Ramayana, Rāmāyaṇa: 11 definitions

Introduction

Ramayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (R) next»] — Ramayana in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण).—General. Rāmāyaṇa is considered to be the first poetic composition in the world or at least in India, and hence it is called the Ādi Kāvya (First Epic). It is an epic as it contains descriptions and references to ancient themes. Vālmīki is its author, and hence Vālmīki is known as the 'Ādi kavi" also. Vālmīki and Śrī Rāma were contemporaries. During his life in exile in the forest Rāma visited Vālmīkī’s āśrama. It was in this āśrama that Sītā lived after being abandoned by Rāma. The connection in many ways of the life of Vālmīki with the 'Rāma story' was an incentive for him to write the Rāmāyaṇa. (See full article at Story of Rāmāyaṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Ramayana is one of the two great Indian epics in Indian literature. It relates the life, activities, trials and achievements of Lord Rama. The great epic of Ramayana is traditionally attributed to Valmiki, who is considered to be the first poet of India. Ramayana presents the story of King Rama. The great epic comprises of 24000 couplets in seven books which give an account of the royal birth of Rama and his other three brothers, the loss of his throne and his victory over evil.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

The Ramayana is an ancient Sanskrit epic ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon (smṛti), considered to be based on historical events (itihāsa). The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of India, the other being the Mahabharata. It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife and the ideal king.

The Epic is traditionally divided into several major kāṇḍas or books, that deal chronologically with the major events in the life of Rama:

  1. Bāla Kāṇḍa (book of childhood)
  2. Ayodhya Kāṇḍa (book of Ayodhya)
  3. Araṇya Kāṇḍa (book of the forest)
  4. Kishkindha Kāṇḍa (book of the monkey kingdom)
  5. Sundara Kāṇḍa (book of beauty)
  6. Yuddha Kāṇḍa (book of war) also known as Lanka Kanda
  7. Uttara Kāṇḍa (last book)

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Reference to this Epic Poem does not occur in the Pitaka or in the early books.

Even in the Commentaries reference thereto is rare (E.g., DA.i.76; MA.i.163, as Sitaharana), and then it is only condemned as purposeless talk (niratthakakatha).

Only in the later Chronicles, such as the Culavamasa (E.g. Cv.lxiv.42), is the work actually mentioned by name. See also Rama (5).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rāmāyaṇa (रामायण).—n (S) An epic poem by Walmiki, recording the exploits and adventures of Rama. 2 A common name of several poems on the life and acts of Rama. 3 fig. A long story; a long yarn; any prolix and tedious tale. 4 Applied also in the sense of Litter, a disorderly strew; or a trampled or rumpled mass. Ex. hyā pōrānēṃ dhānyācēṃ āṇi kāgadāpatrācēṃ rā0 kēlēṃ; vāsana sōḍūna pāṅgharuṇāṃ- cyā ghaḍyāñcēṃ rā0 karūna ṭākalēṃ. tākāpuratēṃ rā0 (From a little story.) Service or performance according to the measure of the recompense.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

rāmāyaṇa (रामायण).—n An epic poem by vālmīki. Fig. A long story.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. The first epic poem of the Hindus, written by the poet Valmiki, recording the adventures of Rama, the son of Dasa Ratha, sovereign of Oudh. 2. A name of several poems on the life and adventures of Rama. E. rāma the prince, and ayana abode.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण).—i. e. rāma-ayana (or rather + āyana), n. The name of a renowned epic poem, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 110, 9.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण).—[feminine] ī relating to Rāma; [neuter] [Name] of an epic poem.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Adbhutarāmāyaṇa, Adhyātmarāmāyaṇa, Ānandarāmāyaṇa, Campūrāmāyaṇa, Vāsiṣṭharāmāyaṇa.

2) Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण):—by Vālmīki. Jones. 403. [Mackenzie Collection] 56. 102. Io. 1788-91. 1793. 2718 (Uttara). W. p. 118-23. Oxf. 5^b. 343^a. Paris. (B 20-22. 210. 222-24. D 2. 298. Gr. 11-13. Tel. 1. 43. 44. 48. 50). Khn. 24. K. 28 (and—[commentary]). B. 2, 64. 66. Report. Clxx. Ben. 57-59. Tu7b. 24. Kāṭm. 2. Pheh. 4 (Uttara). Rādh. 40. Oudh. Xi, 18. Xiii, 38. 40. Xv, 30. 32. Xvi, 52. 54. 56. Xvii, 14. Bonn. 125 -27. Burnell. 177^a. Bhk. 13. Poona. 363. 417. 425. Ii, 14. 15. 26. 27. 61-67. 81. 105-11. 264. Taylor. 1, 295. 296. Oppert. 8. 105. 604. 722. 917. 1104. 1556. 1558 (Uttara). 1642 (Sundara). 1705. 1724 (Sundara). 2012-14. 2147 (Yuddha). 2155 (Sundara). 2206. 2216 (Sundara). 2253. 2421. 2565 (Uttara). 2686. 2687. 2774 (Uttara). 2985. 3470. 3679. 3737. 3841. 4439. 6313 (Uttara). 6482 (Sundara). 6494 (Araṇya). 6652. 6779. 6837. 6988. 7117. 7146. 7383. 7571. 7628. 7776. Ii, 33 (Uttara). 224. 332 (Uttara). 353. 579. 662. 849. 977. 1368. 1418. 1504. 1699. 1802. 1844. 1903. 1940. 1986 (Bāla). 1996. 2141. 2168. 2200. 2516. 2573. 2592 (Uttara). 2612. 2640. 2668. 2680. 2684. 2698. 2853. 3013. 3249. 3385. 3474. 3529. 3598 (Uttara). 3784. 3899 (Sundara). 3933. 4348. 4428. 5124. 5780. 5821 (Uttara). 5999. 6141. 6177. 6403. 6551. 6637. 7031. 7237. 7332 (Sundara). 7438. 7481 (Ayodhyā). 7492 (Āraṇya). 7504 (Uttara). 7527 (Kiṣkindhā). 7650 (Bāla). 7716 (Yuddha). 7840 (Sundara). 8335. 8441. 8519. 8582. 8685. 8720 (Uttara). 8748 (Bāla). 8765 (Yuddha). 8791 (Sundara). 8935. 9085. 9506. 9646. 9749. 9791. 10062. 10071 (Sundara). 10174. 10354. Rice. 66. 68. Peters. 2, 186. Bp. 259 (Ayodhyā and Sundara). Proceed. Asb. 1869, 224.
—[commentary] Oppert. 4386. 4441. Ii, 337. 347.
—[commentary] Kataka. Burnell. 178^b. Oppert. 1780. 1781. Ii, 7482. 7513. 7723.
—[commentary] Caturarthadīpikā. Oppert. Ii, 7084.
—[commentary] Taniślokī. Oppert. 226. 6345. Ii, 934. 2049. 3153.
—[commentary] Tilaka Theh 4.
—[commentary] Rāmāyaṇavirodhaparihāra. Oppert. Ii, 5555.
—[commentary] Rāmāyaṇatātparyavirodhabhañjinī. Oppert. 1557. 5164. Ii, 2094.
—[commentary] Vālmīkihṛdaya. Oppert. 5348.
—[commentary] Vidvanmanoramā. Oppert. Ii, 7746.
—[commentary] Śṛṅgārasudhākara. Oppert. 6249.
—[commentary] Subodhinī. Oppert. Ii, 8985.
—[commentary] Setu. Pheh. 4.
—[commentary] by Īśvara Dīkṣita. Oppert. 5148. 5777 (ny). 6311 (vedānta). Ii, 7238. 7500. 8719.
—[commentary] by Umāmaheśvara. Oppert. Ii, 4885.
—[commentary] Śṛṅgāratilaka by Govindarāja. Oudh. Ix, 4 (Bhūṣaṇa). Xvi, 52. 54. 56 (Bhūṣaṇa). Oppert. 225. 378. 2015. 2315. 4460. 5147. 5423. 5524. 5784. 6331. 7297. Ii, 225. 339. 354. 2743. 3495. 3530. 5781. 6142. 6796. 7546. 8769. 10063. Rice. 68.
—[commentary] Dharmakūṭa by Tryambaka Yajvan. Burnell. 179^b.
—[commentary] by Devarāma Bhaṭṭa. Oudh. Xiii, 38. 40. Sb. 210.
—[commentary] by Nāgeśa. Ben. 58. 59. Rādh. 40. Oudh. Xi, 18.
—[commentary] by Nṛsiṃha. Taylor. 1, 141.
—[commentary] by Maheśvaratīrtha. Io. 1793. L. 1268. 1269. Oudh. Ix, 4. Bhk. 13. Poona. 417. 425. Ii, 14. 15. 27. 61-67. Taylor. 1, 296. Oppert. 5128. Ii, 9790. Peters. 2, 186.
—[commentary] Tilaka by Rāmavarman or Rāma Śarman. Io. 426-32. Burnell. 179^b. Oppert. Ii, 4886. Peters. 2, 186. His
—[commentary] is based on the Kataka and on that of Maheśvaratīrtha, whom he calls Tīrtha.
—[commentary] Rāmāyaṇakūṭaṭīkā by Rāmānandatīrtha. Oppert. 227. 1207. 6307. 6354. 6587. Mentioned L. 1017. By Oppert. attributed to Ānandatīrtha.
—[commentary] by Rāmānuja (?). Oppert. 231. 2689. 5149. 6177. Ii, 7724. Rice. 68. Perhaps, the
—[commentary] by Rāmavarman.
—[commentary] by Rāmāśramācārya. Oudh. Xv, 30. 32.
—[commentary] Manoharā by Lokanātha. L. 1259-62. Oppert. Ii, 7651.
—[commentary] Vivekatilaka by Varadarāja. Burnell. 179^b. Taylor. 1, 169. Oppert. 2986. Ii, 7754.
—[commentary] by Vidyānātha. Oppert. Ii, 8770.
—[commentary] Vālmīkitātparyataraṇi by Viśvanātha. Oudh. V, 6.
—[commentary] by Vaidyanātha. Burnell. 179^b. Oppert. 6177. Ii, 9750.
—[commentary] by Śivarāma Saṃnyāsin. Rādh. 40.
—[commentary] Rāmāyaṇasaptabimba by Hayagrīva Śāstrin Oppert. 370.
—[commentary] by Hari Paṇḍita. Oppert. 221. Ii, 7851. Rāmāyaṇe Ādityahṛdayastotra (Yuddhakāṇḍa ch. 106). Ben. 45. Burnell. 201^b. Taylor. 1, 427.
—Citrakūṭamāhātmya. [Mackenzie Collection] 71. Oudh. Viii, 36.

3) Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण):—by Vālmīki. Cu. add. 2108 (Araṇya). Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 77. Hz. 1. 75. 103. 115 (Uttara). 207 (2-7). 247 (Uttara). 318. 387 (Uttara). 460. 561. 594. Io. 426-32. 450 (Uttara). 1236 (Uttara). 1275-76 (1-5). 1381 (Bāla). 1588 (Uttara). 1788 (Bāla, Araṇya 1-3, Sundara up to 24, 18. Uttara [fragmentary]). 1789-92 (1-4). 2148-49. 2718 (Uttara adhy. 13-106). 2771 (Uttara). 2855 (up to Yuddha 61, 27). 2883 (Bāla and Ayodhyā). Oudh. Xx, 46 (Sundara). 56. Rgb. 123 (Ayodhyā).
—[commentary] [anonymous] Hz. 583. Io. 897 (on Sundara).
—[commentary] Caturarthī. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 77.
—[commentary] Vidvanmanorañjanī. ibid.
—[commentary] Vālmīkihṛdaya by Ahobalācārya. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 83.
—[commentary] by Govindarāja. ibid. (Maṇimañjīra on Bālakāṇḍa; Maṇimekhalā on Ayodhyākāṇḍa). Hz. 243 (Araṇya up to Sundara). 383 (Yuddha). 391 (Ayodhyā). 462 (Araṇya and Kiṣkindhā). 582 (3-6). Oudh. Xxi, 42 (Bhūṣaṇa). 44 (Bhūṣaṇa).
—[commentary] by Devarāma Bhaṭṭa. Stein 198 (Kiṣkindhā).
—[commentary] by Nṛsiṃha. Hz. 536 (Ayodhyā).
—[commentary] Virodhabhañjanī by Brahmavidyādīkṣita. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 77. Hz. 305. 375. 583. Extr. 76.
—[commentary] Tattvadīpikā by Maheśvara Tīrtha. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 30. 77. Hz. 7. 22 (Bāla). 217 (Ayodhyā). 653 (except Sundara). Io. 1275-76 (1-5). 1381 (Bāla). 1788 (Bāla, Araṇya 1-3, Sundara up to 24, 8. Uttara [fragmentary]). 2148 -49. Stein 197 ([fragmentary]).
—[commentary] by Rāmacandra Sarasvatī. Quoted in his Bhagavadgītāṭīkā, Hz. Extr. 59.
—[commentary] by Rāmacandrānanda Sarasvatī. Hz. 239 (Sundara).
—[commentary] Tilaka by Rāmavarman or Rāma Śarman. Io. 426-32. 1789-92. Stein 198.
—[commentary] by Rāmānuja. Gov. Or. Libr. Madras 77 (Sundara).
—[commentary] Manoharā by Lokanātha. Io. 816 (5-7).
—[commentary] by Vimalabodha Quoted by Lokanātha, L. 1259.
—[commentary] by Sarvajña Quoted by Lokanātha, L. 1259. Rāmāyaṇe Citrakūṭayātrā. Peters. 4, 13.
—Saṃkṣiptarāmāyaṇa. Stein 198.

4) Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण):—Ulwar 861. 862 (and—[commentary]).

5) Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण):—Ak 224 (without the Yuddhakāṇḍa). 225 (Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa inc.). 226 (Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa and C.). 227 (Sundarakāṇḍa and C. inc.). As p. 163. Bc 93. Bd. 176 (Ayodhyākāṇḍa). Cs 4, 185. 186 (Araṇyakāṇḍa). 187 (Bālakāṇḍa). 188 (Ayodhyākāṇḍa). 189 (Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa). 224 (Uttarakāṇḍa). 305 (dto. inc.). 307 (inc.). Hz. 679. L.. 191 (Bālakāṇḍa). 192 (Bālakāṇḍa inc.). 193 (Sundarakāṇḍa). 194 and 195 (Yuddhakāṇḍa). 196 (Uttarakāṇḍa). Śg. 1, 37 (Sundarakāṇḍa). 2, 282 (Uttarakāṇḍa). Whish 54 (without Uttarakāṇḍa). 56 (Uttarakāṇḍa. C. [anonymous] Whish 55, 1 (as far as 1, 1, 83). C. Kataka, correctly Amṛtakataka. Bc 295. 415 (Bālakāṇḍa). 438. Hz. 1496 (Sundarakāṇḍa). Śg. 1, 38 ([fragmentary]). 2, 284 (Araṇyakāṇḍa). C. Taniślokī, a C. on select verses. Hz. 718. C. by Govindarāja. Bd. 176 (Araṇyakāṇḍa). C. Viṣamapadavyākhyā by Devarāma Bhaṭṭa. Cs 4, 190. C. Tattvadīpikā by Maheśvaratīrtha. As p. 164. C. by Rāmānuja. Śg. 2, 283. Whish 10 (Bālakāṇḍa and Ayodhyākāṇḍa). 63 (Araṇyakāṇḍa, Kiṣkindhākāṇḍa and chapters 1-3 of the Sundarakāṇḍa). 68 (Yuddhakāṇḍa). C. Manoharā by Lokanātha. As p. 164. C. by Veṅkaṭeśa. Bc 13. Rāmāyaṇe Ādityahṛdayastotram. L.. 197, 1. Bṛhadrāmāyaṇe Citrakūṭamāhātmyam. Hpr. 2, 64.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Rāmāyaṇa (रामायण):—[from rāma] a See rāmāyaṇa, [column]3.

2) [from rāma] b mf(ī)n. relating to Rāma (Dāśarathi), [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati]

3) [from rāma] n. (ramāyaṇa) Name of Vālmīki’s celebrated poem, describing the ‘goings’ ([ayana]) of Rāma and Sitā (it contains about 24000 verses in 7 books called Kāṇḍas, viz. 1. Bāla-kāṇḍa or Ādi-k°; 2. Ayodhyā-k°; 3. Araṇya-k°; 4. Kiṣ-kindhyā-k°; 5. Sundara-k°; 6. Yuddha-k°; 7. Uttara-k°; part of the 1st book and the 7th are thought to be comparatively modern additions; the latter gives the history of Rāma and Sītā after their re-union and installation as king and queen of Ayodhyā, afterwards dramatized by Bhava-bhūti in the Uttara-rāma-caritra; Rāma’s character, as described in the Rāmāyaṇa, is that of a perfect man, who bears suffering and self-denial with superhuman patience; the author, Vālmīki, was probably a Brāhman connected with the royal family of Ayodhyā; and although there are three recensions of the poem, all of them go back to a lost original recension, the ground work of which, contained in books 2-6, in spite of many amplifications and interpolations, may be traced back to one man, and does not like the Mahābhārata, represent the production of different epochs and minds), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 335]).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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