Akala, Akāla, Ākāla, Akalā: 26 definitions

Introduction:

Akala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Akaal.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Akāla (अकाल) refers to the “untimely display of a season”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.18 (“Description of the perturbation caused by Kāma”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “Thus the vast diffusion of Spring caused the display of emotions of love. It was unbearable to the forest-dwelling sages. O sage, then, even the insentient beings had the emotions of love. What about the state of sentient ones? Thus spring employed his unbearable power heightening the love of all living beings. On seeing the untimely display of spring [i.e., akāla-nimita], Śiva the lord, who had assumed a physical body indulging in divine sports, thought it surprising. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Akāla (अकाल) refers to “unseasonal (flowers)”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225).—Accordingly, “[Then through the main entrance (of Caṇḍikā), the temple yard:] Her courtyard was adorned (vibhūṣita-aṅgaṇa) with thickets of red aśoka trees, the spaces between the branches of which were made gapless (nirantara) by flocks of perching red cockerels, [trees] which appeared to reveal unseasonal (akāla-darśita) clusters of blooms in their fear”

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Akāla (अकाल) refers to the “improper time”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “An abnormal modification caused by a aggressive ritual against Kings, occurring at the improper time (prastuta-akāla), dreadful and all-reaching, is characterized by the these signs: Suddenly horses, elephants and ministers perish, the king himself suffers from a serious illness which has seized [his] body; terrifying thunderbolts strike his dominion; [...] from such and other signs he should understand that the enemy is performing a aggressive ritual”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Akāla (अकाल) refers to the “out-of-season (production)” (of flowers and fruits), which represents one of the bio-organic agricultural methods described in the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “Several special processes with reference to the plants will be described hereunder. They are: [e.g., bearing flowers and fruits out of season (akāla);] and so on. [...] [Example recipe]: Trees watered at the root with buttermilk churned without water, sugarcane juice mixed with the powder of beef, Embelia ribes, and oil cake, definitely produce beautiful flowers and fruits out of season for a period (akāla) of one month. [...]”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Akāla (अकाल) refers to the “wrong time”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “[If time does not exist, why is it permissible ‘to eat at the proper time’ (kāla-bhojana) and forbidden ‘to eat at the wrong time’ (akāla-bhojana)? Those are common disciplines (śīla)!]—[Answer:]—[...] Besides, the disciplines imposed by the Vinaya are true for the world without having the nature of an absolute, real dharma, for the Ātman and the dharmas do not really exist. But in order to moderate the impatience of the community, in order to protect the Buddhist doctrine and ensure its longevity, in order to regulate the disciples’ rituals, the Bhagavats of the triple world have set up prohibitions the subject of which one should not question whether it is true or conventional, what is associated or dissociated, what is a dharma with such and such a characteristic or without that characteristic. That is why no objection can be made there.”

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Akāla (अकाल) refers to “inappropriate times”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Thus he becomes one who subjugates the works of Māra (mārakarman). What then is the subjugation of the works of Māra? That by means of which none of Māra can find a weak point in the Bodhisattva. [...] (23) desire for [something] at inappropriate times (akāla-pratikāṃkṣaṇatā) is the work of Māra; (24) thinking about his family without great compassion is the work of māra; (25) desire for the unconditioned is the work of Māra; (26) depreciating the conditioned is the work of Māra; [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Akāla (अकाल) or Akālavṛṣṭi refers to “untimely (rain)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the afflicted Nāgas said to Bhagavān]: “[...] Then, O Bhagavān, the hostile Nāgas become agitated and destroy crops. [...] They send down excessive rain, a lack of rain and untimely rain (akāla-vṛṣṭi). However, O Bhagavān, the spell-master, the reciter of spells, should abide by friendliness. He should have the armour of a friendly being. He should have the sword of friendliness in his hand. [For] friendliness pacifies the hostile”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

Jain philosophy

Source: archive.org: Anekanta Jaya Pataka of Haribhadra Suri

Ākāla (आकाल) [=ākālam] is explained as “so long as there is time”, as occurring in the Anekāntajayapatākā-prakaraṇa, a Śvetāmbara Jain philosophical work written by Haribhadra Sūri.—[Cf. Vol. I, P. 100, l. 10]—Cf. l. 26. Ākālam occurs of p. 103, l. 6; p. 167, l. 4; and p. 212, l. 8.

