Natyashastra (English)

by Bharata-muni | 1951 | 240,273 words | ISBN-13: 9789385005831

The English translation of the Natyashastra, a Sanskrit work on drama, performing arts, theater, dance, music and various other topics. The word natyashastra also refers to a global category of literature encompassing this ancient Indian tradition of dramatic performance. The authorship of this work dates back to as far as at least the 1st millenn...

Chapter XXI - Limbs of Segments (sandhi)

Five Segments (sandhi), of the Plot (itivṛtta)

1. The Plot (itivṛtta)[1] has been called the body of the drama (lit. poem). It is known to be divided into five Segments (sandhi)[2].

Two kinds of the Plot

2. The Plot is of two kinds: Principal (ādhikārika) and subsidiary (prāsaṅgika).[3]

Definition of the two

3. An [assemblage of] acts which are fabricated with a view to [lit. by reason of] the attainment of [some particular] result, is to be known as the Principal Plot. [Acts] other than these constitute a Subsidiary Plot.[4][5]

4-5. The attainment of the object and its exaltation which the ingenuity of the playwright (lit. poet) plans by means of the associated characters (lit. Heroes) acting in a regular manner (lit. reasorting to rules), constitute the Principal Plot on account of an attainment of the result. And any incident (lit. anything) mentioned for helping any other [incident] in it, is called the Subsidiary Plot.[6][7]

Five stages of the Action

6. The exertion of the Hero (lit. one who strives) towards the object to be attained is known to have five stages occurring according to their due order.[8]

7. These stages [of the Action] are known to arise in the Nāṭaka and the Prakaraṇa. And [their] Fruition (phala-yoga) relates to duty (dharma), enjoyment of pleasure (kāma) and wealth (artha).

8. The five stages are: Beginning (prārambha), Effort (prayatna), Possibility of Attainment (prāpti-sambhava), Certainty of Attainment (niyatā-prāpti) and Attainment of the Object (phala-prāpti).[9]


9. That part of the play (lit. composition) which merely creates a curiosity about the Attainment of the great Object with reference to the Seed (bīja), is called the Beginning (ārambha).[10]


10. [Hero’s] striving towards the Attainment of the Object when the same is not in view, and his steps exciting curiosity [about it], is called the Efforts (prayatna).[11]

Possibility of Attainment

11. When the Attainment of the Object is slightly suggested by some Psychological State [of the Hero], it is to be known as the Possibility of Attainment (prāpti-sambhava).[12]

Certainty of Attainment

12. When the Hero visualizes due to a Psychological State [of his], a sure attainment of the Object, it is called Certainty of Attainment (niyatā phala-prāpti).[13]

Attainment of the Object

13. When a suitable Result of intended actions appears in full at the end of events [of a play], it is called Attainment of the Object (phala-yoga).[14]

14. These are the five successive stages of every action begun by persons looking for results.

15. Putting together of all these naturally different stages which come together [in a play] for the production of the result, conduces towards the fruition [of the Seed].

Play to begin with the Principal Plot

16. The Principal Plot which has been described before should be taken up at the Beginning [of a play], for it is to end in fruition (i.e. Attainment of the Object).

17. The Plot may either have all the Segments or lack some of them. The [general] rule requires that all the Segments should occur in it; but due to a [special] reason some of them may be left out.[15]

Rules about the omission of Segments

18. If one Segment is to be omitted then the fourth one goes; in course of an omission of the two Segments, the third and the fourth are to be left out, and in case of the three to be omitted, the second, the third and the fourth should be given up.

19. In case of the Subsidiary Plot this rule will not apply; for it is to serve the purpose of another [Plot]. Any event can be introduced in this [Subsidiary Plot] without violating the rule.

Five Elements of the Plot

20. The five stages of the Plot such as the Beginning (ārambha)[16] etc. have five means of attaining objects of the Plot (artha-prakṛti)[17]

21. The Seed (bīja), the Vital Drop (bindu = semen), the Episode (patākā), the Episodical Incident (prakarī) and the Action (kārya) are the five Elements of the Plot[18], which should be reckoned and applied in a proper manner.


