Pali-english Dictionary

1,676 words

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Kalā, Kāla, Kāḷa

From the definition kala.

Kalā, (Vedic kalā)

1) Kalā, (Vedic kalā *squel, to Lat scalpo, Gr. skaλlw, Ohg scolla, scilling, scala. The Dhtp. (no 613) expls kala by “saṅkhyāne. ”) 1. a small fraction of a whole, generally the 16th part; the 16th part of the moon’s disk; often the 16th part again subdivided into 16 parts and so on: one infinitesimal part (see VvA. 103; DhA. II, 63), in this sense in the expression kalaṃ nâgghati soḷasiṃ “not worth an infinitesimal portion of”=very much inferior to S. I, 19; III, 156=V. 44=It. 20; A. I, 166, 213; IV, 252; Ud. 11; Dh. 70; Vv 437; DhA. II, 63 (=koṭṭhāsa) DhA. IV, 74.—2. an art, a trick (lit. part, turn) J. I, 163. -kalaṃ upeti to be divided or separated Miln. 106; DhA. I, 119; see sakala.—In cpd. with bhū as kalī —bhavati to be divided, broken up J. I, 467 (=bhijjati). Cp. vikala. (Page 198. Kāḷa, see kāla 1. (Page 212)

Kāla, (and Kāḷa)

2) Kāla, (and Kāḷa) — Preliminary. 1. dark (syn. kaṇha, which cp. for meaning and applications), black, blueblack, misty, cloudy. Its proper sphere of application is the dark as opposed to light, and it is therefore characteristic of all phenomena or beings belonging to the realm of darkness, as the night, the new moon, death, ghosts, etc.—There are two etymologies suggestible, both of which may have been blended since IndoAryan times: (a) kāla=Sk. kāla, blue-black, kālī black cloud from *qāl (with which conn. *qel in kalaṅka, spot, kalusa dirty, kammāsa speckled, Gr. kelainόs, Mhg. hilwe mist)=Lat. cālidus spot, Gr. khliζ spot, and khlaζ dark cloud; cp. Lat. cālīgo mist, fog, darkness.—(b) see below, under note.—Hence. 2. the morning mist, or darkness preceding light, daybreak, morning (cp. E. morning=Goth. maúrgins twilight, Sk. marka eclipse, darkness; and also gloaming= gleaming=twilight), then: time in general, esp. a fixed time, a point from or to which to reckon, i.e. term or terminus (a quo or ad quem).

— Note. The definition of colour-expressions is extremely difficult. To a primitive colour-sense the principal difference worthy of notation is that between dark and light, or dull and bright, which in their expressions, however, are represented as complements for which the same word may be used in either sense of the complementary part (dark for light and vice versa, cp. E. gleam › gloom). All we can say is that kāla belongs to the group of expressions for dark which may be represented simultaneously by black, blue, or brown. That on the other hand, black, when polished or smooth, supplies also the notion of “shining” is evidenced by kāḷa and kaṇha as well, as e.g. by *skei in Sk. chāyā=Gr. skiά shadow as against Ags. h&amacremacr; ven “blue” (E. heaven) and Ohg. skīnan, E. to shine and sky. The psychological value of a colour depends on its light-reflecting (or lightabsorbing) quality. A bright black appears lighter (reflects more light) than a dull grey, therefore a polished (añjana) black (=sukāḷa) may readily be called “brilliant. ” In the same way kāla, combined with other colour-words of black connotation does not need to mean “black, ” but may mean simply a kind of black, i.e. brown. This depends on the semasiological contrast or equation of the passage in question. Cp. Sk. śyāma (dark-grey) and śyāva (brown) under kāsāya. That the notion of the speckled or variegated colour belongs to the sphere of black, is psychologically simple (: dark specks against a light ground, cp. kammāsa), and is also shown by the second etymology of kāla=Sk. śāra, mottled, speckled=Lat. cærulus, black-blue and perhaps cælum “the blue” (cp. heaven)=Gr. khruλos the blue ice-bird. (On k › s cp. kaṇṇa › śṛṇga, kilamati › śramati, kilissati › ślis°, etc.) The usual spelling of kāla as kāḷa indicates a connection of the ḷ with the r of śāra.—The definition of kāḷa as jhām’aṅgārasadisa is conventional and is used both by Bdhgh. and Dhpāla: DhsA. 317 and PvA. 90.

Kāḷa, (dark, black, etc.)

