The Natyashastra

by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831

The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. The authorship of this work dates back to as far as at least the 1st millenn...

Chapter XXXIII - On Covered Instruments (puṣkara, ‘drums’)

1-2. I have spoken briefly about the stringed instruments. I shall now speak of the class of covered musical instruments, their characteristics and functions as well as of playing drums named Mṛdaṅga,[1] Paṇava[2] and Dardura.[3]

3. Svāti and Nārada[4] have [respectively] spoken about the Gāndharva, and the playing of musical instruments together with their quality of amplitude, and their characteristics and functions.

Origin of drums

4. Now following Svāti I shall speak briefly about the origin and development of musical instruments called Puṣkaras (drums).

5. During an intermission of studies in the rainy season, Svāti once went to a lake for fetching water.[5]

6. He having gone to the lake, Pākaśāsana (Indra) by [sending] great torrential rains commenced to make the world one [vast] ocean.

7. Then in this lake, torrents of water falling with the force of wind made clear sounds on the leaves of lotus.

8. Now the sage hearing suddenly this sound due to torrents of rain, considered it to be an wonder and observed it carefully.

9. After observing the high, medium and low sounds produced on the lotus-leaves as deep, sweet and pleasing, he went back to his hermitage.

10. And after coming to the hermitage, he devised the Mṛdaṅgas, and then the Puṣkaras[6] [like] Paṇavas and Darduras with [the help of] Vīśvakarman.

11. On seeing the Dundubhi[7] of gods, he made Muraja,[8] Āliṅgya,[9] Ūrdhvaka[10] and Āṅkika.[11]

12. Then he who was a master of reasoning of the positive and the negative kind, covered these and Mṛdaṅga, Dardura and Paṇava with hide, and bound them with strings.

13. He also made other drums such as Jhallarī,[12] Paṭaha[13] etc., and covered them with hide.

14. Listen now about the instruments which men are to play as minor and major limbs [of a performance] in an assembly of instrument-[players].

15. Among the wooden [stringed instruments] Vipañcī[14] and Citrā[15] are major limbs[16] and Kacchapī[17] and Ghoṣaka[18] etc., are minor limbs.[19]

16. Among the drums, Mṛdaṅga Dardura and Paṇava are the major limbs, while Jhallarī and Paṭaha etc., are the minor limbs.

17. [Among the hollow instruments] the flute (vaṃśa) has the characteristics of the major limbs [of a performance], and conch-shell and Ḍakkinī [that of] the minor limbs.

Use of Drums

18. There is no instrument which cannot be used in the ten kinds of play (daśarūpaka).

Each kind of instrument may be used in a play after considering the Sentiments and States there.

19-20. In a festival, a royal procession, and a Maṅgala ceremony, in an auspicious and happy occasion, at the time of marriage and of birth of sons etc., in a battle where many fighters assemble, and during such other acts, all the musical instruments should be played.[20]

21. Small number of instruments are to be played during ordinary (lit. natural) household affairs. During expeditionary marches and performance of plays, all the instruments should be played.[21]

22. For the harmonious blending of the different limbs [of a performance] and for covering the faults, the instruments are played.

General Description of Drums

23. I shall now speak of the covered instruments which give rise to regular notes, has many Karaṇas and Jātis.

24. All the instruments covered with hide such as the three Puṣkaras,[22] are called covered instruments.

25-26. And these have one hundred[23] varieties. But I shall now speak of the characteristics of the three Puṣkaras. For these have no harshness of sound like the remaining instruments. The latter produce no [distinct] notes, for them no [regulated] strokes [are necessary], no distinct syllables are available from them, and they require no Mārjanā.

27. By [the playing of] Bheri, Paṭaha, and Bhambhā as well as Dundubhi and Diṇḍimas, one desires the depth of sound from their slackness and extensive surface.

28. These are generally to be played with a view to time and occasion [in a play]. But listen about the rules of the three Puṣkaras.

29. Metres depend on Vāsu (?) and are of two kinds, viz. those which relate to notes only, and those which relate to words carrying meaning.

30. Metres relating to words carrying meaning, express many States and Sentiments, and those relating to notes only, depend on various instruments.

31. Seven are the notes in the Vīnā of the [human] body, and from those have come out the notes of musical instruments.

32. Notes coming out first from the human body go to the wooden Vīnā and then they go to the Puṣkara and the solid instruments.

33. Strokes[24] on them by various movements, are to be known as giving shelter to words. These are always to be applied to the playing of Vīnā [and] at the time of battles etc.

34. In the Vīṇā of the human body there should be Vāṣkarana[25] (mnemonic patterns) such as jhihṭu jagati kāt (?) together with many Karaṇas.

35. The notes produced by the singer should be produced by the musical instruments, and these should contain light and heavy syllables showing appropriate Yati and Pāṇi.

Aspects of Puṣkaras

36. I shall speak about the rules of playing Puṣkaras with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura.

37-39.[26] Puṣkara instruments have following aspects: sixteen syllabic sounds (akṣara), four Mārgas, Vilepana, six Karaṇas, three Yatis, three Layas, three Gatis, three Pracāras, three Yogas, three Pāṇis, five Pāṇi-prahata, three Prahāras, three Mārjanās, eighteen Jātis and twenty Prakāras.

Music of Puṣkaras should possess all these aspects.

40. Now I shall speak of the sixteen syllabic sounds, K, kh, g, gh, , ṭh, , [ṇ], t, th, d, dh, [m][27], r, l, and h are the sixteen syllabic sounds. These are the always to be used in the Vāṣkaraṇa of the Puṣkara music.

Four Mārgas—The four Mārgas are Ālipta, Aḍḍitā, Gomukha and Vitasta.

Vilepana[28] (plastering)—Plastering of [Savya], Vāma and Ūrdhvaka.

Six Karaṇas[29]—Rūpa, Kṛta-pratikṛta, Pratibheda, Rūpa-śeṣa, Ogha and Pratiśuṣka.

Three Yatis[30]—Samā, Srotogatā, Gopucchā.

Three Layas[31]—quick, medium and slow.

Three Gatis[32] (Prakṛti)—Tattva, Ghana (=Anugata) and Ogha.

Three Pracāras[33]—Sama Pr., Viṣama Pr. and Sama Viṣama Pracāra.

Three Saṃyogas[34]—Guru Saṃyoga, Laghu Saṃyoga and Guru-laghu Saṃyoga.

Three Pāṇis[35]—Sama, Avara and Upari Pāṇis.

Five Pāṇiprahatas[36]—Sama-pāṇi Ardha-pāṇi, Ardhārdha-pāṇi, Pārśva-pāṇi and Pradeśinī Prahatas.

Three Prahāras[37]—controlled, semi-controlled and free.

Three Mārjanās[38]—[Māyūrī, Ardha-māyūrī and Karmā-ravī].

Eighteen Jātis[39]—Śuddhā, Ekarūpā, Deśānurūpā, Deśādapetarūpa, Paryāya, Viṣkambha, Párṣṇi-samastā, Duṣkara-karaṇā, Ūrdhvagoṣṭhikā, Uccitikā, Evaṃvādyā, Mṛdaṅga-paṇava, Avakīrṇā Ardhāvakīrṇa, Saṃplavā and Vidhūta.

Twenty Prakāras[40] are Citra, Sama, Vibhakta, Chinna, Chinna-viddha, Viddha, Anuviddha, Svarūpānugata, Anusṛta, Vicyuta, Durga, Avakīrṇa, Ardhāvakīrnā, Ekarūpa, Parikṣipta, Sācīkṛta, Samalekha, Citralekha, Sarvasamavāya and Dṛḍha[41].

41. The sixteen syllabic sounds which have been mentioned before applies to Puṣkaras, such as Paṇava, Dardura and Mṛdaṅga as well.

Productions of Consonant and Vowel sounds in Drums

42. K, , r, t, ṭh, d, dh are to be produced on the right face and g, h, and th on the left face of the drums and th on the Ūrdhvaka and k, r, , dh, v and l on the Āliṅgya.

Now I shall speak about combining vowels with them.

a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, ai, o, au, am and aḥ are the vowels to be added to the consonants.

To k—a, i, u, e, o and aṃ can be added to produce ka, ki, ku, ku, ko, and kaṃ.

To khi, u and o can be added to produce khi, khu and kho.

To ga, e and o can be added to produce gu, ge and go.

To gha, e and o can be added to produce gha, ghe and gho.

To a, i, o and aṃ can be added to produce ṭa, ṭi, ṭo and ṭaṃ.

To ṭha, i, o and aṃ can be added to produce ṭha, ṭhi, ṭho and ṭhaṃ.

To a and o can be added to produce ḍa and ḍo.

[To ṇ—a, i and e can be added to produce ṇa, ṇi an ṇe.]

To t and tha, a, i and e can be added to produce respectively ta, , ti, te and tha, thā, thi and the.

To da, u, e and o can be added to produce de, du, de and do.

To dhaa, i, o and aṃ can be added to produce dha, dhi, dho and dhaṃ.

To ra, ā, i and e can be added to produce ra, , ri and re.

