Dravya: 40 definitions


Dravya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Dravy.

In Hinduism

Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”) is one of the seven accepted categories of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”): The substances are conceived as 9 in number (according to the Vaiśeṣika school). They are,

  1. pṛthvī (earth),
  2. ap (water),
  3. tejas (fire),
  4. vāyu (air),
  5. ākāśa (ether),
  6. kāla (time),
  7. dik (space),
  8. ātman (self)
  9. and manas (mind).

The first five are called bhūtas, the substances having some specific qualities so that they could be perceived by one or the other external senses.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)

Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”) is the first and foremost category among the seven categories (padārtha). Dravya is the only category which has an independent existence. Karma, guṇa and sāmānaya subsist in substance. Viśeṣa inheres in an eternal substance. Similarly samavāya also exists in it. Therefore, substance is the substratum of all other categories. Substance (dravya) is also the inherent cause of guṇa and karma. Hence, substance is regarded as the primary or the first category.

Kaṇāda defines dravya as that which is an entity, which possesses qualities and actions and which is the inherent cause. In this definition there are actually three definition, viz. kriyāvattva, guṇavattva, samavāyikāraṇatva.

The Vaiśeṣikas accept nine kinds of substance. These are:

  1. pṛthivī (earth),
  2. ap (water),
  3. tejaḥ (light),
  4. vāyu (air),
  5. ākāśa (ether),
  6. kāla (time),
  7. dik (space),
  8. ātmā (self),
  9. manas (mind).

According to Kaṇāda, Śivāditya, Keśava Miśra, Annaṃbhaṭṭa, there are the nine kinds of substance. In the Bhāṣāpariccheda also we find nine kinds of substance. Annaṃbhaṭṭa points out that the word ‘nine’ is used to limit the number of substance to nine only.

Vaisheshika book cover
context information

Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: CBSE: Chemistry in India

Dravya (द्रव्य):—The Vaiśeṣika system identified nine types of substance (dravya):

  1. earth or pṛthvī,
  2. water or ap,
  3. fire or tejas,
  4. wind or vāyu,
  5. ether or ākāśa,
  6. time (kāla),
  7. space or direction (dik),
  8. the mind (manas),
  9. the spirit or knower (ātman).

Besides, substance had twenty-four different qualities (guṇas), including fluidity, viscosity, elasticity and gravity.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”):—One of the six padārtha (or ‘basic categories’) which should be known to every Physician if he wants to understand the science of life.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Dravya (द्रव्य) is defined as the substratum of Guṇa and Karma. Guṇa resides in Dravya, rasa is the object of gustatory sense organ, vīrya (‘potency’) is the factor repsonsible for action of Dravya, vipāka is the final transformation effected by Agni, prabhāva is the specific potency inherent, by nature, in Dravya and karma is the causative factor in combination and disjunction and is dependent on Dravya such as dīpana (‘appetising’), effort etc.

Dravya is of three types according to source—

  1. Bhauma (‘inorganic’),
  2. Jāṅgama (‘animal products’)
  3. and Audbhida (‘plants’).

According to use it has been classified into two groups—

  1. Āhāra (‘food’)
  2. and Auṣadha (‘drugs’).

Again, according to action, it is of three types—

  1. Śamana (‘pacifying’),
  2. Kopana (‘aggravating’)
  3. and Svasthahita (‘which maintains the homeostasis’).
Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to “medicinal substance”, and is mentioned in verse 1.26-27 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Dravya means “substance” in general and “medicinal substance” in particular. Here it has been used in the latter sense (as appears from the corresponding auṣadha 28b), and so has been rendered by sman “medicine”.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Dravya (द्रव्य):—Materials of plant, animal & mineral origin

2) Matter; the main substratum of action and property

3) A substance used for therapeutic purpose / health benefits akin to drug in modern pharmacology wherein properties and actions embodise in an inseparable manner.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to “drugs” and represents one of the four pādas or factors to make a treatment perfect.—The Ayurvedic system says that the body (śarīra) is also pañcabhautika and the medicines i.e. plants and animals are also pañcabhautika. So the pañcabhautika-śarīra can be treated with pañcabhautika drug. [...] The four pādas or factors to make a treatment perfect are: 1. Bhiṣak: Vaidya-doctor 2. Dravya: drugs 3. Paricāraka: bystander/helper and 4. Rogī: Patient.—If these four pādas perfectly merge the treatment will be a success.