22. That which scattered in a small measure, expands itself in various ways and ends in fruition, is called the Seed[19] of the Plot.

Vital Drop

23. That which sustains the continuity (lit- non-separation) till the end of the play even when the chief object [of the play] is [for the time being] suspended, is called the Vital Drop (bindu)[20].


24. The event which is introduced in the interest of the Principal [Plot] and is treated like it, is called an Episode[21].

Episodical Incident

25. When merely the result of such an event is presented for the purpose of another (i.e., the Principal Plot) and it has no continuation it is called the Episodical Incident.[22][23]


26. The efforts made for the purpose of the Principal Plot introduced [in a play] by the experts, is called the Action (kārya)[24].

27. Among these means that which has others for its support (lit. purpose) and to which the rest are taken as subordinate, should be made prominent and not the remaining ones.[25]

Continuation in the Episode

28. One or more Segment should be attached to the Episode. As these serve the purpose of the Principal [Plot] they are called Continuation (anubandha)[26].

Limit of the Episode

29. The Episode should come to an end either at the Development or at the Pause. Why? Because its treatment is for the purpose of something else (i.e., the Principal Plot).

Episode Indication

30. When some matter being taken in hand (lit. already thought about), another matter of similar nature (lit. characteristics) is suggested through an accidental idea (āgantukabhāva), it is called Episode Indication (patākā-sthāna).[27]

The First Episode Indication

31. The sudden development of a novel meaning (artha-sampatti) due to an indirect suggestion, is called the First Episode Indication[28].

The Second Episode Indication

32. Words completely carrying double meaning and expressed in a poetic language, are called the Second Episode Indication.[29]

The Third Episode Indication

33. That which suggests with courtesy the object [of a play] in a subtle manner and in the form of a dialogue, is called the Third Episode Indication.[30]

The Fourth Episode Indication

34. Words with a double meaning expressed in a well-knit poetic language and having a reference to something [other than what appears at first sight] is called the Fourth Episode Indication.[31]

35. The play (lit. poetical composition) meant to be acted should have at most four Episode Indications (patākāsthānaka)1. I shall next speak of this made up of five Segments.

Five Segments

36. The five Segments of a play are the Opening (mukha), the Progression (pratimukha), the Development (garbha), the Pause (vimarśa) and the Conclusion (nirvahaṇa)[32].

37. The Principal [Plot] is known to be consisting of five Segments (sandhi). The remaining Segments are to be subordinated to the Segments of the Principal [Plot][33].


38. That part of a play, in which the creation of the Seed (bīja) as the source of many objects and Sentiments takes place, is called in relation to its body the Opening.[34]


39. Uncovering of the Seed placed at the Opening after it has sometimes been perceptible and sometimes been lost, is called the Progression.[35]


40. The sprouting of the Seed, its attainment or nonattainment and search for it, is called the Development (garbha)[36].


41. One’s pause (vimarśa, lit. deliberation) over the Seed (bīja) that has sprouted in the Development (garbha) on account of some temptation, anger or distress, is called the Segment of that name (i.e. Pause)[37].


42. Bringing together the objects [of the Segments] such as the Opening (mukha) etc. along with the Seed (bija), when they have attained fruition, is called the Conclusion (nirvahaṇa)[38].

43. These are the Segments of a Nāṭaka, to be known by the producers of a drama. They may occur in the Prakaraṇa and the other types of plays as well.

Segments vary in different types of drama

44. The Ḍima[39] and the Samavakāra[40] are to have four Segments, and the playwright should never make the Pause (vimarśa) in them.

45. The Vyāyoga[41] and the Īhāmṛga[42] are to have three Segments. There should be no Development and Pause (avamarśavimarśa) in these two. and the Graceful (kaiśikī) Style also has no place in them.

46. The Prahasana[43] the Vīthi[44], the Aṅka[45] and the Bhāṇa[46] are the to have only two Segments which should be the Opening (mukha) and the Conclusion (nirvahaṇa), and their Style should be the Verbal one (bhāratī).