To la, ā, i and e can be added to produce la, , li and le.

H and m are applied without any vowel.

Among these k, gh, t, th and dh has r as their appendage (anubandha) e.g. ghruṃ, dhra, tre, kraṃ, thra, [ dram ], dhraṃ.

K and l also act as appendages, e g. [klaṃ, kle].

Sounds producable by two hands are made by combining all these. Dhaṃ however is produced in Āṅkikā, Mṛdaṅga and two Puṣkaras by the simultaneous strokes of two hands.

Ku is produced by running the finger (against the surface of the drum-face), and dha by controlling it. When it is half-arrested there is tha. When the back of the hand strikes it, there is kl; from curving the fingers comes kṣa (kh). By the simultaneous striking of Ūrdhvaka and Vāmaka[42] by the two hands, there occurs haṃ, and by striking Āliṅgya with the forefinger kle [is heard].

Some of the sounds are produced from one face [of a drum], some from two faces [of a drum], and some from three faces [of two drums], e.g. r from all faces (i.e. from any single face), d, dh, from Āliṅgya and Dakṣiṇa[43], g from Vāma[-ka] and Ūrdhvaka for the sake of facilities. Dh is sometimes is to be made from Āliṅgya. There should be no disregard of this rule. So much about the combination of vowels and consonants.

Five Hand-strokes

Five kinds of hand-stroke (pāṇiprahata): level-handed (Samapāṇi), half-handed (Ardhapāṇi), quarter-face (Ardhārdhapāṇi), hand-side (Parśvapāṇi) and fore-finger (Pradeśinī).

Now these hand-strokes, according to their application are controlled, semi-controlled or free.

Among these m is a stroke with the level-hand and is controlled; g, d and dh are half-controlled and is a stoke with half of the hand. K, kh, and are strokes with the side of a hand and are controlled. T, th and h are strokes by half of the hand and are semi-controlled. M, th, r, l and h are two-handed strokes and are free. Klaṃ is a stroke of the forefinger and is free. Draṃ dhraṃ and klaṃ are two-handed Strokes with the side of a hand and are free. Kleṃ is a stroke of the half of the hand and is controlled. * is a stroke of the side of a hand and is controlled. Thus one is to make strokes according to their requirement.

43. Sixteen are the sounds coming out of [covered] musical instruments. The wise are to make Vāṣkaraṇa from their combinations.

The Four Mārgas

I shall now explain what has been called the four Mārgas.

44. The four Mārgas relating to the strokes of the (covered) musical instruments are Aḍḍitā, Ālipta, Vitasta and Gomukha. The Aḍḍitā Mārga relates to a combination of strokes of Āliṅgya and Mṛdaṅga.

The Ālipta Mārga relates to a combination of the strokes of Vāmaka and Ūrdhvaka.

The Vitasta Mārga relates to a combination of strokes of Ūrdhvaka, and the right face of Āṅkika. And the Gomukha Mārga relates to the strokes of all Puṣkaras mixed up mostly with those of Āliṅgya.

([44] ?)

Examples of the Aḍḍitā Mārga strokes are ghaṭṭam, katthita ghaṭṭam gheṇṭā ghaṭṭaṃ gatthimaṃ gatthi ghaṇṭaṃ gatthi.

Now the Ālipta Mārga—dadhro mā mādro maṃ sta du rpere ghraṃ gheṃ gn dṇ (gu) raṇanduṃ ghem, preṃ (ghra) draṃ gheṃ dro māṃ are the strokes of the Ālipta Mārga.

Now the Vitasta Mārga —takitān takitān sentāṃ kinnānāṃ ghisaṃketā idu hudu ketāṃ are [the strokes] in Vitasta Mārga.

[Now the Gomukha Mārga]—guddha kladdhaṃ mathikaṭā ghaṃghena chidukhu khuṇo gaga ṭatthi maṭam are [the stroke] in the Gomukha Mārga.

H is produced by pressing the fingers, and it is a free [stroke] and the fingers will have to be crossed and half-controlled for this on the Ūrdhvaka and Āṅ[ki]ka Because on the two, the level hand is seen to be used.

H is produced by pressing [the fingers], and it is a free stroke and [in the Gomukha Mārga] the following [strokes] are also to be made: dhittha tittha ḍittha kitā khadeṅ khadeṅ gudhuṃ du leṇṭa jhatti titthana dhittān hu vadhe.

Similarly strokes in the Vitasta Mārga should be devoid of those for l, m and r. In the Ūrdhva (?) Mārga of the Gomukha, the strokes will be khaṭamatthi maṭṭa ghaṇṭā ghura-kheṭṭaṃ khata māṃ (vudu) ṇa kiti kitti kiti māṃ khu khu ṇu ddhe dhe dho dho.

Now the playing of Gomukha —ṭha ḍa gheṇṭa na khandu laṃghu khe ghaṭa maṭṭa ṭāṃ ṇu dha [ khu khu ] ṇāṃ tthi ghaṭaṃ ghiṭi māṃ kakku ṭāṃ ṇu gheṃ kiṭi māṃ ghe ghe ko mo ma.

45. Strokes produced in the Ālipta (Mārga) can be used in all Mārgas.

Graha of Mṛdaṅgas consists of groups of Akṣaras (akṣara-saṃghāta).

46. I shall give their examples in the four Mārgas in due order.

In the Aḍḍitā [Mārga] they are ghṛṅ ghṛṅg ghaṭa gheṅ matthi matthi, madatthi ṭhīṅ mana gheṅ kraṅ kathi kaṭāṅ.

In the Vitasta they are ghāga geṃdrā taki ta ghṛ ghṛṅ ghro kiṭi gheṇṭān gān dhi kiṭi ketthā tha kutā kitā kiri dām.

In the Ālipta they are do māṅ guḍur gheṅ ghe ghaṇṭāṅ ghe gha ta du mā.

In the Gomukha they are ghe gheṭātthi katāṅ guṭṭā gheṅ gheṭā ghaṃṭān dhi madhi tthiyaṃ ke sa ṭe ghe ga gheṇo no ṇaṃ.

47. For its Mārga three are the Pracāras of the Puṣkaras, such as Sama, Viṣama and Sama-viṣama.

48. Sama should be the Pracāra of the Yāmaka and the Ūrdhvaka and of the Yāmaka and Savya[ka] in the Aḍḍita Mārga, and in the Ālipta Mārga too.

49. In striking the Vāmaka, Ūrdhvaka and Madhyaka, the left hand should be used. And in striking the Savya and Ūrdhvaka, should be used the right hand in the Viṣama Pracāra.

50. Similarly the two hands should be used in a crosswise stroke in the Vitasta Mārga, and the same is [to be done] in the Viṣama Pracāra.

51. In the rest of the Mārgas, the Pracāra of hands will be according to one’s convenience (svacchanda). In the combination of the Aḍḍitā and Gomukha Mārgas, the Pracāra of the hands should be Sama-viṣama.

52. In connexion with the Erotic and the Comic Sentiments, the instruments should be played in the Aḍḍitā Mārga. In the Heroic, the Marvellous and the Furious Sentiments, they should be played in the Vitasta Mārga.

53. The playing of the instruments in the Pathetic Sentiment should be in the Ālipta Mārga, and in the Odious and the Terrible Sentiments this should be in the Gomukha Mārga.

54. Instruments should be played in connexion with a dance to suit the Sentiments and the States and the Sattva [of characters] and their gestures, mode of walking and the location [of the scene].

Playing of Dardura and Paṇava

55. This rule of strokes according to the traditional way, should be followed by the wise. I shall speak hereafter of the playing of Dardura and Paṇava.

56. This playing of drums is of three kinds: Ativādita, Anuvādya and Samavādita. Among these, the Ativādita is the playing of Puṣkara before [a performance].

57. When the playing of Mṛdaṅgas follow a performance, it is Anuvādya.

When the Mṛdaṅgas are played simultaneously with a performance, it is Samavādita.

58. The syllabic sounds such as k, kh, g, pṇ [ dh ] r v āṅ pr, h, nād brhulāṇ dhrā hu lām are to be used in playing a Paṇava.

And kiri ghiṇṭām tho tho ṇo dho tr hulām kiri ghiṇṭām ṇo ṇo ṇā ṇṭām co ktri kiri kaṇḍā maṭā maṭa tthi te ṭe ṭe donnām is the music of Paṇava.

59. The experts should produce in striking loosely and tightly Paṇava, the different Karaṇas by means of the tip of the little and the ring fingers.

60. The syllabic sounds for colouring Karaṇas should be produced by the little and the ring fingers. In producing the remaining sounds, there should be strokes by other fingers.

61. The playing with the Koṇa and the ring finger, should begin with the middle finger.

The playing with the Koṇa and the ring finger should be a simple (śuddha) stroke#

62. From playing in irregular Karaṇa. comes trikulaham which is the begining of the irregular playing. It continues as ribhata as Karaṇa and Anubandha, and to it is added a double tra.

63. In the Anubandha of the mixed Karaṇa, dre is produced by striking with the raised hand. This is to be specially done by the best player of drums.

