Kalam, Kalām, Kaḷam, Kāḻam, Kāḷam: 8 definitions

Introduction:

Kalam means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kalam.—(EI 28), a grain measure. Note: kalam is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas (history)

Kalam (कलम्) equals 3 Tūṇi and represents a unit of measurement used in Medieval Temple Inscriptions.—Remuneration had several components. One main component was daily allowance of paddy or rice. This was measured out in various measures [viz., 1 Kalam equals 3 Tūṇi].

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kalam in the Marathi language is the name of a plant identified with Mitragyna parvifolia (Roxb.) Korth. from the Rubiaceae (Coffee) family. For the possible medicinal usage of kalam, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Kalam in India is the name of a plant defined with Acalypha fruticosa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Ricinocarpus fruticosus (Forssk.) Kuntze.

2) Kalam is also identified with Indigofera tinctoria It has the synonym Indigofera tinctoria Lunan (etc.).

3) Kalam is also identified with Mitragyna parvifolia It has the synonym Nauclea parvifolia Roxb. (etc.).

4) Kalam is also identified with Strychnos nux-vomica It has the synonym Strychnos ligustrina Blume (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1992)
· Species Plantarum (1798)
· International Journal of Oncology (2009)
· Der Gesellsschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, neue Schriften (1803)
· Lloydia (1973)
· Indigofera (1768)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kalam, for example chemical composition, pregnancy safety, health benefits, side effects, diet and recipes, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kālam (कालम्):—[from kāla] ind. for a certain time (e.g. mahāntaṃ kālam, for a long time, [Pañcatantra])

2) [v.s. ...] nitya-k, constantly, always, [Manu-smṛti ii, 58 and 73]

3) [v.s. ...] dīrgha-k, during a long time, [Manu-smṛti viii, 145]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Kalam in Hindi refers in English to:—[[kalama]] (nf) a pen; a painter’s brush; a school or style of painting; graft; cutting, chopping; the growth of hair on man’s temples; ~[kasai] a hack-writer; one who practises butchery through one’s pen, one who misdirects or propagates ignorance through one’s writings; ~[kari] engraving, painting with a brush; ~[dana] a pen and ink case; pentray, penstand; ~[bamda] penned, put into black and white, reduced to writing, written; •[karana] to write down, to record in writing; hence [kalamabamdi] (nf); —[karana] to chop off, to cut; to prune; —[ka dhani] a master of the art of writing; —[ghasitana] to scrible; —[ghisana] to write insignificant things/ineffectively; —[calana] to write; [cumana] lit. to kiss one’s pen —to immensely like an expression, to be all praise for (one’s writing); —[todana] to work wonders in (one’s) writing; to write amazingly well; —[pherana] to strike out or delete what is written; —[mem jadu hona] to work wonders with the pen;—[mem jora hona] to wield the pen effectively..—kalam (कलम) is alternatively transliterated as Kalama.

2) Kalāṃ (कलां):—(a) large, larger; big, bigger; elder.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kalaṃ (ಕಲಂ):—

1) [noun] any of various writing instrument; a pen.

2) [noun] a device having bristles, hairs fastened into a hard back, with a handle attached, used for painting; a brush.

3) [noun] a characteristic way of painting with a brush.

4) [noun] the act or process of inserting a bud or shoot of a plant into the stem or trunk of another for purpose of grafting; graft.

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Kalaṃ (ಕಲಂ):—[noun] a numbered paragraph of a writing, a law, etc.; a section.

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Kalaṃ (ಕಲಂ):—[noun] the large, deciduous tree Stephegyne parviflora (= Mitragyna parviflora) of Rubiaceae family.

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Kālaṃ (ಕಾಲಂ):—[noun] a column a) a vertical row or list; b) any of the vertical sections of printed matter that are side by side on a page, separated by a rule or blank space.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Kalam (கலம்) noun

1. [K. kala, M. kalam, Travancore usage kara.] Vessel; hollow utensil, as a cup; plate, whether of earth or metal; earthenware; பாத்திரம். பொற்கலத் தூட்டி [pathiram. porkalath thutti] (நாலடியார் [naladiyar], 345).

2. Bottle-shaped vessel; குப்பி. யவனர் நன்கலந் தந்த . . . தேறல் [kuppi. yavanar nankalan thantha . . . theral] (புறநானூறு [purananuru] 56, 18).

3. [Telugu: kalamu, M. kalam.] Ship, boat; மரக்கலம். கலங்கவிழ் மாக்களை [marakkalam. kalangavizh makkalai] (மணிமேகலை [manimegalai] 16, 120).

4. The 27th nakṣatra. See இரேவதி. பூரம் பரணி கலம் [irevathi. puram parani kalam] (சிலப்பதிகாரம் அரும்பதவுரை [silappathigaram arumbathavurai] 3, 123, உரை [urai]).

5. Jewel; ornament; ஆபரணம். நன்கலம் பரிசின்மாக்கட்கு . . . நல்கி [aparanam. nankalam parisinmakkadku . . . nalki] (புறநானூறு [purananuru] 6, 15).