47. These are the Segments to be planned by the producers in the ten types of play, Listen now about the contents of the Segments which are as it were their limbs.

Distinction of the Segments

48-50. Contents of the Segments which give them distinction are twenty-one:[47] Conciliation (sāma), Dissention (bheda), Making Gifts (pradāna), Chastisement (daṇḍa), Killing (vadha), Presence of mind (pratyutpanna-matitva), Blunder in Addressing (gotra-skhalita), Rashness (sāhasa), Terror (bhaya), Imaginative Fancy (dhī), Deceit (māyā), Anger (krodha), Strength (ojas), Concealment (saṃvaraṇa), Error (bhrānti), Ascertainment (avadhāraṇa), Messenger (dūta), Letter (lekha), Dream (svapna), Portrait (citra) and Intoxication (mada).1

Segments and their limbs

51. The events in the Segments in their respective parts (pradesa) will in due order support those Limbs [of the Segments] by means of their own qualities.[48]

Sixfold need of the Limbs of the Segments

52-53. Expressing the desired object, non-omission of any essential item in the Plot, attaining the quality of pleasing in production, concealment of the objects to be concealed, telling tales of surprise and disclosing things to be disclosed are the sixfold needs of the Limbs described in the Śāstra[49].

Uses of the Limbs of Segments

54. Just as a man deficient in his [limbs is unable] to fight a battle, so a play deficient in the limbs [of Segments] will be unfit for [successful] production[50].

55. A play (lit. a poem) though it may be poor as regards its theme (lit. meaning) will, when furnished with requisite Limbs, attain beauty because of the brilliance of its production.

56. And a play having a lofty theme, but devoid of [requisite] Limbs, will never capture the mind of the good [critics] because of its [possible] poor production.

57. Hence in planning the Segments [in a drama] the playwright should give them the Limbs in proper places and with proper sentiments. Now listen properly about about them.

Sixtyfour Limbs of the Segments

58-59. The Limbs of the Opening (mukha) are; Suggestion (upakṣepa), Enlargement (parikara), Establishment (pariṇyāsa), Allurement (vilobhana), Decision (yukti) Accession (prāpti), Settling (samādhāna), Conflict of Feeling (vidhāna), Surprise (paribhāvana), Disclosure (udbheda), Activity (karaṇa), and Incitement (bheda). Now listen about the Limbs in the Progression[51].

60-61. The Limbs of the Progression (pratimukha) are: Amorousness (vilāsa), Pursuit (parisarpa), Refusal (vidhūta), Pessimism (tāpana), Joke (narma), Flash of Joke (narmadyuti), Moving Forward (paryupāsana), Sweet Words (puṣpa), Thunderbolt (vajra)[52], Reference (upanyāsa), Meeting of easts (varṇasaṃhāra).

62-64. The Limbs of the Development (garbha) are: Mis-statement (abhūtāharaṇa), Indication (mārga), Supposition (rūpa), Exaggeration (udāharaṇa), Progress (krama), Propitiation (saṃgraha), Deduction (anumāna), Supplication (prārthanā), Revelation (ākṣipta), Quarrel (toṭaka), Outwitting (adhibala), Dismay (udvega) and Consternation (vidrava)[53].

64-66. The Limbs of the Pause (vimarśa = avamṛśa) are: Censure (apavāda), Angry Words (saṃpheṭa) Insolence (abhidrava), Placation (śakti), Assertion (vyavasāya), Mention (prasaṅga), Injury (druti), Lassitude (kheda), Opposition (niṣedhana), Altercation (virodhana), Sumning up (ādāna), Humillation (sādana), and Foresight (prarocanā)[54].

66-68. The Limbs of the Conclusion are: Junction (sandhi), Awakening (vibodha), Assembling (grathana), Ascertainment (nirṇaya), Conversation (paribhāṣana), Confirmation (dhṛti), Gratification (prasāda), Joy (ānanda), Deliverance (samaya), Surprise (upagūhana), Clever Speech (bhāsana), Retrospect (pūrva-vākya), Termination of the Play (kāvya-saṃhāra) and Benedication (praśasti)[55]. These are the sixty-four Limbs of the Segments [in a play][56].