64. Notes which are charming due to their being in the various Karaṇas, are to be produced by the tip of the little finger. By that very finger should be produced the strokes a ni ni b.

Playing of Paṇava

65. This should be done by the tip of the little finger in a loosely trimmed drum. By tightly trimmed Paṇava should be produced dhattvo dvāṇa * * *

66. In the tightly and loosely trimmed Paṇavas strokes ka ṭha na ta ṇi ṇa are produced. Similarly irregular

Karaṇas are not produced in the Paṇava which is tightly or loosely trimmed.

67. In the tightly trimmed Paṇava there can be strokes like kha kha ṇa ṇa * * *

In the loosely trimmed Paṇava there should always the strokes like la tha.

68. In the trimmed Paṇava k, kh and ṭa strokes should be produced.

[The strokes] should be combined with irregular Karaṇas.

69. It is possible to create a resonance of in a tightly trimmed Paṇava. In the same way hṇ including is also possible.

70. This stroke is to be made on the face of the drum held obliquely. The stroke will sound as kahulāṃ krakhulām * * krakhulām.

71. This in brief is the regular playing of Paṇava described by me.

Playing of Dardura

I shall now similarly speak of the syllabic strokes of the Dardura.

72. The free strokes in Dardura should include * * rakti trikalas klecadro gauṇo hathipa, and thaṇaṇṇa.

73. One should make there [strokes to produce] eṇaṇakṣāra gradha * * * by one’s right hand, and to produce go matthā by touching Dardura by the tip of the left hand.

74. Strokes giving muktollā * * should be produced by two * * controlled hands, and the sounds being pressed after seizing [the drum] by freely holding it.

75. Thitthen tra should be produced by pressing [the hand] in the usual manner. Sounds produced freely will be special ones, while those produced by arresting the stroke will be [half] free and half checked.

76. The sound will be wrongly produced if they are too swiftly done or done in quick succession. These in brief are to be known of the strokes on Dardura.

77. These are the pure strokes not mixed up with strokes of drums of other types. I shall now speak of the combined playing of Dardura, Paṇava and Mṛdanga.

Playing together the three Puṣkaras

78. In the mixed playing of instruments some Karaṇas are distinctly expressed while some Karaṇas are produced simultaneously or some serially.

79-80. In such mixed playing, individual strokes like g and r and dheṅkā kattham troikho kehulam takita in the Mṛdaṅgas, daṅg syeṅ dreṅ kahutām matam in Paṇava and tham-matatthi dām kahutām maṭatthi deṅ neṅ in Dardura are to be made.

81. The [Karaṇas] other than these are to be always mixed in production, those mentioned previously are also to be mixed up according to necessity.

82. Now in the Paṇava simultaneously produced Karaṇas are kahatām ṇṇaṇṇām khu khu kṇṇe khe dromo doṇam the tho rthidr.

83. The best player should gradually produce such Karaṇas as ṭa ṭa ṭa ṭe ghoṇaṇaṇa kirini * * kiṇṇā.

84. In the Anubandha of Paṇava, the Karaṇas should be ṇṇu khu khu ṇa, and players of Mṛdaṅga and Dardura should play the Kṛtapratikṛta.

85. Those [Karaṇas] which are to be produced (lit. made) in Muraja at the time of walking and other movements [of different characters in a play], should also be followed in all its syllables in the playing of Paṇava.

86. Experts should not have any playing of [drums] in the Citra Mārga at in the time of walking and other movements. When the setting of feet is not perceptible, [the playing] at that time should be Sama-viṣama.

87. The Uparipāṇi [hand] should be freely used in playing Paṇava and Mṛdaṅga. Playing of Mṛdaṅga (?) should be made by similar strokes.

88-89. Generally Paṇava should be taken up for playing before all other instruments.

I shall now speak of the strokes of Dardura, which are dasa senta tetietsade vede revitanṛitamathi. After making these two free, and then stopping, one should make strokes like naṇṇāre.

90. And then one should make strokes bhredhī kithī by the right hand and gudathiṃ klaṃ by the left hand. And then the tips of the hand making tatvavṛstha, the two hands should be checked after striking tam.

91. And [the stroke] takam should indicate the rest of the Karaṇānubandha.

Karaṇas of three Puṣkaras

These are the strokes in Dardura. I shall next speak of the (six) Karaṇas.

92. The six Karaṇas are Rūpa, Kṛta-pratikṛta, Pratibheda, Rūpaśeṣa, Pratiśuṣka and Ogha.

Rūpa—when Karaṇas are produced by two hands.

Ex. gham khu khu ṇa khu gham kramam tthimam tthettaram ghaṭam ghatthi metthi gheṇṭa kaṭa guddharāṇa kiṭi gham ghe kaghatām ghe kakham.

Kṛtapratikṛta—when one Karaṇa originates from the three Puṣkaras.

Ex. tham ghu khu ṇa khutham kramamthi vaggern raghaṭām ghaṭatthi gham tsām idu ghe kuhulāṇṇam da dno ṇa.

Pratibheda—when after the two Karaṇas of Mṛdaṅgas have been made simultaneously, the [playing] takes to Upari. Karaṇa. Ex. dho dho ṇā kho ta la ṇā ṇā tthi ṭadhi ghaṇḍam.

Rūpaśeṣa—the want of distinction of Karaṇas. Ex. khu khu no ṇṇā maṭaghem gheṇḍāmaṭr ghotā mathi alyām ghom.

Pratiśuṣka—the harmony amongst the players of Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura. Ex. ghaṭamaṭa tthi duṇa ther jakiṭi keghiṅ ghoṇ ggheṇdagnoṇa kho kho kha kuṭṛ kiṭṛ vakatthi ṇaṇattdi.

Ogha or Catuṣka—the playing of all the instruments in slow tempo to produce sonant syllables. Ex. tham kiti mam rhi hi kiṭi ghiṅ ghaṇdāṇam ghoṇḍa ghoṇa ghoṇr ghaṭa ghaṭa ghaṭa gheṅ gham ghe viriṇi ṇr ge ham tho tathan ghe.

93. Combination of Karaṇas are of six kinds. The wise should use Karaṇas according to this rule.

Three Yatis

The three Yatis are Samā, Srotogatā and Gopucchā.

The Yati is the three ways of combining tempo and Pāṇi.

It is of three varieties, such as Rāddha, Viddha and Śayyāgata.

The three tempos are quick, medium and slow.

The three Pāṇis are Sama Pāṇi, Ardha Pāṇi and Upari Pāṇi, the three ways of combining the Karaṇas.

94. When in a performance the Yati is Samā, the tempo is quick and there is Upari Pāṇi, then it is the Rāddha playing (lit. rule).

15. Similarly when the playing of instruments is given prominence and there is Upari Pāṇi, Samā Yati and the medium tempo, then it is called the Rāddha playing (vādya).

96. When the Yati is Srotogatā, the tempo is medium and there is Sama Pāṇi, the playing is called Viddha.

97. The playing of music is called Viddha when in case characters of superior or middling type, its procedure is Vārtika or Dakṣiṇa.

98. When there is Ardha Pāṇi stroke, slow tempo, and the Gopucchā Yati, it is called Śayyāgata playing.

99. When the singing is given prominence and procedure is Dakṣiṇa the playing of atyukta (?) instruments is called Śayyāgata.

100. Their standard arises from the slow tempo etc. In other Pāṇis, Kalās are to be reduced.

101. The Yati, Pāṇi and the tempo in connection with the playing of instruments, should be observed according to one’s liking, after considering the [special] performance of plays.

The Three Mārjanās

102. The three Mārjanās are Māyūrī, Ardha-māyūrī and Karmāravī These three Mārjanās are known to relate to notes of Puṣkaras.

103. Notes in the Māyūrī Mārjanā[45] are Gāndhāra in the Yāmaka, and Ṣaḍja in the Dakṣiṇa Puṣkara and Madhyama in the Ūrdhavaka.

104. Notes in the Ardha-māyūrī are Ṣaḍja in the Yāmaka Puṣkara, Ṛṣabha in the Dakṣiṇa, and Dhaivatī in the Ūrdhavaka.

105. Notes in the Karmāravī are Ṛṣabha in the Vāmaka Puṣkara, Ṣaḍja in the Dakṣiṇa Puṣkara and Pañcama in the Ūrdhavaka.

106. On having Mārjanā in Āliṅgya one should provide for Niṣāda which is assonant to the notes [mentioned above] and which is a note of Jātis.

107. The Māyūrī Mārjanā will be in the Madhyama Grāma, the Ardha-(Māyūrī) in the Ṣāḍja Grāma, and the Karmāravī in the Gāndhāra Grāma, and these will include Over-lapping notes.

108. Notes which include regular Śrutis, are fixed. These relate to the Mārjanās, and the remaining ones are considered transitory (saṃcārī)

109. By the Vāmaka and the Ūrdhvaka, accessory notes should be produced by their plastering which will give them slackness or tenseness. Similar treatment should be given to the Āliṅgya and the Āṅkika.

110. Players [of drums] should by their slackness and tenseness as well as piercing (?) of hides, produce notes of these kinds.

