Parinama, Pariṇāma, Parīṇāma: 29 definitions


Parinama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Samkhya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) in Sāṃkhya, means ‘modification’, ‘change’ or ‘flux’. There is no pariṇāma in puruṣa, but there is constant pariṇāma in prakṛti. Pariṇāma may, again, be of two types, according to Sāṃkhya:

  1. sadṛśa or svarūpa (homogeneous)
  2. and visadṛśa or virūpa (heterogeneous).
Samkhya book cover
context information

Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “commutation”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When what is superimposed serves the purpose in hand as being identified with the subject of superimposition, it is Pariṇāma or commutation, which is two-fold as being appositional or nonappositional.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).The figure pariṇāma is very much associated with rūpaka. It is Ruyyaka who has first inducted it in Sanskrit Alaṃkāraśāstra. Ruyyaka’s conception of pariṇāma has been accepted by later Ālaṃkārikas. Jayadeva in his Candrāloka defines pariṇāma with slight modification.

Cirañjīva has defined pariṇāma in a different way. He says—“pariṇāmo bhavedrūpyādrūpake vyavadhānage”.—“Where upon the superimposition takes place it is called rūpya. Whose superimposition happens it is called rūpaka”. When the distinction of rūpaka from rūpya takes place, it is the figure pariṇāma.

Example of the pariṇāma-alaṃkāra:—

gamanodyamabhāji jīviteśe vanitānāṃ namadānanaṃ sthitānām |
aruṇāmbujaśobhilocanāntarjaladhāraiva babhūva durdinaśrīḥ ||

“When the lord of life or beloved was about to make effort for departing, the flow of tears at the end of their eyes shining like red lotuses of the women who were staying with face downcast became the beauty of the rainyday”.

Notes: Here the flow of tears upon which the superimposition will take place is rūpya and the grace of the rainyday is the thing to be superimposed or rūpaka. From the statement—“…jaladhāraiva babhūva durdinaśriḥ”—The flow of tears became the grace of the rainy-day—it is evident that there is a difference between the flow of tears (that is rūpya) and the grace of the rainy-day (that is rūpaka). So according to Cirañjīva it is an example of the figure pariṇāma.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Pariṇāma (परिणाम):—Quantity; one among 10 paradi guna

2) 1. Effect of time 2. Transformation

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to “transformation”, according to the Pauṣkarāgama, which is said to be a subsidiary (upabheda) of the Pārameśvara, itself one of the 28 tantras or āgamas recognized as authoritative by Śaivas.—One of the key passages examined by Appaya (ad Brahmamīmāṃsābhāṣya 2.2.38) is from the Pauṣkarāgama Vidyāpāda 4-5: “Just like Śiva, [His] śakti is not a material cause for it has the nature of consciousness. Transformation [i.e., pariṇāma] is taught [to be possible] for what is insentient; it is not possible for what has the nature of consciousness”.—(Cf. Kiraṇatantra 2.26)

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parinama in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to “transformation”, according to the Viṣṇudharma verse 96.1 and 4.—Accordingly, “O Brahmin, you mentioned that this Brahma is eternal and from it this whole world [consisting of] moving and unmoving [things] arose [...]. Therefore, how could the [ever-changing] world arise from the eternal and omnipresent [Brahma], which is free from transformation (pariṇāma-vivarjita) and even devoid of quality?”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

[«previous next»] — Parinama in Arts glossary
Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to the “digestion” (of food), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, [while discussing the treatment of hawks]: “[...] If they cannot properly digest (pariṇāma) their food, then fresh meat is to be given, steeped in wine and camphor-water. For the cure of indigestion, powdered marking-nut is to be administered, or the same mixed with the juice of hemp, after which a little warm water is to be given. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to one of the various types of upamāna (comparisons). Cf. Nirmāṇa, and the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XI).—According to the Saṃgraha, p. 122–124, where the dependent nature (paratantrasvabhāva) is compared successively to māyā, marīci, svapna, pratibimba, pratibhāsa, pratiśrutkā, udakacandra and pariṇāma. – The explanations given by the Bhāṣya are especially clear.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) refers to “changing into (another form)”, according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Being in the heart with mud, a universal petaled lotus, Above the pericarp of the lotus, a moon and sun mandala, Above that, observe a Hūṃ, that changes into (pariṇāma) a two armed Saṃvara. Venerable, dark-blue color, one face, three eyes, standing in archer's pose. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “change”).—Just like vartanā, pariṇāma also cannot be understood without kāla. Whenever any substance undergoes transmutation, we naturally get indication of its time-duration of transmutation.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of pariṇāma? Continuity of existence through gradual changes (without leaving their nature) in their modifications is pariṇāma.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.42, a state / condition of the substance (which is continuously changing) at any time time-instant is called mode (pariṇāma). Its other name is paryāya. How many types of mode are there? It is of two types namely without a beginning and with a beginning. Mode of substance is with a beginning and modes of the generic attributes are without a beginning.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinama in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

