adjective] pleasant, alluring. [masculine] appearance, shape; delight, pleasure; wish, desire. Instr. & [ablative] at one’s own pleasure or will, freely; at the pleasure or will of ([genetive] or —°).
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Chanda (छन्द).—[adjective] pleasant, alluring. [masculine] appearance, shape; delight, pleasure; wish, desire. Instr. & [ablative] at one’s own pleasure or will, freely; at the pleasure or will of ([genetive] or —°).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Chanda (छन्द):—[from chad] 1. chanda mfn. = nna, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]
2) [from chad] 2. chanda mfn. pleasing, alluring, inviting, [Ṛg-veda i, 92, 6; viii, 7, 36]
3) [v.s. ...] praising (chanda, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 16]), [Ṛg-veda vi, 11, 3]
4) [v.s. ...] cf. madhu-cch
5) [v.s. ...] m. appearance, look, shape, [Harivaṃśa 8359 ff.]
6) [v.s. ...] cf. prati and vi-cch
7) [v.s. ...] pleasure, delight, appetite, liking, predilection, desire, will, [Yājñavalkya ii, 195; Mahābhārata] etc.
8) [from chad] poison, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] Name of Śākya-muni’s charioteer (chandaka), [Lalita-vistara xv; Divyāvadāna xxvii, 159]
10) [v.s. ...] of a prince, [Horace H. Wilson]
11) [v.s. ...] cf. sva-
12) [v.s. ...] indra-,kalāpa-,deva and vijaya-, various kinds of pearl-ornaments.
13) a 1 and 2 See √1. and √3. chad.
14) Chānda (छान्द):—See ndasa.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Chanda (छन्द):—(ndaḥ) 1. m. Meaning; subjection; poison. n. Wish. a. Solitary.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Chanda in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) the moon; subscription; contribution; donation; —[ikattha karana] to raise a fund by contribution/donation; —[karana] to contribute, to subscribe; —[dena] to subscribe, to contribute; —[mama] moon—the maternal uncle (said to humour the children); —[sa] as beautiful as the moon (esp. used for face)..—chanda (चंदा) is alternatively transliterated as Caṃdā.
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Chaṃda (छंद) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Chand.
2) Chaṃda (छंद) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Chanda.
3) Chaṃda (छंद) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Chandas.
4) Chaṃdā (छंदा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Chandā.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+227): Chamdassu, Chandabahu, Chandabala, Chandabhairava, Chandabhairavatantra, Chandabhanu, Chandabhargava, Chandabhaskara, Chandabhibhu, Chandabhujanga, Chandacarin, Chandada, Chandadanta, Chandadatta, Chandadharma, Chandadhipateyya, Chandadidhiti, Chandagati, Chandaghanta, Chandagiri.
Ends with (+60): Abhaktacchanda, Acchamda, Achanda, Amoghachanda, Asvacchanda, Aticchanda, Avachamda, Bhaktacchanda, Bhaktachanda, Bhimachanda, Bhogichanda, Deva-cchanda, Devacchanda, Devachanda, Dhammachanda, Drimichanda, Garudacchanda, Gopalachanda, Gunaratnakaracchanda, Hamsacchanda.
Full-text (+954): Chandas, Chandaka, Vedanga, Chandagati, Parachanda, Chandapatana, Bhaktachanda, Chandaprashasti, Chandakanivartana, Ghanakshari, Chandaja, Chandatas, Chandanuvritta, Praticchanda, Acchandasam, Chandovritta, Aticchanda, Chandomala, Chandanuvarttin, Shardulavikridita.
Search found 88 books and stories containing Chanda, Chandā, Chaṇḍa, Chaṇḍā, Chāṇḍa, Chānda, Chamda, Chaṃḍa, Chaṃda, Chaṃdā, Chamdaka, Chaṃdaka, Chandaka; (plurals include: Chandas, Chandās, Chaṇḍas, Chaṇḍās, Chāṇḍas, Chāndas, Chamdas, Chaṃḍas, Chaṃdas, Chaṃdās, Chamdakas, Chaṃdakas, Chandakas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 9.62.17 < [Sukta 62]
Rig Veda 8.52.1 < [Sukta 52]
Rig Veda 1.65.1 < [Sukta 65]
The Fo-Sho-Hing-Tsan-King (A Life of Buddha) (by Samuel Beal)
Varga 19. Interview Between Father and Son < [Kiouen IV]
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Sakka’s Question (3): On how Love and Hatred arise due to Craving < [Chapter 39 - How the Āṭānāṭiya Paritta came to be Taught]
Sakka’s Question (4): On how Craving arise due to Firm Opinion < [Chapter 39 - How the Āṭānāṭiya Paritta came to be Taught]
Part 5 - Discourses delivered by the Buddha with Reference to Venerable Rāhula < [Chapter 31 - The Monk Sudinna, the Son of the Kalanda Merchant]
Cetasikas (by Nina van Gorkom)
Chapter 12 - Zeal < [Part II - The Particulars (pakinnaka)]
Appendix 6 - Appendix To Chapter 12 < [Appendix And Glossary]
Chapter 20 - Sloth, Torpor And Doubt < [Part III - Akusala Cetasikas]
Buddhacarita (by Charles Willemen)
Chapter VI - Chandaka’s Return < [Fascicle Two]
Chapter VIII - The Whole Palace in Grief < [Fascicle Two]
Chapter V - Leaving the City < [Fascicle One]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 21 - Rājaśekhara’s later work’s on Kavi-śikṣā < [Chapter 2 - A General Outlines of Sanskrit Poetics]
Part 13 - The Bālarāmāyaṇa of Rājaśekhara < [Chapter 1 - Introduction]
Part 1 - Rājaśekhara Contribution on Śāstriya Vimarṣa (poetical science) < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]