Earth for the Mārjanā of Vāmaka and Urdhvaka

111. This Mārjanā of the Yāmaka and the Ūrdhvaka should be done by means of earth. Now listen about the characteristics of the earth [suitable for this purpose].

112-113. The earth which contains no gravel, sand, grass and husks of grains, and which does not stick and not which is white, alkaline, pungent, yellow, black, sour or bitter, is suitable for plastering, and with it one should make Mārjanā.

114. The blackish earth from a river-bank, which is fine after giving out water, should be used for Mārjanā.

115-116. When the earth which spreads very much, is white or black or heavy or unstable or is full of husks, and the blackish earth not producing desirable notes, are only available, then one should use wheat flour or barley flour for this purpose. Sometimes a mixture of wheat flour and barley flour[46] is also used.

117. One defect of this (i.e. the mixture) is that it w ill create a monotonous sound.

Thus the blackish earth applied for the Mārjanā, will produce proper notes.

Three Saṃyogas

O the best of Brahmins, I shall now speak of the three Saṃyogas.

The three Saṃyogas are Guru-sañcaya, Laghu-sañcaya and Guru-laghu-sañcaya.

The Guru-sañcaya—in heavy syllables, slow tempo and Ogha-pravṛttḥ e. g. gheto ketaṃ candrāṃ khetaṃ dvaṃ dvam khetaṃ dhvaṃ dvaṃ dvaṃ drāghetaṃ battaṃ khettaṃ.

The Laghu-sañcaya—light syllables and quick tempo e. g. ghāṭa maṭa maṭa ghaṭa matthi ghaṭu ghaṭu ghaṭu.

The Guru-laghu-sañcaya—light syllables [with heavy ones], quick tempo, e. g. ghaṭa vimathi mathithaṃ kitaṃ gha gamgha mothikam taddham kaṭa thim karasthi maghave.

Three Gatas

The three Gatas[47]—Tattva, Anugata[48] and Ogha.

118. In the Tattva playing [of drums] there should be strokes similar to [recognised] syllables, distinctly expressing words and syllables, conforming to the metre [of songs], and well-divided in Karaṇas.

119. The Anugata playing [of drums], should begin with the Sama Pāṇi or the Avara Pāṇi, and it should have

Karaṇas produced by distinct strokes, and it should follow the song.

120. The Anugata playing [of drums] should begin with Upari Pāṇi and it should not rest on one Karaṇa [only]; it should have quick tempo; its Karaṇas should be Āviddha and it should be used extensively.

Eight Conformities

121. All playing of drums should have eight Conformities (sāmya). e. g. in syllables, limbs, Tāla, tempo, Yati, Graha, Nyāsopanyāsa and Pāṇi.

122. The playing which follows the metre consisting of short and long syllables, shows Conformity in syllables.

123. The playing which follows the song equally in the three limbs in its beginning (graha), end (mokṣa), and in its Kalās and Antara Kalās, shows Conformity in limbs.

124. The playing which by its measure of Kalās and time, equals the body of the song, shows Conformity in Tāla.

125. The playing which follows the song equally in its performance in slow, medium and quick tempos, shows Conformity of Laya (tempo).

126. When the playing follows Samā, Srotogatā and Gopucchā Yati of songs, it is an instance of Conformity in Yati.

127. The Graha of similar Śrutis by stringed, and covered instruments and flutes along with the songs, is an instance of Conformity in Graha.

128. Playing of flutes and Vīṇās in such a way that the notes in their Nyāsa and Apanyāsa may agree to that of the song, is an instance of Conformity in Nyasā and Apanyāsa.

129. When the Samapāṇi, Avapāṇi and Uparipāṇi playing of instruments follow the song, it is an instance of Conformity in Pāṇi.

Eighteen Jātis

I shall [now] explain what has been called the Jātis. They are Śuddhā, Ekarūpā, Deśānurūpā, Deśad-apetarūpā, Paryāyā, Viṣkambhā, Paryastā, Saṃrambhā, Pārṣṇi-samastā, Duṣkara-karaṇā, Ūrdhva-goṣṭhikā, Uccitikā, Evaṃ-vādyā Mṛḍāṅga-paṇavā, Avakīrṇā, Ardhāvakīrṇā, Saṃplavā and, Vidhūtā. I shall describe their characteristics and examples.

130. The playing [of drums] which consists of Karaṇas of one or of two syllables, and which is fit to be used in all movements (lit. work), is called Śuddhā.

131. The Jāti consisting of kho kho khaṃ khaṃ khaṃ khaṃ is called Śuddhā; it is the Jāti [for the action] of the middling and superior women.

132. When one plays separately Gomukha in the Aḍḍitā, Ālipta or Vitasta Mārga, it is called Ekarūpā.

133. The playing which produces syllables of the Aḍḍitā Mārga such as droṅ ghoṅ doṅ ghoṅ ghegheṅ is also Ekarūpā; it is to be used in case of songs of male singers.

134. This Jāti (i.e. Ekarūpā) should be used in case of all characters while the Dhruvā is sung in a slow or quick tempo, and it may also be used after one has judged [properly] the place, time and condition [of characters] in case of Dhruvās sung in a medium tempo.

135. When all other instruments follow one Karaṇa in pursuance of the playing of Mṛdaṅga, it is called Ekarūpā.

136. The Deśānurūpā Jāti played in the Aḍḍitā Mārga, is used in the Erotic Sentiment involving the enjoyment of love (Śṛṅgāra). It should be performed in a slow tempo.

137. Mī mathi thamabhū tthi kimā will be the syllables in Deśānurūpā Jāti. It is to be used in the best Erotic Sentiment of women.

138. Deśād-apetarūpā Jāti is played in Vāmaka and Ūrdhvaka in a quick tempo of Avakṛṣṭā Dhruvās. It is to be used in the Pathetic Sentiment.

Ex. Ghedrāṅ ghedrāṅ ghe gheru are the syllables in the Deśād-apetarūpā Jāti in playing [drums].

140-141. When the same set of Karaṇas played previously are followed in all three tempos, it is the Paryāyā Jāti. Ex. ghodāṅ ghidiṅ gudugnoū played in the Vāmaka and Ūrdhvaka by the left hand should be applied in the Heroic, Marvellous and Furious Sentiments.

142-143. Two heavy syllables, two light syllables, one light syllable, three heavy syllables, and a light syllable such as siṅ māṅ ghaṭa ghendra gu du gheṅ gheṅ ghama tthi metchap constitute Viṣkambhā Jāti. It is to be applied in the Erotic Sentiment of superior women.

144. Playing of drums in all Mārgas with Karaṇas of one syllable, and with the Sama Pracāra of hands, is called the Paryastā Jāti.

145. Paryastā is to used in the case of the quick movement of chariots, Vimānas. Vidyādharas, Bhujaṅgas (serpents) etc. in the sky, or in torrential rains.

145. Paryastā Jāti which should be used in the movement of slow tempo in the Erotic Sentiment of superior characters; it should also be used in the case of inferior characters.

146. Gheñ taṅ ghohṇām should constitute the Saṃraṃbhā Jāti to be applied in case of inferior women.

147. The Jāti which has Karaṇas of Ardhapāṇi, and and medium tempo in the beginning, and quick tempo in the end, is called Saṃrambhā.

148. Ex. Magaṭhaṃ kuyu ihakim.

Pārṣṇi-samastā Jāti should be played on the face of Ūrdhvāṅkika and Dakṣiṇa by quick strokes in the Vitasta Mārga, and it is to be applied in movements of Erotic and Comic Sentiments.

149. Pārṣṇi-samastā Jāti should be played with Karaṇas tatthiṃ kaṭaṃ maṃcchi and dhandrāṅ gudheṅ gu dhitaṅ, with the pressure of the Pārṣṇi. This is to be applied to the movement of superior male character of calm type, and of the Dānavas.

150. By striking of all the Mṛdaṅgas with the movement of Svastika hands, one should play the Duṣkara-karaṇā Jāti in all their tempos.

151. Duṣkara-karaṇā Jāti should include syllables like duṇā duṇo duṇā kiṃka dhima ghoṅ ghoṭeṅ madatthidugakiṭi ghoṅ.

152. Duṣkara-karaṇā Jāti should be applied in case of movements of Daitya kings, chiefs, Nāgas (bhujaga), Rākṣasas, Piśācas, Gandharvas, and Guhyakas, etc,

153. Light strokes on the face of Ūrdhvaka, Āṅkika and Dakṣiṇa in the Vitasta Mārga or striking of Dakṣiṇaka and Vāmaka after beginning with Āṅkika and Ūrdhvaka [will constitute Ūrdhva-goṣṭhikā.]

154. Playing almost violently udhidhrṅ dhrṅ in the Vitasta Mārga will constitute Ūrdhva-goṣṭhikā Jāti. It is meant for the movement of heavenly characters.

