Parinama, Pariṇāma, Parīṇāma: 15 definitions


Parinama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) in Sāṃkhya, means ‘modification’, ‘change’ or ‘flux’. There is no pariṇāma in puruṣa, but there is constant pariṇāma in prakṛti. Pariṇāma may, again, be of two types, according to Sāṃkhya:

  1. sadṛśa or svarūpa (homogeneous)
  2. and visadṛśa or virūpa (heterogeneous).
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Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “commutation”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When what is superimposed serves the purpose in hand as being identified with the subject of superimposition, it is Pariṇāma or commutation, which is two-fold as being appositional or nonappositional.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure pariṇāma is very much associated with rūpaka. It is Ruyyaka who has first inducted it in Sanskrit Alaṃkāraśāstra. Ruyyaka’s conception of pariṇāma has been accepted by later Ālaṃkārikas. Jayadeva in his Candrāloka defines pariṇāma with slight modification.

Cirañjīva has defined pariṇāma in a different way. He says—“pariṇāmo bhavedrūpyādrūpake vyavadhānage”.—“Where upon the superimposition takes place it is called rūpya. Whose superimposition happens it is called rūpaka”. When the distinction of rūpaka from rūpya takes place, it is the figure pariṇāma.

Example of the pariṇāma-alaṃkāra:—

gamanodyamabhāji jīviteśe vanitānāṃ namadānanaṃ sthitānām |
aruṇāmbujaśobhilocanāntarjaladhāraiva babhūva durdinaśrīḥ ||

“When the lord of life or beloved was about to make effort for departing, the flow of tears at the end of their eyes shining like red lotuses of the women who were staying with face downcast became the beauty of the rainyday”.

Notes: Here the flow of tears upon which the superimposition will take place is rūpya and the grace of the rainyday is the thing to be superimposed or rūpaka. From the statement—“…jaladhāraiva babhūva durdinaśriḥ”—The flow of tears became the grace of the rainy-day—it is evident that there is a difference between the flow of tears (that is rūpya) and the grace of the rainy-day (that is rūpaka). So according to Cirañjīva it is an example of the figure pariṇāma.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “change”).—Just like vartanā, pariṇāma also cannot be understood without kāla. Whenever any substance undergoes transmutation, we naturally get indication of its time-duration of transmutation.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of pariṇāma? Continuity of existence through gradual changes (without leaving their nature) in their modifications is pariṇāma.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.42, a state / condition of the substance (which is continuously changing) at any time time-instant is called mode (pariṇāma). Its other name is paryāya. How many types of mode are there? It is of two types namely without a beginning and with a beginning. Mode of substance is with a beginning and modes of the generic attributes are without a beginning.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Parinama in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

pariṇāma : (m.) ripening; change; development; digestion.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma, (fr. pari+nam, cp. class Sk. pariṇāma in all meanings) “bending round, ” i.e. 1. change, alteration, in utu° (sudden) change of season, unseasonable weather, with ref. to illnesses caused by such (°ja ābādhā)=illness arising from the change of season A. II, 87; III, 131; V, 110; Nd2 3041; Miln. 112, 135 sq. , 304; Vism. 31.—2. alteration of food, digestion, in phrase sammā-pariṇāmaṃ gacchati M. I, 188; S. I, 168; A. III, 30; cp. MVastu I. 211.—3. ripening Miln. 93. ‹-› 4. course, development, fulfilment, in special sense: dispensation, destiny J. V, 171; Pv IV. 325; PvA. 252, 254.—Cp. vi°. (Page 426)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m (S) End, result, conclusion, consequence, fruit, product. Ex. pāpācā pa0 naraka. 2 Used laxly, but very commonly, in the sense of Happy completion or accomplishment (as of a business, work, project); also of a successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con., and v lāga. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhijē kēlyāvāñcūna pa0 nāhīṃ; pāñcaśēṃ rupayē dilyāvāñcūna mājhā pa0 lāgaṇāra nāhīṃ. 3 Change of form or state. Ex. udakācā dhūmarūpa pa0 hōūna tyācā punaḥ parjanyarūpa pa0 hōtō.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m End, result. Happy comple- tion. A successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhujē kēlyāvāñcūna pa?B nāhī Change of form.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) or Parīṇāma (परीणाम).—

1) Alteration, change, transformation.

