Sambhoga, Saṃbhoga: 24 definitions


Sambhoga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sambhog.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Saṃbhoga (संभोग, “love in union”) refers to one of the two types of Śṛṅgāra-rasa according to both Viśvanātha (Sāhityadarpaṇa III.186) and Mammaṭa (Kāvyaprakāśa IV. p. 84). Saṃbhoa also refers to one of the three types of Śṛṅgāra-rasa (love-sentiment) according to Dhanañjaya (Daśarūpaka IV.50). The saṃbhoga-śṛṅgāra takes place, when the hero and the heroine are in the enjoyment of each other’s company, engaged in love-making through sight, touch, kissing etc. Dhanañjaya is also of the same observation, regarding saṃbhoga type of śṛṅgāra.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Saṃbhoga (संभोग) or “love in union” refers to one of the varieties of Śṛṅgāra (“the erotic sentiment”) which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—Rasa or Sentiment is a very important component in poetry. Because, Sanskrit poetics advices to portray either śṛṇgāra or vīra as the predominant sentiment in a Sanskrit drama. It is the sentiment of love and desire where the manifestation of the activities of Kāmadeva i.e the god of love can be noticed. Rati i.e erotic emotion is the sthāyībhāva or permanent feeling of śṛṇgāra. Śyāma i.e dark blue is the colour of this sentiment. Viṣṇu is the God of this sentiment. It is of two kinds viz., saṃbhoga i.e., love in union and viraha i.e., love in separation.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sambhoga in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sambhoga (सम्भोग) refers to “(sexual) intercourse”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When Kāma (God of Love) reached the vicinity of Śiva, Spring spread all his splendour in accord with the inclination of the lord. [...] The goddess satisfied his mind in fulness in the matter of intercourse (sambhoga). She seemed to enter his body. He made her drink that juice. With garlands of flowers wreathed by himself he decorated her person and felt new pleasures”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Saṃbhoga (संभोग) refers to “(the pleasures of) love-making”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] If one torments the body with rain, cold and heat, …, devoted to recitation (japarata) and meditation, this is called the Great Observance. A woman skilled in the pleasures of love-making (rati-saṃbhoga-kuśala), endowed with beauty and youth; such a woman one should procure, holding one’s senses back from the objects of the senses, and one should kiss and embrace [her], placing the penis upon her sex while remaining focussed upon recitation and meditation—one performs [thus] the Sword-Blade Observance. If one should succumb to the control of desire, then one certainly falls into hell. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Sambhoga in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Sambhoga (सम्भोग) refers to the “union (of husband and wife)”, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] The love which a devoted husband and wife bear to cach other is known to themselves alone and cannot be expressed to others. Love is in reality physical touching. In the compositions of Guṇāḍhya, Vyāsa and Vālmīki, each of which thay be compared to a sea full of pearls, this matter has been expatiated upon, both in the case of union (sambhoga) and in the case of separation. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Saṃbhoga (संभोग, “enjoyment”) or Saṃbhogapuṭa refers to the third layer of the Herukamaṇḍala: a large-scale and elaborate maṇḍala of Heruka, consisting of 986 deities, as found in the Ḍākārṇava chapter 15.—The Herukamaṇḍala consists of four layers (puṭa) consisting of concentric circles (cakra, totally one lotus at the center and 12 concentric circles, that is, 13 circles in total).

The Third layer (saṃbhoga-puṭa, ‘enjoyment’) consists of:

  1. The fire circle (agnicakra),
  2. The water circle (jalacakra or udakacakra),
  3. The gnosis circle (jñānacakra).
Source: eScholarship: Buddhajñānāpāda's Vision of a Tantric Buddhist World

Sambhoga (सम्भोग) refers to one of the Saptāṅga (“seven aṅgas of mahāmudrā”), according to Vāgīśvavarakīrti’s Saptāṅga and Tattvaratnāvaloka (and its auto-commentary).—(Cf. the seven yogas mentioned by Buddhajñānapāda in the Muktitilaka).—The same seven factors are addressed in Vāgīśvavarakīrti’s later Saptāṅga and his Tattvaratnāvaloka and its auto-commentary, where they are called the seven aṅgas of mahāmudrā, with reference to which see Isaacson (2010b, 271, 271n27) and, with a bit more detail, Isaacson and Sferra (2014, 271), where they are mentioned with reference to a citation from the Saptāṅga in Rāmapāla’s Sekanirdeśapañjikā.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Saṃbhoga (संभोग) refers to “pleasure (with a woman)” (in the form of liberation), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The doctrine is able to produce the happiness which is the best part of the city of the chief of the snakes. The doctrine is the great joy conveyed to the world of mortals for those possessing a desire for that. The doctrine is the place of the arising of the taste for the constant happiness in the city of heaven. Does not the doctrine make a man fit for pleasure with a woman [in the form] of liberation (mukti-lalanā-saṃbhoga-yogya)?”,

