Parinama, aka: Pariṇāma, Parīṇāma; 9 Definition(s)


Parinama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Sāṃkhya (school of philosophy)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) in Sāṃkhya, means ‘modification’, ‘change’ or ‘flux’. There is no pariṇāma in puruṣa, but there is constant pariṇāma in prakṛti. Pariṇāma may, again, be of two types, according to Sāṃkhya:

  1. sadṛśa or svarūpa (homogeneous)
  2. and visadṛśa or virūpa (heterogeneous).
(Source): Shodhganga: Prakrti and purusa in Samkhyakarika an analytical review
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Sāṃkhya (सांख्य, samkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (āstika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Sāṃkhya philosophy accepts three pramāṇas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakṛti (matter) and puruṣa (consciousness).

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “commutation”) refers to a type of Alaṃkāra (figure of speech).—When what is superimposed serves the purpose in hand as being identified with the subject of superimposition, it is Pariṇāma or commutation, which is two-fold as being appositional or nonappositional.

(Source): Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Nāṭyaśāstra book cover
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Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

In Buddhism


pariṇāma : (m.) ripening; change; development; digestion.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Pariṇāma, (fr. pari+nam, cp. class Sk. pariṇāma in all meanings) “bending round, ” i.e. 1. change, alteration, in utu° (sudden) change of season, unseasonable weather, with ref. to illnesses caused by such (°ja ābādhā)=illness arising from the change of season A. II, 87; III, 131; V, 110; Nd2 3041; Miln. 112, 135 sq. , 304; Vism. 31.—2. alteration of food, digestion, in phrase sammā-pariṇāmaṃ gacchati M. I, 188; S. I, 168; A. III, 30; cp. MVastu I. 211.—3. ripening Miln. 93. ‹-› 4. course, development, fulfilment, in special sense: dispensation, destiny J. V, 171; Pv IV. 325; PvA. 252, 254.—Cp. vi°. (Page 426)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “change”).—Just like vartanā, pariṇāma also cannot be understood without kāla. Whenever any substance undergoes transmutation, we naturally get indication of its time-duration of transmutation.

(Source): HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance

Pariṇāma (परिणाम, “modification”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of pariṇāma? Continuity of existence through gradual changes (without leaving their nature) in their modifications is pariṇāma.

According to Tattvārthasūtra 5.42, a state / condition of the substance (which is continuously changing) at any time time-instant is called mode (pariṇāma). Its other name is paryāya. How many types of mode are there? It is of two types namely without a beginning and with a beginning. Mode of substance is with a beginning and modes of the generic attributes are without a beginning.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m (S) End, result, conclusion, consequence, fruit, product. Ex. pāpācā pa0 naraka. 2 Used laxly, but very commonly, in the sense of Happy completion or accomplishment (as of a business, work, project); also of a successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con., and v lāga. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhijē kēlyāvāñcūna pa0 nāhīṃ; pāñcaśēṃ rupayē dilyāvāñcūna mājhā pa0 lāgaṇāra nāhīṃ. 3 Change of form or state. Ex. udakācā dhūmarūpa pa0 hōūna tyācā punaḥ parjanyarūpa pa0 hōtō.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pariṇāma (परिणाम).—m End, result. Happy comple- tion. A successful issue out of (a difficulty). Gen. neg. con. Ex. hēṃ kēlēñca pāhujē kēlyāvāñcūna pa?B nāhī Change of form.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pariṇāma (परिणाम) or Parīṇāma (परीणाम).—

1) Alteration, change, transformation.

2) Digestion; अन्नं न सम्यक् परिणाममेति (annaṃ na samyak pariṇāmameti) Suśr.; भुक्तस्य परिणामहेतुरौदर्यम् (bhuktasya pariṇāmaheturaudaryam) T.S.; Pt.4.22.

3) Result, consequence, issue, effect; अप्रियस्यापि पथ्यस्य परिणामः सुखावहः (apriyasyāpi pathyasya pariṇāmaḥ sukhāvahaḥ) H.2.124; Mk.3.1; परिणामसुखे गरीयसि (pariṇāmasukhe garīyasi) (vacasi auṣadhe ca) Ki.2.4; Bg.18.37,38.

4) Ripening, maturity, full development; उपैति शस्यं परिणामरम्यताम् (upaiti śasyaṃ pariṇāmaramyatām) Ki.4.22; फलभर- परिणामश्यामजम्बू (phalabhara- pariṇāmaśyāmajambū) &c. U.2.2; Māl.9.24.

5) End, termination, conclusion, close, decline; दिवसाः परिणामरमणीयाः (divasāḥ pariṇāmaramaṇīyāḥ) Ś.1.3; वयःपरिणामपाण्डुरशिरसम् (vayaḥpariṇāmapāṇḍuraśirasam) K.1; परिणाममुपैति दिवसः (pariṇāmamupaiti divasaḥ) K.254 'the day is drawing to a close'.

6) Old age; परिणामे हि दिलीपवंशजाः (pariṇāme hi dilīpavaṃśajāḥ) R.8.11.

7) Lapse (of time).

8) (In Rhet.) A figure of speech allied to रूपक (rūpaka), by which the properties of any object are transferred to that with which it is compared. (The Chandrāloka thus defines and illustrates it:-pariṇāmaḥ kriyārthaścedviṣayī viṣayātmanā | prasannena dṛgabjena vīkṣate madirekṣaṇā || 5.18; see R. G. also under pariṇāma).

Derivable forms: pariṇāmaḥ (परिणामः), parīṇāmaḥ (परीणामः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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