155. The playing which includes all the Mārgas connected in an imperceptible chain, is called Uccitikā Jāti.

156. This Jāti includes syllables like kentakennāṅgaditāṃ and is to be applied in the natural movement of kings.

157. The Evaṃ-vādyā Jāti should be played with syllables of the Gomukhī, and it should have all the strokes of Mṛdaṅga; and it should be applied in the pantomime of jugglery by persons with or without disguise, and it should include the syllables like gheṅṭāṇṭādo tadhitā gheṅ gheṅ ghaṭatthi ghaṭa iṅghe.

159. This should be applied in case of the movement of dwarfs, confused persons and lame men and those who have pain in their body and wound in their feet.

160. [The playing of drums] in which there is striking of the earth in different sections (parva) [of Karaṇas] is the Jāti which suits all stages (mañca).

161-162. It includes syllables such as ghroṃ ghroṃ ṭeṃ teṃ and this Jāti is to be applied to women’s movements. Avakīrṇā Jāti is the playing of Mṛdaṅga with three fold Karaṇas.

And when the same is added to the playing of Dardura and Paṇava, it is called Ardhāvakīrṇā Jāti.

163. This Ardhāvakīrṇā Jāti should consist of kentāṃ hentāṃ kentāṃ played in the Gomukha Mārga.

164-165. Dardura, Paṇava and Mṛdaṅga should be played by halves (?) the manner of the Ardhāvakīrṇā Jāti and with light syllables included in the suitable Mārga, and it should consist of syllables like thaṇ goda gheṅḍaā sendrām. This called the Saṃplavā Jāti.

166. The Saṃplavā Jāti produced by using all the fingers and by all the strokes of Mṛdaṅga, is to be applied to movement of terrified persons and to any movement of them in the sky.

167. The Vidhūtā Jāt produced with various charming (divya) Karaṇas and strokes of Mṛdaṅgas, is to be applied in case of natural movement of superior persons.

168. It should consist of syllables like darige gudughin titthi klāma totthi kaṇaṃ kukrāṃ.

169. These are the Jātis to be known by the wise for application in the walk and other movements. Those which are not mentioned here, should be taken from the people and with a view to their meaning.

Playing of drums in three Gatas

170. Wise men should play [drum] according to their rules specially in walks and other movements [of characters] in the ten kinds of play (daśarūpa).

171. Tattva, Anugata and Ogha playing [of drums] is desired in the [songs of] seven kinds and the Āsārita metre.

172. One who desires unison [of the two] should play drums with heavy and small number of syllables at the time of songs [indicating] walks and other movements.

173. Tattva and sometimes Ogha too, should be applied in case of king, for these are natural to their charming conditions.

174. Tattva should be applied to the first song, Anugata to the second and Ogha should be the playing of drum at the time of walking and other movements.

Playing of drums in Dhruvās

175. In case of remaining Dhruvās, one should have various [manner playing drums] according to one’s liking.

In case of the Sthitāvakṛṣṭā Dhruvā the playing should be of the Anugata kind.

176. In case of the Prāveśikī Dhruvā [the playing] should be Anugata. In the Naiṣkrāmikī and Antarā Dhruvā the playing should have all the three tempos (laya).

177. The Prāsādikī Dhruvā should have quick tempo, and Dhruvās [in general] will be of five types. This will be the playing [of drums] in the Prakaraṇas.

178. Experts should observe through playing of drums the Mātrās and divisions in the pāda of Dhruvās at the time of walking and other movements.

179. The producers should thus apply the playing [of drums] at the time of walking and other movements.

How to begin the playing of drums

I shall now speak of the manner of beginning the playing of drums.

180. According to some this should begin with Śamyā and Tāla, and according to others with the middle finger; some say that it should begin with the empty space (ākāśa) and others with the fore-finger.

183-181. The Śamyā will always be the Graha in the Dakṣiṇa drum, and in the Vāma and the Ūrdhvaka [drum] the Graha will be Tāla, and in the Āliṅgya it [the Graha] will always by the fore-finger.

182-183. In the exit (niṣkrāma) the Graha may also be from Ākāśa. The Āsārita songs will always have the Śamyā Graha and the two Tālas growing from the limbs of Dhruvās, and * * * * will have the fore-finger as its Graha. And the Graha of the Śīrṣaka will be by the fore-finger.

184. The Graha of the Natkuṭa and the Aḍḍitā as well as of Prāsādikī will be Sannipāta, and it will consist of [divisions of] one Kalā.

185. The Ākāśa Graha consists of four divisions of two Kalās. Its songs will be composed of limbs suiting it in due order.

186. These are the Grahas relating to the drums (lit. instruments), to be known by the wise. I shall next speak of the playing of these in dances of energetic and of delicate types.

187. One Parīvarta (performance) of the song should be without any accompaniment of instruments. At the end of this the Graha should be the Sannipāta in playing instrument.

188. Or, for the embellishment of dances there should be change of limbs [of the performance]. And the change of the tempo of the song should be made.

189. When a limb [of the performance] requires the use of gestures, there should be no playing of music (i.e. drum). But when there is dance consisting of Aṅgahāras then there should be music [to accompany it].

190. When due to the manner of its performance a limb is repeated again and again, then first it should be accompanied by gestures, and finally it should be connected with dance.

191. The playing of drums (lit. instruments) should be similar in metre to that of the songs. The movement of limbs should be made in conformity to the measures of songs and of instrumental music.

192. The playing [of drums] in the Mukha and Upavahana (= Upohana) should consist of heavy syllables along with light ones, and this should be loud (prakṛṣta) in [the production of such] syllables (varṇa).

193. The playing of drums along with songs in a slow tempo should be by mild strokes, with that in a medium tempo with strokes sufficient to produce the syllables (lit. equal to syllables) and in all these the Uparipāṇi should be observed.

194. In the Class Dance (tāṇḍava), the playing [of drums] by those who know [properly] about the tempo, should be harmonious (sama), pleasing (rakta ), divided [into Kalās], distinct (sphuṭa), produced by simple (lit. pure) strokes and accompanying the [various] limbs of the performance (lit. dance).

195. In performances including dance, the Tattva followed by Anugata should be played in drums, while in performances without any dance, the Tattva should be followed by Ogha.

196. [The drum] should be played [on these occasions] in slow, medium or quick tempo as in the case of a song, and the same should be the method [of playing drums] in the performance of Padas and dance with Aṅgahāras.

197. Rules regarding Padas and syllables which apply in case of songs and playing of instruments, should be observed in dance with Aṅgahāras in connection with dramatic performances.

Twenty Prakāras and their application

198. These are the eighteen Jātis relating to drums. I shall now speak of Prakāras connected with them. Now the Prakāras are Citra, Sama, Vibhakta, Chinna, Chinnaviddha, [Viddha], Anuviddha, Svarūpānugata, Anusṛta, [Anusṛta-vicyuta], Durga, Avakīrṇa, Ardhāvakīrṇa, Ekarūpa, Parikṣipta, Sācīkṛta, Sama-lekha, Citra-lekha, Sarva-samavāya and Dṛdha,

199. The playing which is performed with various Karaṇas[49] such as Nirvartita etc., by many kinds of hands, and which has the three tempos and the three Pāṇis, is called Citra.

200. Dardara, Paṇava and Mṛdaṅga are played with various Karaṇas, and this playing combined with Tāla, limbs and flutes is called Sama.

201. When the playing is not very broad in position, and it observes equally syllables, Pāṇi and tempo in its divided Karaṇas, it is Vibhakta.

202. The playing [of drums] in a quick tempo suddenly stopping when all other instruments are separately played, is called Chinna

203. The playing in which the Mṛdaṅgas are taken up with Avapāṇi and the Paṇava with Upari Pāṇi, is called Chinna-viddha.

204. When Paṇavas are played with the Karaṇas used for Mṛdaṅgas, and such Karaṇas are the various Sūci-vedhas[50], the playing is called Viddha.

205. The playing which is intermixed with Viddha and is seen in connection with all the instruments, is called Anuviddha, because of the mutual Anuvedha[51].

206. When the playing has a simple nature and is done by Sama Pāṇi, and follows its own [fixed] pattern, it is called Svarūpa.

207. When the Paṇava follows the Muraja, and the Dardara follows the Paṇava, the playing is called Svarūpānugata.

208. When after following these instruments, they attain the same tempo and are heard simultaneously with these, it is called Anusṛta.

209. When the playing of a drum following another instrument in its own Jāti, passes into another Jāti, it is called Anusṛta-vicyuta.

210. The playing which being irregular in its movement, develops all the Mārgas[52] and is done with undivided syllables, is called Durga.

211. When Mṛdaṅgas are played together with Paṇavas in many and various Karaṇas, the playing is called Avakīrṇa.

212. When a Paṇava or a Dardara is played in quick tempo and with Avapāṇi, the playing is called Ardhāva-kīrṇa.

213. When the playing of all the instruments follow one Karaṇa, it is called Ekarūpa.

214. When the playing in a low sound of Mṛdaṅga with undivided syllables, is covered with that of Paṇava, it is called Parikṣipta.

215. When various Karaṇas are played in one instrument to follow a dance with Aṅgahāras, it is called Sācikṛta.

216. When a Paṇava and a Muraja after being played first, take up (lit. looks up) the Murajas, the playing is called Samullekha.