Dravya (“drug”) is an important component. A perfect dravya had again four qualities as mentioned:

  1. Bahukalpana i.e. which can be made into many formulation;
  2. Bahuguṇa with many properties;
  3. Sampannatā is the wealth of drug with rasa (taste), guṇa (qualities), vīrya (potency), etc.
  4. Yogyatā is the correct selection of drug to be used in the apt situation.

The drug/dravya, if is properly used it is equivalent to amṛta (nectar) and if improperly used it is like viṣa (poison). Nāma (name), rūpa (morphology) and guṇa (quality) of medicine should be known properly.

According to Āyurveda, dravya (“drug”) is comprised of:

  1. rasa (taste),
  2. guṇa (properties and qualities)
  3. vīrya (potency),
  4. vipāka (post-digestive-taste),
  5. prabhāva (serendipity—specific effect),
  6. karma (targeted action).

The rasa, guṇa and vīrya of the drug explains the pharmacology of Ayurvedic drugs. The vipāka, prabhāva, and karma of the drug explain the pharmcotherpeutics of a drug.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Dravya (द्रव्य).—Substance, as opposed to गुण (guṇa) property and क्रिया (kriyā) action which exist on dravya. The word सत्त्व (sattva) is used by Yaska, Panini and other grammarians in a very general sense as something in completed formation or existence as opposed to 'bhava' or kriya or verbal activity, and the word द्रव्य (dravya) is used by old grammarians as Synonymous with सत्त्व (sattva); cf. चादयो (cādayo)Sसत्वे। चादयो निपातसंज्ञा भवन्ति न चेत्सत्वे वर्तन्ते (satve| cādayo nipātasaṃjñā bhavanti na cetsatve vartante), cf. Kas on P. I. 4.57; cf. S.K. also on P. I.4.57. (2)The word द्रव्य (dravya) is also found used in the sense of an individual object, as opposed to the genus or generic notion (आकृति (ākṛti)); cf. द्रव्याभि-धानं व्याडिः (dravyābhi-dhānaṃ vyāḍiḥ), M. Bh. on P. I. 2. 64. Vart. 45.(3)The word द्रव्य (dravya) is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. cf. तत्र शब्द-द्रव्याण्युदाहरिष्यामः । शब्दरूपाणि साधनानि वर्ण-यिष्यामः (tatra śabda-dravyāṇyudāhariṣyāmaḥ | śabdarūpāṇi sādhanāni varṇa-yiṣyāmaḥ) Tai, Pr. XXII. 8.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Dravya (द्रव्य) or Pūjādravya refers to the “specific material for the offerings” as described in the Śaivāgamas.—One of the main needs of pujā is specified levels of dravya or the specific material for the offerings. The Dakṣiṇadvārārcanavidhi classifies pūjā into uttama, madhyama, adhama and kanyasa based on whether all dravyas are used or if there is a shortfall of one, two or more ingredients. The Arcanāṅgavidhi of Ajitāgama specifiesmeasures of all dravya, naivedya, puṣpa, dīpa, dhūpa etc. which is important for the management to provide for.

The Prāyāścittavidhi of Kāmikāgama warns that if there is a shortage of pūjā-dravya in the nitya, naimittika or kāmya-pūjās, there will be a corresponding shortage of those dravyas in the world.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to “objects (of Siddhas)”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.8-13, while describing auspicious dreams]—“[...] [It is auspicious when one dreams of] a pill, wood for cleaning the teeth, yellow pigment on a sword or sandal, sacred thread, ointment, nectar, mercury, medicinal herbs, śakti, a water jar, lotus, rosary, red arsenic or blazing objects of Siddhas (dravyaprajvalatsiddhadravyāṇi), which have red chalk as their ends. [...]”

