Parinama, aka: Pariṇāma, Parīṇāma; 10 Definition(s)
Parinama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)
Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) in Sāṃkhya, means ‘modification’, ‘change’ or ‘flux’. There is no pariṇāma in puruṣa, but there is constant pariṇāma in prakṛti. Pariṇāma may, again, be of two types, according to Sāṃkhya:
- sadṛśa or svarūpa (homogeneous)
- and visadṛśa or virūpa (heterogeneous).
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “commutation”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When what is superimposed serves the purpose in hand as being identified with the subject of superimposition, it is Pariṇāma or commutation, which is two-fold as being appositional or nonappositional.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—The figure pariṇāma is very much associated with rūpaka. It is Ruyyaka who has first inducted it in Sanskrit Alaṃkāraśāstra. Ruyyaka’s conception of pariṇāma has been accepted by later Ālaṃkārikas. Jayadeva in his Candrāloka defines pariṇāma with slight modification.
Cirañjīva has defined pariṇāma in a different way. He says—“pariṇāmo bhavedrūpyādrūpake vyavadhānage”.—“Where upon the superimposition takes place it is called rūpya. Whose superimposition happens it is called rūpaka”. When the distinction of rūpaka from rūpya takes place, it is the figure pariṇāma.
Example of the pariṇāma-alaṃkāra:—
gamanodyamabhāji jīviteśe vanitānāṃ namadānanaṃ sthitānām |
aruṇāmbujaśobhilocanāntarjaladhāraiva babhūva durdinaśrīḥ ||
“When the lord of life or beloved was about to make effort for departing, the flow of tears at the end of their eyes shining like red lotuses of the women who were staying with face downcast became the beauty of the rainyday”.
Notes: Here the flow of tears upon which the superimposition will take place is rūpya and the grace of the rainyday is the thing to be superimposed or rūpaka. From the statement—“…jaladhāraiva babhūva durdinaśriḥ”—The flow of tears became the grace of the rainy-day—it is evident that there is a difference between the flow of tears (that is rūpya) and the grace of the rainy-day (that is rūpaka). So according to Cirañjīva it is an example of the figure pariṇāma.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
General definition (in Jainism)
Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “change”).—Just like vartanā, pariṇāma also cannot be understood without kāla. Whenever any substance undergoes transmutation, we naturally get indication of its time-duration of transmutation.Source: HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance
Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of pariṇāma? Continuity of existence through gradual changes (without leaving their nature) in their modifications is pariṇāma.
According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.42, a state / condition of the substance (which is continuously changing) at any time time-instant is called mode (pariṇāma). Its other name is paryāya. How many types of mode are there? It is of two types namely without a beginning and with a beginning. Mode of substance is with a beginning and modes of the generic attributes are without a beginning.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
pariṇāma : (m.) ripening; change; development; digestion.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pariṇāma, (fr. pari+nam, cp. class Sk. pariṇāma in all meanings) “bending round, ” i.e. 1. change, alteration, in utu° (sudden) change of season, unseasonable weather, with ref. to illnesses caused by such (°ja ābādhā)=illness arising from the change of season A. II, 87; III, 131; V, 110; Nd2 3041; Miln. 112, 135 sq. , 304; Vism. 31.—2. alteration of food, digestion, in phrase sammā-pariṇāmaṃ gacchati M. I, 188; S. I, 168; A. III, 30; cp. MVastu I. 211.—3. ripening Miln. 93. ‹-› 4. course, development, fulfilment, in special sense: dispensation, destiny J. V, 171; Pv IV. 325; PvA. 252, 254.—Cp. vi°. (Page 426)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m (S) End, result, conclusion, consequence, fruit, product. Ex. pāpācā pa0 naraka. 2 Used laxly, but very commonly, in the sense of Happy completion or accomplishment (as of a business, work, project); also of a successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con., and v lāga. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhijē kēlyāvāñcūna pa0 nāhīṃ; pāñcaśēṃ rupayē dilyāvāñcūna mājhā pa0 lāgaṇāra nāhīṃ. 3 Change of form or state. Ex. udakācā dhūmarūpa pa0 hōūna tyācā punaḥ parjanyarūpa pa0 hōtō.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m End, result. Happy comple- tion. A successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhujē kēlyāvāñcūna pa?B nāhī Change of form.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Pariṇāma (परिणाम) or Parīṇāma (परीणाम).—
1) Alteration, change, transformation.
2) Digestion; अन्नं न सम्यक् परिणाममेति (annaṃ na samyak pariṇāmameti) Suśr.; भुक्तस्य परिणामहेतुरौदर्यम् (bhuktasya pariṇāmaheturaudaryam) T.S.; Pt.4.22.
3) Result, consequence, issue, effect; अप्रियस्यापि पथ्यस्य परिणामः सुखावहः (apriyasyāpi pathyasya pariṇāmaḥ sukhāvahaḥ) H.2.124; Mk.3.1; परिणामसुखे गरीयसि (pariṇāmasukhe garīyasi) (vacasi auṣadhe ca) Ki.2.4; Bg.18.37,38.
4) Ripening, maturity, full development; उपैति शस्यं परिणामरम्यताम् (upaiti śasyaṃ pariṇāmaramyatām) Ki.4.22; फलभर- परिणामश्यामजम्बू (phalabhara- pariṇāmaśyāmajambū) &c. U.2.2; Māl.9.24.
5) End, termination, conclusion, close, decline; दिवसाः परिणामरमणीयाः (divasāḥ pariṇāmaramaṇīyāḥ) Ś.1.3; वयःपरिणामपाण्डुरशिरसम् (vayaḥpariṇāmapāṇḍuraśirasam) K.1; परिणाममुपैति दिवसः (pariṇāmamupaiti divasaḥ) K.254 'the day is drawing to a close'.
6) Old age; परिणामे हि दिलीपवंशजाः (pariṇāme hi dilīpavaṃśajāḥ) R.8.11.
7) Lapse (of time).
8) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech allied to रूपक (rūpaka), by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared. (The Chandrāloka thus defines and illustrates it:-pariṇāmaḥ kriyārthaścedviṣayī viṣayātmanā | prasannena dṛgabjena vīkṣate madirekṣaṇā || 5.18; see R. G. also under pariṇāma).
Derivable forms: pariṇāmaḥ (परिणामः), parīṇāmaḥ (परीणामः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 30 books and stories containing Parinama, Pariṇāma or Parīṇāma. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 5: Treatment of various afflictions (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 35 - Treatment for chronic diarrhea (7): Vajra-dhara rasa < [Chapter III - Jvaratisara fever with diarrhoea]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 3 - Śaṅkara’s Defence of Vedānta < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 28 - Prakāśānanda (a.d. 1550—1600) < [Chapter XI - The Śaṅkara School of Vedānta (continued)]
Part 7 - Growth and Disease < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CLXXXVI - The Nidanam of Sula neuralgic pain etc < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCXVIII - Various Recipes of fumigation-compounds, etc. < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter CCV - Various other medicinal Recipes (continued) < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara (by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)