217. When different instruments with Mṛdaṅga and Paṇava etc. are played together in various ways, then it is called Citralekha.

218. The playing which follows all the Mārgas, adopts all the Pāṇis and Layas, is various, and is well-divided [in their syllables], is called Sarva-samavāya.

219. The playing which is in a medium tempo, harmonious, and has clearly produced syllables and is fit to accompany movements, is called Dṛḍha.

220. These different Prakāras of the playing of drums, should be taken up to follow movements and songs, after considering the Sentiments and the States involved.

221. Prakāras and Jātis apply to all Mārgas. But in movements they are to be in their pure forms.

Seating of the Musicians

I shall now speak about their application. [The members of] the Orchestra (kutapa) should be seated on the stage with their face to the east. The Orchestra should be placed between the two doors of the tiring room mentioned before. The player of a Muraja (Mṛdaṅga) should face the stage; to his right should sit the player of a Paṇava, and to his left the player of a Dardara. Here the Orchestra relates first to the players of covered instruments. Among them a male singer will face the north, to his left will be the Vīṇā-player and to his right the two flute-players. And a female singer will face the male singer. So much about the seating the Orchestra.

The Tri-Sāma

Now, the players of the Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardara, male and female singers, players of flute and Vīṇā being seated, and strings of stringed instruments being tightened, controlled and sounded with relation to proper Grāma, Rāga and Mūrchanā, and the Mṛdaṅga being struck in quick succession by pressed (nipīḍita), arrested (nigṛhīta) half-arrested (ardha-nigṛhīta), and free (mukta) strokes, the players placing their hands on the best Dardaras, should first of all observe the ceremony of the Tri-Sāma for the purpose of welcoming the gods and bidding them farewell.

By means of the first Sāman arising from the mouth of Brahman who creates, stabilizes and destroys all the living and non-living objects[53], he (i.e. the singer) pleases very much the moon on the left, the serpents on the right, and the creatures of water who are between these two.

By the second Sāman he pleases the Munis (sages) and by the wide and great third Sāman the gods [in general].

222. As one thus pleases in due order the gods [by the three Sāmans], so the wise are to know them as the Trisāma.

223. As one thus takes shelter with Brahman, Keśava and Śiva, so it is called the Tri-sāma by the sages.

224. As [the syllable] Om is pronounced in the beginning of the four Vedas, so the Tri-sāma is sung [in the beginning] of all the songs.

225. This Tri-sāma is to observe three Prakāras, three tempos, the Aḍḍitā Mārga, and a division of six or three Kalās [in its accompaniment by drums].

226. Its syllables should be of three kinds including heavy and light ones, and its au (= a and u), and m should be uttered thrice with the triads.

At the end of this (i.e. Trisāma), after following the procedure of the Preliminaries, one should perform the Bahirgītas in three tempos with the drumming which will follow the song in its metre and syllables. At the application of the Āsārita song, one should perform the drumming of the Tattva and Anugata Prakṛti. When after the Trisāma the Pratyāhāra etc. have reached their end, then the drumming is to begin. There one should first of all play all the drums in the following order: the Vāmaka and Ūrdhvaka should be struck first, then the Āliṅgyaka with the Gopucchā Yati, and playing of the Vipañcī should be performed afterwards. [If you ask] why, [the answer is] that the drums played first will give rise to Success.

The Performance of the Dhruvā is first indicated by drums. Then proceeds in the auditorium full of women and common people, the music which is capable of creating their interest.

Different Tastes of Listeners

227. Masters [of the musical art] like a harmonious closure (sama), the scholars distinct [enunciation of] words (pada) of the song, the women a sweetness [of voice in singers] and the rest [of the audience] a full-throated singing (lit. crying aloud).

Variety of Drumming to suit Occasions

At the conclusion of this [playing of drums], the experts in the Mṛdaṅga should produce in their instruments, mostly by the touch of their fingers, a music which will consist of a collection of light Varṇas, and which will relate to the Tāṇḍava, at the time of female dancer’s appearance [on the stage]. The song relating to the appearance of the female dancer being finished, the Sannipātas should be taken up. [In connection with them] a music related to the Karaṇas conforming to the Aṅgahāras of the Lāsya dance, should be combined with the Karaṇa Dhātu. Hence there is the saying samaṃ raktam.

Next, at the start of the performance music should be played in relation to the Karaṇa of the Ālipta Mārga. It should be performed by striking the Vāmaka and the Ūrdhvaka, and will be as follows; dheṅ mati dhaṅ mathā dheṅ dhiti ṭit saṃ kraṃ kraṃ khoka ṇe devyāṃ kentāṃ kiṭ gheṅ.

The change after these two [kinds of playing] will be to that of pure Jāti in the four Mārgas consisting of kho kho ṇāṃ kho kho ṇāṃ kho kho khonā.

After their stoppage there should be kho kho do kho kha ke ṇāṃ gha gha gha tāgham in setting the neuter foot[54]. Just as there should be playing of kondukhoṅ at the time of entering of the Caturthakāra.[55] This should be played mostly by running fingers [on the drums].

In the Utthāpana of the Vastu and in the Apakṛṣṭā Cārī there, the playing should begin with gheghentāṃ gheṅ ṅo ghakhaṇādoṇāṃ gho ghagheghaghe.

In the Śuṣkāpakṛśṭā Dhruvā of the Nāndī, the playing should be in the Pratiśuṣka Karaṇa and should have Tho gho tho khe kha ghoghegheṅ nādabhyah khoddho kutāṃ kha khe kheṇa kasu guka gheṅ nokhi kheh tāṅ kheṅ ṇāṃ kiṭi kiṭi ghagheṅ ghe kaṭuka ghudu kaṃla volākho kho kho kho vāghnu tetāṃ māliṃ ṅammāṃ kiṭi vatthi.

One should take to Sannipāta of the Aḍḍitā Mārga, when the Cārī accompanying the recitation of the Jarjara-śloka[56], is performed during the ceremonies of the Raṅgadvāra[57]. And in the Mahācārī[58] [connected with this] there should be playing of drums in the Vitasta Mārga, and the Graha therein should be by the forefinger. Similarly during the Preliminaries an extraordinary playing of drums suited to Tāṇḍava (Class dance) has been recommended, and it should have Sannipāta Graha and should be played by the left hand [with the following syllables]: hho kho ṇāṃ do do dokaḥ, mokaḥ, daheṇa ṇātha tho ṇo gho gha ṭamaṭa thighaṃ gho gho kaṭha kaṭa jhaṃ kho khokhita kaṭa kaṭāṃ ghaṭa kamatthi gho gho milhi ṅāṃ kiṭi kināṃ khakavalaṃ.

Next an example of playing of the Ālipta Mārga should be given.

The playing in the Vitasta Mārga should have its Graha with the forefinger: It is as follows: ṇaṇa kho ka ṇaṇo madhuṇāṃ kho kho mathi takitām tavitāṃ kinti kitāṃ kiṭi kinto kho kho matitā matthi tramati tikiti kentāṃ drentām nata kentāṃ taghitāndrām kṛntāṃ drāṃ drāntām kinnām kinnāṃ kentāṃ mudrām ghreṅ ghreṅ kleṅ ghraṃ ghraṃ drāgrāṃ ghadre drāṃ ghendrāṃ ghendrām ghaṅe kleṅ.

From the time of tossing the curtain, there should be the playing of drums, during the Caturasra Preliminaries, for the success of the performance. In the Tryasra Preliminaries there should be the same playing without any interval of time.[59]

I shall also give directions about the playing of drums suitable at the time of walking and other movements of the four Heroes[60] Dhīrodātta, Dhīroddhata, Dhīralalita and Dhīrapraśānta, in different plays like Nāṭaka.

During the movements of gods, the playing should include braṃ, dhraṃ dhraṃ dhrādraṃ. During that of kings it should have ghemtāṃ, and in case of middling men the playing should include dhraṃ klaṃ dhaṭu gheṅ gheṭ ṭithi duna, kiṭi drāṃ nāṃ nāṃ dhradrāṃ.

Now I shall speak about the playing of drums in the Sthitā [Dhruvā].

228. At that time, steps [of dance] should conform to rhythm consisting of three Kalās, two Kalās or of one Kalā. And the song should conform to drums. Now I shall speak of the playing of drums in different conditions [of characters in a play]. In their quick walking, the playing should include vaṃ vaṃ ghe ghe ṭāṃ, and it should be performed by the unequal strokes by fingers. These have been written properly while discussing the movement of fingers.

Again I shall describe the rules regarding the playing of drums.

229. In walking and other movements the experts should provide for playing of drums with Tālas[61] of three or four Kalās, after considering the tempo and manner of walking [of characters concerned].

230. In the playing of drums there should be no pause of one Kalā or of two Kalās between the Dhruvās. Hence the movements should be in unision with the playing of drums and not with the songs.

231. In quick walking, the Pāta [of Tāla] should be as described in case of walking and other movements. Strokes like dhraṅ dhraṅ gheṅ gheṅ should mostly be made in this playing.