Limbs of the Opening

69. I shall now give their definitions in due order[57].


Suggestion (upakṣepa) is the origin of the object of the play[58].

Enlargement Establishment

70. Enlargement (parikara) is the amplification of the object originated.[59]

Describing it (i.e. the object) thoroughly is called Establishment (pariṇyāsa)[60].


71. The mentioning of good qualities is known as Allurement (vilobhana).[61]


Settling the issues is called Decision (yukti)[62].


72. Accession (prāpti) is summing up the purpose of the Opening (mukha)[63].


Settling (samādhāna) is summing up the purpose of the Seed (bīja)[64].

Conflict of Feelings

73. Joys and sorrows occurring in a situation, is called conflict of Feelings (vidhāna)[65].


Surprise (paribhāvana) is an excitement giving rise to curiosity[66].


74. The sprouting of the purpose of the Seed (bīja), is called Disclosure (udbheda)[67].


Taking up the matter in question is called Activity (karaṇa)[68].


75. That which is meant for disrupting an union is called Incitement (bheda)[69]. These are the limbs of the Opening.

Limbs of the Progression

I shall now speak of those of the Progression (pratimukha).


76. Amorousness (vilāsa) is the desire for the sport of love (rati)[70].


Pursuit (parisarpa)[71] is the pursuing of an object once seen and then lost.


77. Refusal (vidhuta)[72] is not complying with the request made [by any one].


Thinking about (lit. seeing) some danger [in future] is called Pessimism (tāpana)[73].


78. The laughter which is meant for sports, is called Joke (narma)[74].

Flash of Joke

The laughter which is meant for concealing one’s fault is called Flash of Joke (narma-dyuti)[75].

Moving Forward

79. Speaking words which bring in other words after them is called Moving Forward (pragamana)[76].


Appearance of some calamity is called Hindrance (nirodha)[77].


80. Conciliating an angry person is called Pacification (paryupāsana)[78].

Sweet Words

Mentioning some favourable peculiarity is called Sweet Words (puṣpa, lit. flower)[79].


81. Harsh words uttered on one’s face is called Thunderbolt (vajra)[80].


Reference (upanyāsa) is a remark based on reason.[81]

Meeting of Castes

82. Coming together of the four castes is called Meeting of Castes[82]. These are the Limbs of the Progression.

Limbs of the Development

Now listen about those in the Development (garbha).


83. [A speech] founded on deceit is called Mis-statement (kapaṭāśraya)[83].


Speaking out [one’s] real intention (lit. reality) is called Indication (mārga)[84].


84. A hypothesis with which novel meanings are combined, is called Supposition (rūpa)[85].


A speech with an overstatement is called Exaggeration (udāharaṇa).[86]


85. Foreseeing of what is coming afterwards, is called Progress (krama)[87].


Contact for the use of sweet words and gift, is called Protection (saṃgraha)[88].


86. Perceiving something by the name of a thing similar to it in from, is called Deduction (anumāna)[89].


Request for love’s enjoyment (rati), rejoicing festivity and the like, is called Supplication (prārthanā)[90].


87. The unfolding [of the Seed] in the Development (garbha), is called Revelation (ākṣipta)[91].


An angry speech is called Quarrel (toṭaka).

88. Deception by means of a trick called Outwitting (adhibala)[92].


Fear arising from a king, an enemy or a robber is called Dismay (udvega)[93].

Panicky Commotion

89. Flurry caused by fear from a king or fire is called Panicky Commotion (vidrava)[94].

These are the Limbs in the Development (garbha).

Limbs of the Pause

Now listen about those in the Pause (avamarśa = vimarśa).


90. Proclaiming anyone’s fault is called Censure (apavāda).[95]

Angry Words

Words spoken in anger are called Angry Words (saṃpheṭa)[96].