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to the “(sacrificial) substance”, according to Brahmayāmala verse 45.197-199 and 247-250.—Accordingly, “[...] Once the excellent adept has cleaned the sacred seat with holy water, he places his own sacrifice there beginning with the (formation of the) place (of union) and the rest. Once done that, O fair lady, he kisses and embraces the sacred seat and having caused the male organ to enter, preceded by the (formation of the) place (of union) and the rest, he then conjoins the omnipresent (i.e. sperm), along with flowers, scent and the rest, to it. Then, having aroused the Śakti and collected the sacrificial substance (i.e. sexual fluid) [i.e., dravyadravyaṃ gṛhya] generated from that and then having eaten (some of that) substance and offered libation, he should then offer it (to the deity)”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dravya (द्रव्य) are nine: earth, water, air, fire, ākāśa (sky), kāla (time), dik (direction), ātmā (the soul), and manas (the mind).

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Dravya (द्रव्य) represents the number 6 (six) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 6—dravya] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to “various articles” (suitable for a marriage ceremony)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.37 (“The letter of betrothal is dispatched”).—Accordingly, as Himavat prepared the wedding of Menā and Śiva: “[...] Then he began collecting foodstuffs and other requisite articles intended for the performance of the marriage. [...] Tanks were built for butter, spirituous beverages, sweet juices of various kinds and rice preparations of various sorts. Different kinds of pickles and side dishes were prepared that might appeal to Śiva’s Gaṇas and the gods. Different kinds of valuable garments purified in fire were kept ready. Gems and jewels of different kinds, gold, silver and other articles (dravya) were gathered duly. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: IAMJ: Importance of Guna amongst Rasapanchaka

All the Dravyas are composed of five Panchamahabhutas (elementary substances) which are considered as the causative factors (karana) for the formation of all dravyas. Charaka defines dravya as the substrate of guna (quality), karma (action) and samavayi-karma (inherent cause). 

Source: DOcFoc: A study on Sarira Gunas and its Application

Each and every Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”) present in this universe have some specific properties by which their recognition by nomenclature and function with characteristics are determined. The Guṇa is related with Dravya with Samavāya relationship, Guṇa exist till the Dravya keeps its existence. To change the state of Dravya, it is required to modify the property or energy of that particular Dravya, which is called as Guṇa.

Describing the Dravya it has been said that the action (karma) and the attribute (Guṇa) are available in it and it is a combinative cause (Samavāyī-kārana). Dravya is receptacle for Guṇa and Guṇa is supported by Dravya. Dravya is asylum for Guṇa. Guṇa is depended upon Dravya. Hence Dravya and Guṇa are called as Ādhāra, Ādheya, and Āśraya, Āśrayī respectively. Guṇa reveals the value of the Dravya.

Regarding Dravya and Guṇa relation, it can be said that though both these Padārthas have their own identity, Samavāya Saṃbandha between them is equally important. Both of them are supplementary to each other. Hence full importance cannot be attributed to any of them. In any Dravya, Guṇas are expressed after various interactions taking place from the Tanmātra stage of the constituting Mahābhūtas of that particular Dravya. Śarīrastha Agni plays a major role in the execution of Guṇas in the body.