232. In case of movements of boats, chariots and aerial cars, birds, moving heavenly bodies, the playing of drums should be by running the fingers [on the face of drums] or by striking in the Catuṣka by the two hands alternatively.

In case of sorrow, suffering illness, curse, death of dear ones, loss of wealth, killing, imprisonment, vow, austerity and fasting etc, the playing drums in Utthāpana should be according to the Ālipta Mārga mentioned before.

In case of walking of Daityas, Dānavas, Yakṣas, Rākṣasas and Grahas the playing of drums should include Karaṇas such as dṛṅ dhṛṅ khada together with gha ṭn tn tanta tetodrāṃ.

In case of dancing movements the playing of drums should include ghetāṃ kaṭakāṃ.

In case of walking of Yatis, Munis, Pāśupatas and Śākyas the playing of drums should include do kho dvitvikhi duguvoo klanado dhanti kītiki.

And in the walking of old Śrotriyas. Kañcukīns and corpulent persons, the playing should include dhrām dhroṃ dhrāṃ droṅ dhiṅ droṇām kho kho ṇā.

In case of movements of elephants, horses, asses, camels chariots and aerial cars, the playing should include vamkiṭi,

In case of superior, middling and inferior men, the playing of drums should be performed after a consideration of Sentiments and States in this world.

So much about the playing of drums in case of males. I shall now describe that in case of females. The playing in case of superior females who are goddesses, will include mostly vamgati kipi dhmeṭa prathi ghe. And in case of queens it should include mostly kathi kathi mathi do do khu khu. In case of Brahmin women it should have cam hitti, kitthi ghaṭa maṭa thi ghe. In case of middling women who are courtezans, female artisans and actresses, the playing should include gha khu khu ghikiṭa matthi kina toṇām gho. For inferior women the playing should include marathi kule keḍu khukhi khi mostly. So much in brief about the playing in case of females.

In their special conditions, playing in similar conditions of males, should be performed. And from these the general Vibhāvas like fear, suffering, sorrow, anger etc. arise. Here also, there should be playing of drums in proper Mārgas which relate to Sentiments and States.

233. Moreover a person who plays drums after observing proper Jāti, Mārga and Prakāra in suitable Karaṇas and syllables, is the best player.

Now the interval-playings are Anuvaddha, Viprahārika Siddhi-grahaṇa and Paricchinna.

Ex. of the Anuvaddha playing is kho khe ne khe ghe.

Prahārita (=Viprahārita) at the conclusion or playing is dhrāṃ draṃ kho kho.

Siddhi [grahaṇa] also.

234. Siddhi [grahaṇa] should be played at the acquisition of wealth, forgetfulness, fatigue and at the tightening of clothes and ornaments.

This is Siddhi should take to proper Mārgas, and include Citra Karaṇas and consist of five or six Kalās.

It should also be played—

235. At the stopping of recitatives, at the pause coming in the wake of doing anything, at the falling of clothes or ornaments or in controlling the crown or the headgear.

The playing after the beginning of the Dhruvā, should be clear and should relate to all the drums and should include dhuṃ dhuṃ dhuṃ lka in the Vitasta Mārga.

In case of superior females there should be a playing in the Aḍḍitā Mārga, which is to include ṇa ṇām kho khe naṇṇām. In case of inferior females there should be playing suited to Khañja Natkuṭa Dhruvā, and should include saṃ ke te kiṭi viṇṇāṃ. In other conditions these should be reduced by a half.

Now about the playing of drums in the Prāsādikī and Prāveśikī, Ākṣepikī and Āvakṛṣta [Dhruvās].

The playing in the Prāsādikī [Dhruvā] should be with Sama Pāṇi and is to be divided into Karaṇas. While this is in a quick tempo the playing should be with the Upari Pāṇi in the Citra Karaṇa.

And in the Sthita (slow) tempo * * * *.

In the Avakṛsṭā Dhruvā in the Aḍḍitā Mārga there should be Ardha-sannipāta.

236. Thus there should be playing of drums in walking and other movements at the time of Prāsādikī and Antarā Dhruvās.

237. As a change, one song without any playing of drums should be sung, and at the end of the Sannipāta, the drums should be taken up for playing.

In the quick and slow tempos there should be strokes ta ṣa ṣa. In the Aḍḍitā Dhruvā ṇa de de de de de kho kho kha and in the Khañja and Natkuṭa Dhruvās ṇa ṇaṇṇāvu vu ṇā ṇā kho ṇā ṇṇā de de de de kho kho kho kha.

Now the Udghātya [playing].

238. The playing which is performed at the time of excess of hurry or joy or surprise, excitement or sorrow or at the time of receiving a gift, is called Udghātya.

Now I shall speak of the closure (lit. release) [of playing]. It is of two kinds: Saṃhanana and Saṃsaraṇa. Now closure at the Uddhata[62] and 'the quick Anubandha[63] should include ghettāṃ kikiṭi datta kettikiṃ godo ghaghe do gha ṭe gho gheyado.

Now the closure of the Khañja-Natkuṭa; it should include dhaṃ drāṃ dhaṃ drām takitām takitām gududhe.

The closure of the same in the slow tempo should include dhe dham dhe?a maṭadhe ghe chimaṭam kaṇṭachi maṭachi harmāka dīdhiṭi

The closure of the Aḍḍitā Dhruvā is kinta kintām. The closure of the same in the slow tempo should include ghatatām In the Avakṛṣṭā it should be vavotā.

239. These are the beginning and the closure of Dhruvās of Niṣkrāma (exit), Praveśa (entrance), Ākṣepikī and Antarā classes.

The player of drums should strive in this way with a knowledge of the Tāla, time and the notes.

On this there are the following couplets:

Faults of a Drummer

240. The wise say that a player of drums, who does not know about the Tāla, [proper] occasion and the Śāstra about it, is merely ‘a striker of hides’ (carma-ghātaka).

241. The producer should apply the playing of drums according to these rules. Next I shall speak about the characteristics of drums.

Characteristics of Drums

242. Three are the shapes of Mṛdaṅgas. In shape they are like myrobalan, barley and cow’s tail.

243. The Aṅkī or Āṅkika is like a myrobalan. and the Ūrdhvaka is like a barley, and the Āliṅgya resembles a cow’s tail.

244. The Mṛdaṅga and the Āṅkike should be three Tālas[64] and a half long, and their face should be twelve fingers [in diametre].

245. And the Ūrdhvaka should bo four Tālas long and its face should be fourteen fingers [in diametre],

246. The Āliṅgya should be made three Tālas long and its face eight fingers [in diametre].

247. The Paṇava should be made sixteen fingers long and its middle should be thin, and faces should be eight and five fingers [in diametre].

248. Its lips (i.e. rims) should be made half of a finger [in thickness], and its middle should be hollow and four fingers [in diametre].

249-250. The Dardara should be like a bell sixteen fingers [in diametre]. Its face should be that of Ghaṭa and should be twelve fingers [in diametre], and have a fat lip on all sides.

Characteristics of the best Hides

250-251. Next I shall speak of the best characteristics of hides. These should not be old, torn, pecked by crows, covered with the least fat, soiled by smoke or fire.

252-253. Cow’s hide which is free from these six blemishes, and the face of which is like blossoms in colour, or is white like snow or Kunda flowers, and glossy and free from flesh and is fresh, is good.

253-254. After procuring such hides with hairs on them, an intelligent person should soak them in water for a night and then take them out.

On the making of Drums

254-255. Then one should bind and fix to drums the small round cuttings (candraka) of this, after rubbing these well with cleansed cow-dungs.

255-256. In these round cuttings [fixed to drums] one should make Puspāvarta of three layers (trivarti), and a Parikara named Kakṣā, and a Svastika in its neck (grīvā).[65]

One should make three hundred akṣaras by drums.

257. (This couplet is corrupt and untranslatable).

Applying Rohana to Drums

258-259. This rule is applicable to all the Āṅkikas, But one should not apply to Mṛdaṅgas, a Rohaṇa consisting of sesamum paste mixed with cow’s ghee and oil.

Ceremony of Installing Drums

259-260. After binding the Āṅkika, Āliṅgya and Ūrdhvaka [with strings] in this manner, these should be placed on the ground after worshipping the gods.

260-263. Under the asterism of Citrā or Hastā during an auspicious day of the Śuklapakṣa, a well-born master of [dramatic arts] who is free from passions, is an expert in playing solid instruments, and who knows the theory of songs, has a sweet temper, has his sense-organs under control, has fasted and cut his hairs short, and has worn white clothes, and has taken strong vow, should make three Maṇḍalas[66] with cow-dung free from bad smell, and assign these three to Brahman, Śaṅkara (Śiva) and Viṣṇu.

263-264. First of all he should place the Āliṅgya in the Maṇḍala of Brahman, and the Ūrdhvaka should be placed in the second Maṇḍala named after Rudra. And the Utsaṅgika (Āṅkika) should be put across the Maṇḍala of Viṣṇu.

265. To the Āliṅgya he should make an offering consisting of honey mixed with Pāyasa accompanied by various kinds of flower.