3) Kāḷa, dark, black, etc., in enumn of colours Vv 221 (see VvA. 111). na kāḷo samaṇo Gotamo, na pi sāmo: maṅgura-cchavi samano G. “The ascetic Gotamo is neither black nor brown: he is of a golden skin” M. I, 246; similarly as kāḷī vā sāmā vā maṅguracchavī vā of a kalyāṇī, a beautiful woman at D. I, 193= M. II. 40; kāḷa-sāma at Vin. IV, 120 is to be taken as dark-grey.—Of the dark half of the month: see °pakkha, or as the new moon: āgame kāḷe “on the next new moon day” Vin. I, 176.—of Petas: Pv. II, 41 (kāḷī f.); PvA. 561 (°rūpa); of the dog of Yama (°sunakha) PvA. 151.—In other connn: kāḷavaṇṇa-bhūmi darkbrown (i.e. fertile) soil Vin. I, 48=II. 209.

Kāla, (time, etc.)

(4.a) Morning: kāle early Pv. II, 941 (=pāto PvA. 128), kālassa in the morning (Gen. of time), early VvA. 256. Cp. paccūsa-kāle at dawn DhA. III, 242. Opposed to evening or night in kāḷena in the morning Pv. I, 63 (opp. sāyaṃ). Kāle juṇhe by day and by night Nd2 631.

(4.b) time in general: gacchante gacchante kāle in course of time DhA. I, 319; evaṃ gacchante kāle as time went on PvA. 54, 75, 127, etc.—kālaṃ for a time Vin. I, 176 (spelt kāḷaṃ); kañci kālaṃ some time yet VvA. 288; ettakaṃ kālaṃ for a long time PvA. 102. -kālena kālaṃ (1) from time to time PvA. 151; VvA. 255, 276;— (2) continuously, constantly A. IV, 45; Pug. 11 (+samayena samayaṃ); D. I, 74 (: but expld at DA. I, 218 by kāle kāle in the sense of “every fortnight or every ten days”). kāle in (all) time, always (cp. ai)ei/) Sn. 73 (expl. in Nd2 by niccakāle under sadā; but at SnA 128 by phāsu-kālena “in good time”); —kāle kāle from time to time, or repeatedly VvA. 352. See also cira°, sabba°.

(4.c) Time in special, either (1) appointed time, date, fixed time, or (2) suitable time, proper time, good time, opportunity. Cp. Gr. kairiζ and w(=ra; or (3) time of death, death. ‹-›

(4.c.1) Mealtime: PvA. 25; VvA. 6; esp. in phrase kālo bho Gotamo, niṭṭhitaṃ bhattaṃ “it is time, Gotama, the meal is ready” D. I, 119=226; Sn. p. 111; and in kālaṃ āroceti or ārocāpeti he announces the time (for dinner) D. I, 109, 226; Sn. p. 111; PvA. 22, 141; VvA. 173.—date: kālato from the date or day of ... , e.g. diṭṭha° paṭṭhāya “from the day that she first saw her” VvA. 206; gihī° paṭṭhāya “from the day of being a layman” PvA. 13.

(4.c.2) Proper time, right time: also season, as in utu° favourable time (of the year) Vin. I, 299; II, 173; kālaṃ jānāti “he knows the proper time” A. IV, 114; as cattāro kālā, four opportunities A. II, 140; yassa kālaṃ maññasi for what you think it is time (to go), i.e. goodbye D. I, 106, 189, etc. The 3 times of the cycle of existence are given at Vism. 578 as past, present, and future.—kāla° (adj.) in (due) time, timely Vism. 229 (°maraṇa timely death).—Opp. akāla (it is the) wrong time or inopportune D. I, 205; akāla-cārin going (begging) at the improper time Sn. 386. akālamegha a cloud arising unexpectedly (at the wrong time) Miln. 144.—kāle at the proper time, with vikāle (opp.) Vin. I, 199, 200; J. II, 133; Sn. 386. akāle in the wrong season VvA. 288. kālena in proper time, at the right moment A. II, 140; Sn. 326, 387 (=yutta kālena SnA 374); Pv. I, 53 (=ṭhitakālena PvA. 26); Pug. 50; It. 42; KhA 144 (=khaṇena samayena). Cp. vikāla.

(4.c.3) The day, as appointed by fate or kamma, point of time (for death, cp. Vism. 236), the “last hour, ” cp. h)mar, illa dies. So in the meaning of death appld not only to this earthly existence, but to all others (peta°, deva°, etc.) as well, in phrase kālaṃ karoti “he does his time=he has fulfilled his time” Vin. III, 80; Sn. 343, DhA. I, 70; and frequently elsewhere; cp.—kata, —kiriyā.—As death in kālaṃ kaṅkhati to await the appointed time S. I, 187; Sn. 516 (cp. kaṅkhati) and in dern kālika.—Other examples for this use of kāla see under bhatta°, yañña°, vappa°.

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