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General definition (in Jainism)

Source: SOAS Research Online: Prekṣā meditation: History and Methods

Akala (अकल) or “entire” refers to one of the 46 qualities of the soul to be meditated on in the “Practice of Meditation on Liberated Souls (Siddhas)”, according to Jain texts like Ācārāṅga (5.6.123-140), Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama (13.5.4.31) and Samayasāra (1.49).—The pure soul can be recognised by meditation on its true nature, represented by the liberated souls of the Siddhas. The practice which leads to this realisation is meditation on the fact that attachment, aversion, passions and the influx of karmas, are ‘not mine’, that I am separate from them and consist of infinite knowledge, perception, conduct, spiritual energy, that I am the pure, enlightened, and everlasting soul. The qualities of the soul to be meditated on as truly mine are: [e.g., My soul is entire (akala)] [...] The meditation on such extended fourty-five qualities of the pure soul presents the niśacaya-naya, which is aligned with Kundakunda’s approach.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

akāla : (m.) inappropriate. (adj.), out of reason.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

akala (अकल).—&c. See under akkala and akkalakarā.

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akaḷa (अकळ).—a (Poetry. a & kaḷaṇēṃ) Unintelligible, inconceivable, unknowable.

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akāla (अकाल).—m (S) pop. akāḷa m An unseasonable juncture or period; an unfit time. Also in comp. as a0 janma m An untimely birth; a0 maraṇa n or a0 mṛtyu m Untimely death; a0 vṛṣṭi Untimely rain; a0 vacana n or akālōkti f Unseasonable word or speech; a0 gamana, akālāgamana &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

akāla (अकाल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—m An unseasonable period.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Akala (अकल).—a. [nāsti kalā avayavo yasya] Not in parts, without parts, epithot of the Supreme Spirit.

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Akāla (अकाल).—a. [nāsti ucitaḥ kālo yasya]

1) Untimely, premature, inopportune, unseasonable, out of season; न प्रजासु °मृत्युश्चरति (na prajāsu °mṛtyuścarati) Uttararāmacarita 2; न ह्यकालभवो मृत्युरिक्ष्वाकुपदमस्पृशत् (na hyakālabhavo mṛtyurikṣvākupadamaspṛśat) || R.15.44; अकालमृत्युहरणं सर्वव्याधिविनाशनम् । सूर्यपादोदकं तीर्यं जठरे धारया- म्यहम् (akālamṛtyuharaṇaṃ sarvavyādhivināśanam | sūryapādodakaṃ tīryaṃ jaṭhare dhārayā- myaham) || (sūryanamaskārasaṃkalpaḥ); °बातावली (bātāvalī) Ratnāvalī 3.

2) [na kālaḥ] Not black, white.

-laḥ [na. ta.] Wrong, inauspicious or unseasonable time, not the proper time (for anything); unholy time in a year calculated and shown in Indian almanacs. °लः स्वबलप्रधानविरोधस्य (laḥ svabalapradhānavirodhasya) Ve.3; °लः कुलजनस्य निवर्तितुं (laḥ kulajanasya nivartituṃ) Mu.7; अकाले बोधितो भ्राता (akāle bodhito bhrātā) R.12.81 (at an improper time); अत्यारूढो हि नारीणामकालज्ञो मनोभवः (atyārūḍho hi nārīṇāmakālajño manobhavaḥ) 12.33 takes no account of proper or improper time; अकाले वीक्षितो विष्णुर्हन्ति पुण्यं पुराकृतम् (akāle vīkṣito viṣṇurhanti puṇyaṃ purākṛtam); नाकाले म्रियते कश्चित् प्राप्ते काले न जीवति (nākāle mriyate kaścit prāpte kāle na jīvati); नाकाले म्रियते जन्तुः (nākāle mriyate jantuḥ) H.1.17 does not die a premature death; काले प्राप्तस्त्वकाले वा नास्यानश्नन् गृहे वसेत् (kāle prāptastvakāle vā nāsyānaśnan gṛhe vaset) Manusmṛti 3.15 in time or late.