After the Saṃskāra (‘superimposing’, or, inhibiting different Guṇas on a Dravy) it can be said that the original Dravya changed as:

  1. Saṃskāra changes the Pāñcabhautic constitution of Dravya.
  2. Due to superimposition, Dravya acquires new Guṇas and as such it performs different functions than the original Dravya.
  3. If it is assumed that Dravya is not changing then the Dravya will try to reject new Guṇas and regain its original nature.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Dravya (द्रव्य) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Dravya).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to “wealth ”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] The roar of a lion, the sound of thunder, and the roar of a royal elephant bring the gain of grain and property. If the voices of children playing, the sound of a conch-shell, or an auspicious [song are heard], it brings wealth (dravya-āgama) to the [donor’s] house.. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to “substances”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 2).—Accordingly, “Even if all beings in heaven and on earth and all substances (dravya) are not created by time, nevertheless time is immutable (avyaya). That is why it truly exists. But as the Dharma ‘time’ is subtle (sūkṣma), it is invisible (adṛṣya) and unknowable (ajñeya). It is by its effects, flowers (puṣpa), fruits (phala), etc., that its existence may be known and its characteristics (lakṣaṇa) may be seen, such as the past year or present year, long ago or recently, slowly or quickly. Although time is not seen, it is possible to know its existence; for it is by seeing the effect (phala) that one knows the existence of the cause (hetu). That is why a Dharma ‘time’ exists, and as this Dharma ‘time’ is immutable (avyaya), it is eternal (nitya)”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism

Dravya (‘substance’): the mass of infinite inseparable attributes (gunas) is called Dravya (substance); Substances are of six kinds:

  1. Soul (Jiva)
  2. Matter (Pudgala)
  3. Ether (Dharmastikaya)
  4. Anti-ether (Adharmastikaya)
  5. Space (Akasha)
  6. Time (Kala)
Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

Dravya (द्रव्य).—According to the Jain philosophy, the universe is made up of six eternal substances: sentient beings or souls (jīva), non-sentient substance or matter (pudgala), principle of motion (dharma), the principle of rest (adharma), space (ākāśa) and time (kāla). The latter five are united as the ajiva (the non-living). As per the Sanskrit etymology, dravya means substances or entity, but it may also mean real or fundamental categories.

Source: Prakrit Bharati Academy: Jainism - the Creed for all Times

Dravya (द्रव्य).—According to the Jaina view the universe is comprised of six types of matter (ṣaḍ–dravya) of which only one is tangible, visible and concrete and the rest are intangible, invisible and abstract. The tangible matter is known as ‘pudgala’, which is responsible for all the visible part of the universe and the five intangible ones, namely–jīva (the animate matter), ākāśa (space), dharma (Ether or the neutral medium of motion or dynamic inertia), adharma (Non–ether or the neutral medium of rest or static inertia) and kāla (time).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

1) Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”).—What is the meaning of substance (dravya)? Substance is an entity which is existent and has modes and attributes. Substance can also be viewed as potentiality.

2) Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”) is the entity which acquires of is acquired by the modes (paryāya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.26.—“The range of sensory knowledge (mati) and scriptural knowledge (śruta) extends to all the six substances (dravya) but not in all their modes”.

What is meant by substance (dravya)? That which exists is substance. That which is an amalgam of attributes and modes is substance. There are six types of substances namely living beings, matter, media of motion and rest, space and time.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Dravya (द्रव्य, “substance”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.2.—The word dravya is formed by the verb dru which means “to attain” or “to acquire”. An entity which attains its modes and qualities attributes without loosing its nature is called substance (dravya). Is there distinction or no distinction between attribute and substance? Substance and attributes cannot be found independent of each other and so are non distinct. However by name, characteristic marks, and usefulness; they are distinct.

There are six types of substances (dravya) namely living beings /souls, matter, medium of motion, medium of rest, space and time. All substances are eternal, existent and non concrete (formless) except matter (rūpa). Even though all the six substances inter penetrate each other, yet due to the quality of avagāhana (nature of accommodation), they do not become one or loose their identity.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to the “objects (of pleasure)”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “The bodies as well as the objects of pleasure (upabhoga-dravya) of the senses are transient like bubbles. In the endless cycle of worldly existence, union and separation in the womb etc. alternate in quick succession. However, the self under delusion considers the persons and objects associated with him as permanent. [...]”.