6. Lute; யாழ். கலத்தொடு புணர்ந்தமைந்த கண்டத்தால் [yazh. kalathodu punarnthamaintha kandathal] (சிலப்பதிகாரம் அரும்பதவுரை [silappathigaram arumbathavurai] 7, 24).

7. Plough; உழபடை. (சூடாமணிநிகண்டு) [uzhapadai. (sudamaninigandu)]

8. Weapon; ஆயுதம். கையினுங் கலத்தினு மெய்யுறத் தீண்டி [ayutham. kaiyinung kalathinu meyyurath thindi] (பத்துப்பாட்டு: பட்டினப்பாலை [pathuppattu: pattinappalai] 70).

9. Document written on palm-leaf; ஓலைப்பத்திரம். [olaippathiram.] (தொல். சொல். [thol. sol.] 81, உரை. [urai.])

10. A measure of capacity; ஒரு முகத்தலளவு. [oru mugathalalavu.] (தொல். எழுத். [thol. ezhuth.] 168.)

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Kalam (கலம்) noun < English Column, a narrow division of a sheet, page, etc.; பந்தி. [panthi.] 20-ஆம் பக் கத்து [am pag kathu] 2-ஆம் கலம் பார்க்க. [am kalam parkka.]

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Kalām (கலாம்) noun < kalaha.

1. War, battle; போர். கலாஅத் தானையன் [por. kalaath thanaiyan] (புறநானூறு [purananuru] 69, 11).

2. Rivalry; competition; மாறுபாடு. போர்க்கலா மின்று கண்டும் [marupadu. porkkala minru kandum] (சீவகசிந்தாமணி [sivagasindamani] 620).

3. Rage, fury; கோ பம். (பிங்கலகண்டு) [ko pam. (pingalagandu)]

4. Impetuosity; கொடுமை. (பிங்கலகண்டு) [kodumai. (pingalagandu)]

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun < களா. [kala.] A low spreading spiny evergreen shrub. See களா. (சூடாமணிநிகண்டு) [kala. (sudamaninigandu)]

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun probably from khala.

1. Place, locality, open space, area, expanse; இடம். (திவா.) [idam. (thiva.)]

2. [K. kaḷa, M. kaḷam.] Threshing-floor, place for treading grain; நெற்களம். காவ லுழவர் களத்தகத்துப் போரேறி. (முத்தொள்ளாயிரம்). [nerkalam. kava luzhavar kalathagathup poreri. (muthollayiram).]

3. Assembly, meeting, court, theatre; சபை. களனஞ்சி [sapai. kalananchi] (திருக்குறள் [thirukkural], 730).

4. Hall of sacrifice; யாகசாலை. யூப நட்ட வியன்களம் பலகொல் [yagasalai. yupa natta viyankalam palagol] (புறநானூறு [purananuru] 15, 21).

5. Battle-field; போர்க்களம். ஈரைம்பதின்மரும் பொ ருதுகளத் தொழிய [porkkalam. iraimbathinmarum po ruthugalath thozhiya] (புறநானூறு [purananuru] 2, 15).

6. cf. களர்¹. [kalar¹.] Saline soil; களர்நிலம். (பிங்கலகண்டு) [kalarnilam. (pingalagandu)]

7. Mind; உள்ளம். உயர்பின்மை களக்கொள [ullam. uyarpinmai kalakkola] (ஞானாமிர்தம் [gnanamirtham] 44, 4).

8. Shallow shelf of rocks at sea, sand-bank; கடலில்விழும் திட்டு. களத்திலே தோணி பொறுத்துப்போயிற்று. [kadalilvizhum thittu. kalathile thoni poruthuppoyirru.] (W.)

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun < kala. Melodious sound; இன்னோசை. களங்கொள் திருநேரிசைகள் [innosai. kalangol thirunerisaigal] (பெரியபுராணம் திருநா. [periyapuranam thiruna.] 337).

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun cf. kāla.

1. Blackness, dark colour; கருமை. (திவா.) [karumai. (thiva.)]

2. cf. ghana. Cloud; மேகம். கனைக்களமென [megam. kanaikkalamena] (அரிசமய தீபம் பரகா. [arisamaya thipam paraga.] 44).

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun < kalatra. Wife; மனைவி. (பிங்கலகண்டு) [manaivi. (pingalagandu)]

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun < gala. Throat; கண்டம். பாடுகள மகளிரும் [kandam. padugala magalirum] (சிலப்பதிகாரம் அரும்பதவுரை [silappathigaram arumbathavurai] 6, 157).

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun probably from garala. Poison, venom; விஷம். (பிங்கலகண்டு) [visham. (pingalagandu)]

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Kālam (காலம்) noun < kāla.