2) Digestion; अन्नं न सम्यक् परिणाममेति (annaṃ na samyak pariṇāmameti) Suśr.; भुक्तस्य परिणामहेतुरौदर्यम् (bhuktasya pariṇāmaheturaudaryam) T.S.; Pt.4.22.

3) Result, consequence, issue, effect; अप्रियस्यापि पथ्यस्य परिणामः सुखावहः (apriyasyāpi pathyasya pariṇāmaḥ sukhāvahaḥ) H.2.124; Mk.3.1; परिणामसुखे गरीयसि (pariṇāmasukhe garīyasi) (vacasi auṣadhe ca) Ki.2.4; Bg.18.37,38.

4) Ripening, maturity, full development; उपैति शस्यं परिणामरम्यताम् (upaiti śasyaṃ pariṇāmaramyatām) Ki.4.22; फलभर- परिणामश्यामजम्बू (phalabhara- pariṇāmaśyāmajambū) &c. U.2.2; Māl.9.24.

5) End, termination, conclusion, close, decline; दिवसाः परिणामरमणीयाः (divasāḥ pariṇāmaramaṇīyāḥ) Ś.1.3; वयःपरिणामपाण्डुरशिरसम् (vayaḥpariṇāmapāṇḍuraśirasam) K.1; परिणाममुपैति दिवसः (pariṇāmamupaiti divasaḥ) K.254 'the day is drawing to a close'.

6) Old age; परिणामे हि दिलीपवंशजाः (pariṇāme hi dilīpavaṃśajāḥ) R.8.11.

7) Lapse (of time).

8) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech allied to रूपक (rūpaka), by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared. (The Chandrāloka thus defines and illustrates it:-pariṇāmaḥ kriyārthaścedviṣayī viṣayātmanā | prasannena dṛgabjena vīkṣate madirekṣaṇā || 5.18; see R. G. also under pariṇāma).

Derivable forms: pariṇāmaḥ (परिणामः), parīṇāmaḥ (परीणामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम).—nt. (= Sanskrit id., m.; also Pali; and compare next), development, ripening, maturing: (sc. bodhisattva-) bhūmīnāṃ pariṇāmāni Mahāvastu i.77.3 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) or Paraṇāma.—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Change of form or state. 2. Maturity, fulness, ripeness. 3. End, last stage or state. 4. Digestion. 5. Result. 6. A figure of speech closely resembling Rupaka and minutely distinguished by it; it consists in transferring the properties of any object to that with which it is compared. E. pari before, nam to bend, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pariṇāma (परिणाम):—[=pari-ṇāma] [from pari-ṇam] m. change, alteration, transformation into ([instrumental case]), development, evolution, [Sāṃkhyakārikā; Yoga-sūtra; Purāṇa; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] ripeness, maturity, [Kirātārjunīya; Uttararāma-carita; Mālatīmādhava]

3) [v.s. ...] alteration of food, digestion, [Suśruta; Tarkasaṃgraha]

4) [v.s. ...] withering, fading, [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati]

5) [v.s. ...] lapse (of time), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] decline (of age), growing old, [ib.; Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] result, consequence, issue, end ([in the beginning of a compound] and me ind. finally, at last, in the end), [Kāvya literature]

8) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a figure of speech by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared, [Kuvalayānanda]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of a holy man, [Religious Thought and Life in India 269]

10) Parīṇāma (परीणाम):—[=parī-ṇāma] [from parī] m. (√nam) course or lapse of time, [Rāmāyaṇa] (cf. pari-ṇ).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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