266-267. To the Āṅkika an offering of Apūpa and Locikā should be given. And next should be made all the offerings, to the Ūrdhvaka in a Svastika together with Locikā, Apūpa, Piṇḍa and Keṇḍarika (?).

267-268. This offering should be decorated with Dhustura, Karavīra and other flowers, and the offering should also be carefully made of blood together with red cloch.

268-269. To the Āṅkika which is on the Vaiṣṇava Maṇḍala surrounded by all the Bīja[mantra], one should place an offering together with garlands, clothes and unguents of yellow colour, and Pāyasa and Cam of various kinds.

269-270. After making the Brahmins utter Svasti on paying them Dakṣiṇa previously, and after worshipping the Gandharvas [one should play drums].

270-271. Then the Paṇava should be bound on all sides with well-prepared strings. And then the Puṣkarikās should be covered with hide. In this way Mṛdaṅgas, Paṇavas and Dardura are to be made.

272-274. I shall [now] speak of the gods of these [instruments]. Vajrekṣaṇa, Śaṅkukarṇa and Mahāgrāmaṇī are said to be gods of Murajas (drums). Mṛdaṅgas are so called because of being made of mṛt (earth), and they are called Bhāṇḍas because they bhramayati (move about) Murajas are so called because they are placed in an upright position (ūrdhvakaraṇa), and they are called Ātodya because of relating to todanā (striking).

274-275. Rules of Bhāṇḍas have beeṇ given. Now the rules of Paṇava are being described. ‘Dāru’ is so called because of dārayati (one splits it up). And from the same Dardara originates.

275-276. After seeing that the Mṛdaṅgas, Paṇavas and Dardaras have been made, the great sage [Svāti] brought about a similarity of their notes with those of clouds.

276-279. The high sounding cloud named Vidyujjihva gave note to Vāma[ka], the great cloud named Airāvaṇa to Ūrdhvaka, the rain-cloud named Taḍit to Āliṅgya, the Puṣkara cloud to the Dakṣiṇa, and Kokila to the Vāma[ka] and (the cloud named) Nandi to the drum named Āliṅgya and the cloud name Siddhi to Āṅkika and Piṅgala to Āliṅgya.

279-280. Those who want Success [of performances] should make to these clouds, offerings which are dear to spirits (bhūta).

After worshipping these gods, one should produce a dramatic spectacle (prekṣā) in the stage.

The Mṛdaṅga should be placed in a heap of dried cowdung.

281-282. One[67] should then perform the regular Śānti rites with the Ātodyas and Paṇavas brought out by the dancer.

282-283. In the performance of the ten kinds of play (daśarūpa) four Paṇavas should be used, and a similar number of Ātodyas are also to be played in different situations [in those plays],

283-284. The Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardara are to be played in the Nāṭaka, Prakaraṇa, Vīthī, Bhāṇa and Ḍima.

These are the characteristics of Mṛdaṅgas that should be known by wise [producers].

Characteristics of Upahastas

285-286. I shall now speak of characteristics of Upahastas. These are five viz. Kartarī, Samahasta, Hastapāṇi, Vartanā and Daṇḍahasta.

286-287. The movement of the forefinger and the thumb of the two hands by letting them fall one after another is called Kartarī.

287-288. The serial falling in the same Tāla of the two halves of the two palms [on the face of the drum] is called Samahasta.

288-289. The clear falling of the back [of the palm] and the fingers of the left hand, and the falling once of the right [palm], is called Pāṇitraya.

289-290. The four [strokes] when the right hand falls first and the left hand afterwards, are called Vartanā, because they occur by turns.

290-291. When one taking with strikes by the right hand after beginning the stroke with the left hand, the serial strokes are called Daṇḍahasta.

291-292. The four qualities of all these hands are elegance, switftness, variety and firmness. These are what I had to say about the characteristics of hands.

Characteristics of Good Drummers

263-294. I shall next speak of the characteristics of a [good] player of drums. He who is an expert in songs, playing of instruments, Kalā, tempo, and who knows how to begin a song, to bring it to a finish, and has a mimble hand [in playing] and knows about the various Pāṇis, and [general] rules of the Success, and is an expert in singing Dhruvās, and who practises Kalās, and has a pleasing hand [in playing instruments], power of concentration, and who can produce pleasing Mārjanā and is strong [in body], and regular in his physical and intellectual habits, and is an accomplished [artist], is called the best player [of drums].

Qualities of a good player of the Mṛdaṅga

295-296. One who knows how to give proper plastering to drums and has undergone laborious training in the four Mārgās, has earned success of all kinds, has no defect of limbs, has practised all the Karaṇas well, and knows songs in the Sama (?) and knows many kinds of Grahas and knows how to perform good music, is called a good player of the Mṛdaṅga, because of his various qualities [mentioned above].

Qualities of a good player of the Paṇava

297. He who is unerring, expert in the use of hands and in observing time and in covering faults of performance, and well-practised in playing Karaṇas, is an expert player of Paṇava due to the qualities [mentioned].

298. The player of the Dardara, who is firm, clever [in his art], swift, nimble, knows all the rules of playing and knows to play other instruments as well, is praised [by all].

General Rules of Drumming

299. After observing the performance of all kinds of plays, the playing of drums has been described after considering the taste of all men. That which has not been mentioned should be devised by good [producers] after considering the Mārga and the Jāti [of songs].

Qualities of the Mṛdaṅga

300. The playings of Mṛdaṅgas in which strokes are distinct, clear, well-divided, loud though controlled, and adheres to the palm, and includes the three Mārjanās, and is full of combination, of pleasing notes, is mentioned for its quality.

Indispensability of Drums in a Performance

301. One should first of all bestow care on the playing [of drums]. For this playing has been called the basis (lit. bed) of the dramatic performance. This playing and the songs being well-performed the production of plays do not run any risk.

Here ends the Chapter XXXIII of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of Covered Instruments.

Footnotes and references:


A kind of earthen drum still in use in Bengal among the singers of Vaiṣṇava kīrtana.


A drum or tabor made probably of wood. See the note 6 on XXVIII. 4-5.


This is also called ‘Dardara’. Possibly this is the right form of the name. One side of its wooden frame is covered with hide; it looks like a large gong. See also note 6 on XXVIII 4-5.


See above XXXII. 525. It does not mention Svāti.


The story given here about the invention of drums may not be quite fanciful.


Puṣkara seems to be a general name for drums made of wood.


A large kettle-drum made probably of earth.


This seems to be a kind of Pākhoāj.


It seems to be a drum held against the breast of the player who embraced it as it were. Hence came this name (āliṅgya =an instrument to be embraced). See 242ff. below.


See 242ff. below.


See 242ff. below.


This seems to be very small drum without any complexity. Cf. SR. 1135-1137.


It seems to be different from the one mentioned by SR. VI 802-808. See also 27 below.


See the note 3 on XXVIII. 4-5, and the note 2 on XXIX. 220.


See the note 1 on XXIX. 120.


For their functions see 25-26 below.


This seems to be an one-stringed (ekatantrī) instrument made with a tortoise (kacchapa) shell.


This seems to be a kind of Tánpurā used merely as a drone.


For their functions see 27 below.


See SR. VI. 10-21.


See the note above.


The three Puṣkaras of the NŚ. are Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura (Dardara); see 1-2, 10 and 16 above. But according to SR. VI. 1024-1025 they are Mṛdaṅga, Mardala and Muraja. But Mardala is unknown to NŚ.


SR. names no less than twenty-three varieties. See Ch. VI.


Bāhviraṇair. The reading here is probably corrupt.


This word is probably to be derived from vācaskaraṇa and is similar in meaning to bol used by modern drummers of Northern India.


See 44ff below.


The text gives ḍh for and y for m. See SR. VI. 819.


See 111.116 and 258-259 below.


See 92-93 below.


See 94ff below.




See 118-120 below.


See 47ff. below.


See 117 below.


See 93 below.


See 83 below.


See 42 below.


See 102ff. below.


See 130ff. below.


See 198ff. below.


Later writers like Śārṅgadeva include most of the technical terms into the hastapāṭas. See SR. VI 819ff.


This is possibly our “vāyāṃ”.


This is possibly our “ḍāhinā”.


The reconstruction this bol and the following ones is tentative These have suffered most in the transmission of the text.


Kālidāsa gives a description of this in Mālavi I. 24.


Wheat flour is still used for the Mārjanā of drums like Pākhoāj.


Gata was also known as Prakṛti. See C. 107.


It was also called Ghana. See 40 above.


See 92 above.


This term does not appear elsewhere.


This passage is not quite clear.


See above 44ff.


description of Brahman possessing himself all the separate functions of the Hindu Trinity, is probably to be met with in no other work.


See V. 99-100.


See V. 101-104.


See V. 118-119.


See V. 116-118.


See V. 127ff.


See above V. I48ff.


See XXXIV 18-20.


See above XXXI, on Tālas.


This has not been explained before.




For the measurement of Tāla see the note on III. 21.


The terms used here are not clear.


Maṇḍala =circular space.


The preceding verse is corrupt.