2) Dravya (द्रव्य) refers to the “physical” (as opposed to Bhāva—‘mental’), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “That, which is the restraint of all influx of karma, is called ‘stopping the influx of karma’. Further, that is divided in two on account of the distinction between what is physical and what is mental (dravya-bhāva-vibheda). That, which is the cessation of the acquisition of karmic material of an ascetic, is declared by those whose sins are removed by meditation to be the physical stopping of the influx of karma”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dravya (द्रव्य).—n (S) Wealth, riches, property. Ex. dravyēṇa sarvē vaśāḥ All bow to money. 2 Substance of thing, any subject or substratum of properties. 3 Elementary substance. Nine kinds are enumerated, --earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, soul, intellect. 4 A drug or any medicament. 5 In grammar. A word, the subject of gender, number, case &c.; as disting. from a particle. 6 An ingredient or a constituent; an article, item, particular. This sense demands, in Prakrit, a designating word prefixed; as auṣadhi-pūjā-sugandhi-hōma-dravya. dravyācē dhuḍakē uḍaviṇēṃ or karaṇēṃ To make ducks and drakes of money. dravyācē ubēnēṃ uḍī māraṇēṃ To be excited or strengthened to bold acts by the inspiriting influence of wealth. dravyāvara tāva dēṇēṃ To peculate or make illicit pickings. dravyācā dhūra nighaṇēṃ (gharānta &c.) g. of s. To be exceedingly rich.

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drāvya (द्राव्य).—a S (Possible, purposed, proper &c.) to be dissolved or melted; soluble, fusible, liquefiable.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dravya (द्रव्य).—n Wealth; an ingredient; element- ary substance; a drug.

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drāvya (द्राव्य).—a Liquable, soluble.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dravya (द्रव्य).—1 A thing, substance, object, matter; the whole creation (adhibhūta); द्रव्यक्रियाकारकाख्यं धूत्वा यान्त्यपुनर्भवम् (dravyakriyākārakākhyaṃ dhūtvā yāntyapunarbhavam) Bhāgavata 12.6.38.

2) The ingredient or material of anything.

3) A material to work upon.

4) A fit or suitable object (to receive instruction &c.); द्रव्यं जिगीषुमधि- गम्य जडात्मनोऽपि (dravyaṃ jigīṣumadhi- gamya jaḍātmano'pi) Mu.7.14; see अद्रव्य (adravya) also.

5) An elementary substance, the substratum of properties; one of the seven categories of the Vaiśeṣikas; (the dravyas are nine:-pṛthivyaptejovāyvākāśakāladigātmamanāṃsi); one of the six of the Jainas (jīva, dharma, adharma, pudgala, kāla and ākāśa).

6) Any possession, wealth, goods, property, money : षड् द्रव्याणि (ṣaḍ dravyāṇi)-'मणयः पशवः पृथिवी वासो दास्यादि काञ्चनम् (maṇayaḥ paśavaḥ pṛthivī vāso dāsyādi kāñcanam)'; उपार्जनं च द्रव्याणां परिमर्दश्च तानि षट् (upārjanaṃ ca dravyāṇāṃ parimardaśca tāni ṣaṭ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.59.64; तत् तस्य किमपि द्रव्यं यो हि यस्य प्रियो जनः (tat tasya kimapi dravyaṃ yo hi yasya priyo janaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 2.19.

7) A medicinal substance or drug.

8) Modesty.

9) Bell-metal, brass or gold; Rām.7.

1) Spirituous liquor.

11) A wager, stake.

12) Anointing, plastering.

13) An ointment.

14) The animal-dye, lac.

15) Extract, gum.

16) A cow; L. D. B.

17) A verse from the Ṛgveda. द्रव्यशब्द- श्छन्दोगैर्ऋक्षु आचरितः (dravyaśabda- śchandogairṛkṣu ācaritaḥ) | ŚB. on MS.7.2.14.