pariṇāma : (m.) ripening; change; development; digestion.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma, (fr. pari+nam, cp. class Sk. pariṇāma in all meanings) “bending round, ” i.e. 1. change, alteration, in utu° (sudden) change of season, unseasonable weather, with ref. to illnesses caused by such (°ja ābādhā)=illness arising from the change of season A. II, 87; III, 131; V, 110; Nd2 3041; Miln. 112, 135 sq. , 304; Vism. 31.—2. alteration of food, digestion, in phrase sammā-pariṇāmaṃ gacchati M. I, 188; S. I, 168; A. III, 30; cp. MVastu I. 211.—3. ripening Miln. 93. ‹-› 4. course, development, fulfilment, in special sense: dispensation, destiny J. V, 171; Pv IV. 325; PvA. 252, 254.—Cp. vi°. (Page 426)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m (S) End, result, conclusion, consequence, fruit, product. Ex. pāpācā pa0 naraka. 2 Used laxly, but very commonly, in the sense of Happy completion or accomplishment (as of a business, work, project); also of a successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con., and v lāga. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhijē kēlyāvāñcūna pa0 nāhīṃ; pāñcaśēṃ rupayē dilyāvāñcūna mājhā pa0 lāgaṇāra nāhīṃ. 3 Change of form or state. Ex. udakācā dhūmarūpa pa0 hōūna tyācā punaḥ parjanyarūpa pa0 hōtō.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m End, result. Happy comple- tion. A successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhujē kēlyāvāñcūna pa?B nāhī Change of form.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) or Parīṇāma (परीणाम).—

1) Alteration, change, transformation.

2) Digestion; अन्नं न सम्यक् परिणाममेति (annaṃ na samyak pariṇāmameti) Suśr.; भुक्तस्य परिणामहेतुरौदर्यम् (bhuktasya pariṇāmaheturaudaryam) T.S.; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.22.

3) Result, consequence, issue, effect; अप्रियस्यापि पथ्यस्य परिणामः सुखावहः (apriyasyāpi pathyasya pariṇāmaḥ sukhāvahaḥ) H.2.124; Mṛcchakaṭika 3.1; परिणामसुखे गरीयसि (pariṇāmasukhe garīyasi) (vacasi auṣadhe ca) Kirātārjunīya 2.4; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 18.37,38.

4) Ripening, maturity, full development; उपैति शस्यं परिणामरम्यताम् (upaiti śasyaṃ pariṇāmaramyatām) Kirātārjunīya 4.22; फलभर- परिणामश्यामजम्बू (phalabhara- pariṇāmaśyāmajambū) &c. Uttararāmacarita 2.2; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 9.24.

5) End, termination, conclusion, close, decline; दिवसाः परिणामरमणीयाः (divasāḥ pariṇāmaramaṇīyāḥ) Ś.1.3; वयःपरिणामपाण्डुरशिरसम् (vayaḥpariṇāmapāṇḍuraśirasam) K.1; परिणाममुपैति दिवसः (pariṇāmamupaiti divasaḥ) K.254 'the day is drawing to a close'.

6) Old age; परिणामे हि दिलीपवंशजाः (pariṇāme hi dilīpavaṃśajāḥ) R.8.11.

7) Lapse (of time).

8) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech allied to रूपक (rūpaka), by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared. (The Chandrāloka thus defines and illustrates it:-pariṇāmaḥ kriyārthaścedviṣayī viṣayātmanā | prasannena dṛgabjena vīkṣate madirekṣaṇā || 5.18; see R. G. also under pariṇāma).