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Ākāla (आकाल).—

1) The right time.

2) Wrong time.

Derivable forms: ākālaḥ (आकालः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Akāla (अकाल).—(a-kāla) (m. ?, neg. of 2 kāla 1, day, q.v.; compare Sanskrit vikāla), night: akālāt kālībhūtam Divyāvadāna 336.14, from night it became day; akālībhūtam, it became night, Divyāvadāna 335.17; 337.11 (kālād akā°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akāla (अकाल).—m.

(-laḥ) Irregular or unusual, as time or season. E. a neg. kāla time.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akāla (अकाल).—m. unseasonableness, [Sundopasundopākhyāna] 2, 31; loc. le, unseasonably, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 105.

Akāla is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms a and kāla (काल).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akāla (अकाल).—[masculine] not the (right) time; °—, [locative], & tas untimely, out of time.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Akala (अकल):—[=a-kala] mfn. not in parts, entire

2) [v.s. ...] not skilled in the arts (kalās).

3) Akāla (अकाल):—[=a-kāla] m. a wrong or bad time

4) [v.s. ...] (also) night, ibidem

5) [v.s. ...] mfn. unseasonable

6) Ākāla (आकाल):—[=ā-kāla] m. ‘the right time’ See an-āk

7) [v.s. ...] (e) [locative case] just at the time of ([genitive case]), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akala (अकल):—[bahuvrihi compound] m. f. n.

(-laḥ-lā-lam) Being without parts, whole, entire. E. a priv. and kalā.

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Akāla (अकाल):—[tatpurusha compound] m.

(-laḥ) 1) Unseasonableness.

2) Unfavourable time.

3) Impure time or certain days considered as unfit for the performance of religious rites. E. a neg. and kāla.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Akāla (अकाल):—[a-kāla] (laḥ-lā-laṃ) a. Irregular, out of season, out of due time.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Akāla (अकाल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ayāla, Āgala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Akala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Akāla (अकाल) [Also spelled akaal]:—(nm) famine; scarcity; (a) premature; untimely;—[kusuma] lit an out-of-season flower—an untimely thing;—[jarā] progeria; ~[pakva] precocious;—[puruṣa] the Ageless One —the Supreme Being as worshipped by the Sikhs;—[prasava] premature delivery;—[mṛtyu] untimely demise; —[vṛdhda] prematurely aged;—[vṛṣṭi] untimely rains.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Akala (ಅಕಲ):—[adjective] having not been divided, separated into parts; not broken; whole; total.

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Akala (ಅಕಲ):—[noun] the whole water mass of the ocean.

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Akaḷa (ಅಕಳ):—[noun] an exciting of the surface nerves of, as by touching or stroking lightly with the finger, a feather, etc., so as to cause laughter, etc. ; tickling.

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Akāla (ಅಕಾಲ):—

1) [noun] an improper or inauspicious time.

2) [noun] an improper or unsuitable season.

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Ākaḷa (ಆಕಳ):—[noun] = ಆಕಳು [akalu].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Akala (अकल):—n. 1. knowledge; 2. cleverness; sharpness; talent; plan; 3. wisdom; care; thought;

2) Akalā (अकला):—n. art. anti-art;

3) Akāla (अकाल):—n. a famine; difficult/bad time; improper time; adj. 1. premature; untimely; 2. inopportune; out of season;

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Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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