Derivable forms: dravyam (द्रव्यम्).

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Drāvya (द्राव्य).—a.

1) To be made to run or put to flight.

2) Fusible.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dravya (द्रव्य).—mfn.

(-vyaḥ-vyā-vyaṃ) 1. Fit, proper, right, what is or ought to be. 2. Derived from or relating to a tree. n.

(-vyaṃ) 1. Wealth, property. 2. Substance, thing, the receptacle or substratum of properties, &c. 3. Elementary substance, nine kinds of which are reckoned; viz. earth, water, fire, air, æther, time, space, soul, and intellect. 4. Brass. 5. A stake, a wager. 6. A drug, a medicament, any thing. used in medicine. 7. Anointing, plastering. 8. Lac, the animal dye. 9. Extract, gum, resin, &c. derived from vegetables. 10. Modesty, propriety. 11. Spirituous liquor. E. dru a tree, affix yat .

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Drāvya (द्राव्य).—mfn.

(-vyaḥ-vyā-vyaṃ) 1. To be set in motion, to be put to flight, &c. 2. Fusible, liquefiable, to be made fluid. E. dru to go, ṇyat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dravya (द्रव्य).— (probably akin to 3. dru), n. 1. Object, thing, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 113; 8, 34. 2. Substance, Bhāṣāp. 1. 3. Property, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 114. 4. A fit object.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dravya (द्रव्य).—1. [neuter] property, wealth; substance, thing, object, [especially] worthy object or fit person.

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Dravya (द्रव्य).—2. [adjective] belonging to a tree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dravya (द्रव्य):—[from drava] 1. dravya n. a substance, thing, object, [Upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the ingredients or materials of anything, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

3) [v.s. ...] medicinal substance or drug, [Suśruta]

4) [v.s. ...] ([philosophy]) elementary substance (9 in the Nyāya, viz. pṛthivī, ap, tejas, vāyu, ākāśa, kāla, diś, ātman, manas; 6 with Jainas, viz. jīva, dharma, adharma, pudgala, kāla, ākāśa)

5) [v.s. ...] ([grammar]) single object or person, individual (cf. eka-)

6) [v.s. ...] fit object or person (cf. a-.)

7) [v.s. ...] object of possession, wealth, goods, money, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] gold, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 18, 34 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

9) [v.s. ...] bell-metal, brass, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] ointment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] spirituous liquor, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a stake, a wager, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) 2. dravya mfn. ([from] 4. dru) derived from or relating to a tree, [Pāṇini 4-3, 161]

14) tree-like or corresponding to a tree, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa x, 2]

15) n. lac, gum, resin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Drāvya (द्राव्य):—[from drāvayāṇa > drāva] mfn. to be made to run or put to flight, [Horace H. Wilson]

17) [v.s. ...] fusible, liquefiable.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dravya (द्रव्य):—(vyaṃ) 1. n. Wealth, substance, thing; brass; a drug; a wager; Lac; gum; spirits; modesty. a. Fit, right; of a tree.

2) Drāvya (द्राव्य):—[(vyaḥ-vyā-vyaṃ) a.] That may be put to flight; fusible, liquifiable.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dravya (द्रव्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Davia, Daviya, Davva.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dravya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dravya (द्रव्य) [Also spelled dravy]:—(nm) substance, matter; money; (a) material, substantial; -[saṃcaya] amassing/accumulating wealth.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dravya (ದ್ರವ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the physical matter of which a thing consists; material; a substance.

2) [noun] the real or essential part or element of anything; the basic matter.

3) [noun] abundance of valuable material possessions or resources; riches; wealth.

4) [noun] official monetary currency; money.

5) [noun] an ancient monetary coin.

6) [noun] an idol made of wood.

7) [noun] a medicinal substance or a medicinal herb.

8) [noun] (arith.) a symbol for the number six.

9) [noun] (phil.) an elementary substance.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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