Derivable forms: pariṇāmaḥ (परिणामः), parīṇāmaḥ (परीणामः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम).—nt. (= Sanskrit id., m.; also Pali; and compare next), development, ripening, maturing: (sc. bodhisattva-) bhūmīnāṃ pariṇāmāni Mahāvastu i.77.3 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) or Paraṇāma.—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Change of form or state. 2. Maturity, fulness, ripeness. 3. End, last stage or state. 4. Digestion. 5. Result. 6. A figure of speech closely resembling Rupaka and minutely distinguished by it; it consists in transferring the properties of any object to that with which it is compared. E. pari before, nam to bend, aff. ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम).—i. e. pari-nam + a, m. 1. Transformation, change, [Prabodhacandrodaya, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 27, 12. 2. Digestion, [Suśruta] 1, 245, 10. 3. Consequence, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 65, 20. 4. Termination, end, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम).—[masculine] change, alteration, transformation, development, evolution into ([instrumental]), transformation of od i.e. digestion; fading, decay; course (of time), advancement (of age), old age; consequence, result, end. °— & [locative] finally, at last.

--- OR ---

Parīṇāma (परीणाम).—[masculine] = pariṇāma & ṇāha.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pariṇāma (परिणाम):—[=pari-ṇāma] [from pari-ṇam] m. change, alteration, transformation into ([instrumental case]), development, evolution, [Sāṃkhyakārikā; Yoga-sūtra; Purāṇa; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] ripeness, maturity, [Kirātārjunīya; Uttararāma-carita; Mālatīmādhava]

3) [v.s. ...] alteration of food, digestion, [Suśruta; Tarkasaṃgraha]

4) [v.s. ...] withering, fading, [Śārṅgadhara-paddhati]

5) [v.s. ...] lapse (of time), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] decline (of age), growing old, [ib.; Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] result, consequence, issue, end ([in the beginning of a compound] and me ind. finally, at last, in the end), [Kāvya literature]

8) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) a figure of speech by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared, [Kuvalayānanda]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of a holy man, [Religious Thought and Life in India 269]

10) Parīṇāma (परीणाम):—[=parī-ṇāma] [from parī] m. (√nam) course or lapse of time, [Rāmāyaṇa] (cf. pari-ṇ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम):—[pari-ṇāma] (maḥ) 1. m. Change of form or state; maturity; end.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pariṇama (परिणम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pariṇāma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parinama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) [Also spelled parinam]:—(nm) result, outcome; consequence; conclusion; effect; magnitude; ~[svarūpa] as a result of, with the result; consequently; ~[darśī] foresighted, one who knows the ultimate result; ~[vāda] the doctrine of evaluation, the doctrine which propounds that the effect is hidden in the cause and that, therefore, cause is nothing but non-manifest effect; hence ~[vāditā] (nf); ~[vādī] an adherent of [pariṇāmavāda; —bhugatanā/bhoganā] to suffer/face the consequences of.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Pariṇama (परिणम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Pariṇam.

2) Pariṇāma (परिणाम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Pariṇama.

3) Pariṇāma (परिणाम) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Pariṇāma.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pariṇāma (ಪರಿಣಾಮ):—

1) [noun] a change, as in form, nature, qualities, etc.; mutation.

2) [noun] anything brought about by a cause or agent; effect.

3) [noun] the state or quality of being mature; a being full-grown, ripe or fully developed, physically, mentally and emotionally; maturity; ripeness.

4) [noun] the end; the final stage or part.

5) [noun] old-age; the advanced years of life.

6) [noun] the good fortune, health, happiness, prosperity, etc., of a person, group or organisation; welfare.

7) [noun] an outcome of some process, action, test, examination, etc; result.

8) [noun] the act or an instance of bending, stooping.

9) [noun] a spreading over a wide or relatively wide area.

10) [noun] the final decision.

11) [noun] an extended space; vast area.

12) [noun] joy; delightedness.

13) [noun] freedom of the mind from annoyance, distraction, anxiety, an obsession, etc.; tranquillity; serenity.

14) [noun] the power of persons or things to affect others, seen only in its effects; influence.

15) [noun] a reaction the body gives in response to a medicine; an organic response.

16) [noun] (poet.) a kind of figure speech, in which the object which is used to compare is treated as the subject of comparison itself.

17) [noun] a proposition that follows from another that has been proved; a corollary.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parinama in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम):—n. 1. result; consequence; outcome; 2. alteration; transformation; 3. development; growth; 4. conclusion; completion;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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