1. Time, duration; பொழுது. [pozhuthu.] (தொல். சொல். [thol. sol.] 58).

2. Proper time, opportune moment; தக்க சமயம். காலமன்றிவன் வருகாலம் [thakka samayam. kalamanrivan varugalam] (கம்பராமாயணம் விபீடண. [kambaramayanam vipidana.] 94).

3. Season of the year, of life; specific time; பருவம். சென்றதுகாலம் சிதைந்த திளமைநலம் (திருக்கருவைவெண்.). [paruvam. senrathugalam sithaintha thilamainalam (thirukkaruvaiven.).]

4. Wet-season, crop, opposed to kōṭai; பருவப்பயிர். [paruvappayir.] Local usage

5. cf. காலை. [kalai.] Daybreak; விடியல். (பிங்கலகண்டு) [vidiyal. (pingalagandu)]

6. Time of death; மரணகாலம். அவனுக்குக் காலம் நெருங்கி யது. [maranagalam. avanukkug kalam nerungi yathu.]

7. See காலதத்துவம். [kalathathuvam.]

8. (Grammar) Tense, three in number, viz., இறப்பு, நிகழ்வு, எதிர்வு; தொழினிகழ்ச்சியைக் குறிக்கும் முக்காலம். [irappu, nigazhvu, ethirvu; thozhinigazhchiyaig kurikkum mukkalam.] (தொல். சொல். [thol. sol.] 201.)

9. (Music) Tempo, a measure of time, three in number, viz., விளம்பரம், துரிதம், மத் திமம்; இசைக்குரிய திரிகாலம். [vilambaram, thuritham, math thimam; isaikkuriya thirigalam.]

10. (Music) The element of time-measure which specifies duration, being of ten varieties, viz., கணம், இலவம், காட்டை, நிமிடம், துடி, துரிதம், லகு, குரு, புலுதம், காகபதம் [kanam, ilavam, kattai, nimidam, thudi, thuritham, lagu, kuru, pulutham, kagapatham], one of ten tāḷa-p-pirāṇam, q.v.; தாளப் பிராணத்தொன்று. [thalap piranathonru.] (பரதசாஸ்திரம் தாள. [magaparatham thala.] 26).

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Kāḻam (காழம்) noun probably from காழகம்². [kazhagam².] A garment; உடைவிசேடம். காழ மிட்ட குறங்கினன் [udaivisedam. kazha mitta kuranginan] (கம்பராமாயணம் கங்கைப். [kambaramayanam kangaip.] 31).

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Kāḷam (காளம்) noun < kāla.

1. Blackness, darkness; கருமை. காளமாகிருளை [karumai. kalamagirulai] (சீவகசிந்தாமணி [sivagasindamani] 2245).

2. Poison, venom; நஞ்சு. (திவா.) [nanchu. (thiva.)]

3. Serpent; பாம்பு. ((சங்கத்தகராதி) தமிழ்சொல்லகராதி) [pambu. ((sangathagarathi) thamizhsollagarathi)]

4. Strychnine tree. See எட்டி. (சூடாமணிநிகண்டு) [etti. (sudamaninigandu)]

5. Indian indigo. See அவுரி. (வைத்திய மலையகராதி) [avuri. (vaithiya malaiyagarathi)]

6. Cloud; மேகம். (சதுராகராதி) [megam. (sathuragarathi)]

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Kāḷam (காளம்) noun cf. kāla-mukhī. Heavy shower productive of good crops; நல்விளைவுக் குக் காரணமான பெருமழை. [nalvilaivug kug karanamana perumazhai.] (W.)

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Kāḷam (காளம்) noun perhaps from காழ்-. [kazh-.] cf. kāla. (பிங்கலகண்டு [pingalagandu])

1. Trident; சூலம். [sulam.]

2. Impaling stake; கழு. [kazhu.]

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Kāḷam (காளம்) noun < kāhala. Trumpet, horn; ஊதுகொம்பு. சங்கபடகம் பேரிதாரை காளம் தாளம் [uthugombu. sangapadagam peritharai kalam thalam] (பெரியபுராணம் திருஞான. [periyapuranam thirugnana.] 620).

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Kalam (கலம்) noun cf. கலன். [kalan.] Encumbrance; வில்லங்கம். நிலத்துக்கு எப்பேர்ப்பட்ட கலமும் இறையுமில்லை [villangam. nilathukku epperppatta kalamum iraiyumillai] (S. I. I. vii, 278).

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Kalām (கலாம்) noun < kalaha. Petulance, bouderie; ஊடல். (யாழ்ப்பாணத்து மானிப்பாயகராதி) [udal. (yazhppanathu manippayagarathi)]

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun Shed; கொட்டகை. [kottagai.] (P. T. L.)

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Kaḷam (களம்) noun Tuskless elephant; கொம்பில்லா யானை. (நாநார்த்த.) [kombilla yanai. (nagarthathipigai)]

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Kāḷam (காளம்) noun < kāla. Viṣṇu’s discus; சக்கராயுதம். [sakkarayutham.] (ரஹஸ்ய. [rahasya.] 65.)

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Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

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