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sambhoga.—cf. rāja-sambhoga, ratnatraya-sambhoga; same as bhoga. Note: sambhoga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Sambhoga.—(LL), a section of the Jain community. Note: sambhoga is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sambhoga in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sambhoga : (m.) eating or living together with.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sambhoga, (saṃ+bhoga) eating, living together with Vin. I, 97; II, 21; IV, 137; A. I, 92; SnA 71; J. IV, 127; Sdhp. 435. (Page 694)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sambhōga (संभोग).—m (S) Enjoyment or fruition: popularly understood of sexual enjoyment. 2 Use or employment. 3 A branch of śṛṅgārarasa,--happy or successful love.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

sambhōga (संभोग).—m Enjoyment or fruition. Use.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃbhoga (संभोग).—

1) Enjoyment (in general), pleasure, delight; सत्संभोगाफलाः श्रियः (satsaṃbhogāphalāḥ śriyaḥ) Subhāṣ.

2) Possession, use, occupation; संभोगो दृश्यते यत्र न दृश्येतागमः क्वचित् (saṃbhogo dṛśyate yatra na dṛśyetāgamaḥ kvacit) Manusmṛti 8.2.

3) Carnal enjoyment, sexual union, copulation; संभोगान्ते मम समुचितो हस्तसंवाहनानाम् (saṃbhogānte mama samucito hastasaṃvāhanānām) Meghadūta 98.

4) A lecher, catamite.

5) A sub-division of the sentiment of love; see under शृङ्गार (śṛṅgāra).

Derivable forms: saṃbhogaḥ (संभोगः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sambhoga (सम्भोग).—n.

(-gaḥ) 1. Enjoyment, pleasure, delight. 2. Coition, copulation. 3. A Jaina or Baudd'ha Sasana or edict, &c. 4. One branch of the Sringara-rasa, or sentiment of love, happy or successful love, meeting or union of lovers. 5. A catamite. 6. Use, occupation, employment. E. sam with, bhoga enjoyment.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃbhoga (संभोग).—i. e. sam-bhuj + a, m. 1. Enjoyment, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 67; sensual enjoyment, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 230. 2. Coition, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 94; copulation. 3. A catamite. 4. Use, occupation, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 200.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃbhoga (संभोग).—[masculine] possession, enjoyment, [especially] carnal enjoyment, sexual union.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sambhoga (सम्भोग):—[from sam-bhugna] 1. sambhoga See bhuja-s, p. 759, col. 1.

2) [=sam-bhoga] [from sam-bhuj] 2. sam-bhoga m. (ifc. f(ā). ) complete enjoyment, pleasure, delight in ([compound]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] carnal or sensual enjoyment, sexual union with ([compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a subdivision of the Śṛṅgāra or sentiment of love (described as ‘successful love leading to union’, and opp. to vipralambha, ‘disappointed love, separation’), [Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.], ‘duration; joy; employment, use; a Partic. part of an elephant’s trunk; a Jaina or Buddhist edict; a libertine’)

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Buddhist literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sambhoga (सम्भोग):—[sa-mbhoga] (gaḥ) 1. m. Enjoyment; copulation; Jaina edict; happy love; a catamite; use, employment.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃbhoga (संभोग) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃbhoa, Saṃbhoga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sambhoga in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sambhoga in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Saṃbhoga (संभोग) [Also spelled sambhog]:—(nm) coition, carnal intercourse, sexual enjoyment; delight, pleasure; —[śrṛṃgāra] see [saṃyogaśrṛṃgāra] (under [saṃyoga]).

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Saṃbhoga (संभोग) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saṃbhoga.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃbhōga (ಸಂಭೋಗ):—

1) [noun] the act or state of enjoying the possession, use or benefit of something; enjoyment.

2) [noun] great happiness; bliss; felicity.

3) [noun] a strong sexual desire.

4) [noun] sexual union; coitus.

5) [noun] the act of eating (food).

6) [noun] that which is eaten or is edible; food.

7) [noun] the state or fact of being an owner; ownership.

8) [noun] a using or being used; utilisation.

9) [noun] a particular portion of an elephant’s trunk.

10) [noun] (rhet.) a subdivision of the sentiment of love, described as 'successful love leading to unioṇ.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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