91. Transgression of the superiors is called Insolence (abhi-drava)[97].


Coming into conflict [with anyone] is called Strength (śakti)[98].


92. A promise made on account of some reason is called Assertion (vyavasāya)[99].


Speaking of one’s superiors is called Mention (prasaṅga).[100]


93. Words spoken in contempt are called Injury (druti).[101]


Fatigue arising from a mental effort is called Lassitude (kheda).[102]


94. Obstruction to one’s desired object is called Opposition (niṣedha)[103].


Speaking and counter-speaking in excitement is called Altercation (virodhana)[104].

Summing up

95. Bringing together (lit. attaining) [all aspects] of the Seed (bīja) and the Action, is called Summing up (ādāna)[105].


Putting in insulting words for some purpose, is called Humiliation (sādana)[106].


96. That which expresses the purpose of the Conclusion (saṃhāra) [in advance], is called Foresight (prarocanā)[107].

These are the limbs in Pause (avamṛśa = vimarśa).

Limbs in Conclusion

Now listen about those in the Conclusion (saṃhāra = nirvahaṇa).


97. The coming up of the Opening (mukha) and the Seed is called a Juncture (sandhi)[108].


Looking duly for the Action (kārya) is called Awakening (vibodha).[109]


98. Intimation of [the various aspects] of the Action is called Assembling (grathana)[110].


Declaration of facts personally known is called Ascertainment (nirṇaya)[111].


99. That which is said to blame someone, is called Accusation (paribhāṣaṇa)[112].


Turning to use (lit. going) the object gained is called Achievement (kṛti)[113].


100. Treating one with waiting upon or the like, is is called Gratification (prasāda)[114].


Attaining objects [of one’s desire] is called Joy (ānanda)[115].


101. Passing away of all misery, is called Deliverance (samaya)[116].


Appearence of something wonderful is called Surprise (upagūhana)[117].

Clever Speech

102. Words mentioning conciliation, gift and the like are called Clever Speech (bhāṣana)[118].


Retrospect (pūrva-vākya)[119] is to be understood as a reference to something spoken before.


103. Giving and receiving of a boon is called Termination (kāvya-saṃhāra)[120].


[A prayer seeking perfect] peace to the king and the country is called Benediction (praśasti)[121].

104. With a view to introducing Sentiments (rasa) and Psychological States an expert playwright should insert all these Limbs into appropriate Segments of his work[122].

105. Considering [the scope] of the Action or its condition he may sometime insert all the Limbs or a combination of two or three [of them] into the Segments.[123]

Five Explanatory Devices

106. The Supporting Scene (viṣkambhaka), the Intimating Speech (cūlikā), the Introductory Scene (praveśaka), the Transitional Scene (aṅkāvatāra), and the Anticipatory Scene (aṅkamukha) are five Explanatory Devices (arthopakṣepaka)[124].

A Supporting Scene

107. A Supporting Scene (viṣkambhaka)[125] should employ the middling[126] male characters, and relate to the opening Segment (mukhasandhi)[127] only of the Nāṭaka, and it. is [to be] graced by a priest, minister or Kañcukin (armour-bearer).

108. A Supporting Scene is of two kinds: pure and mixed. Of these the pure is made up of the middling characters, and the mixed of the inferior and the middling ones.

An Intimating Speech

109. When some points are explained by a superior, middling or inferior character from behind the curtain, it is called an Intimating Speech (cūlikā)[128].

110. An Introductory Scene (praveśaka) in relation to the Nāṭaka and the Prakaraṇa, is to occupy a place between two Acts and to treat the summary of the Segments.[129]

A Transitional Scene

111.[130] As in practice it falls between two Acts, or within an Act, and relates to the purpose of the Seed (bīja), it is called a Transitional Scene (aṅkāvatāra).

An Anticipatory Scene

112. When the detached beginning of an Act is summarized beforehand by a male or a female character, it is called a Anticipatory Scene (aṅkamukha)[131].

An ideal Nāṭaka

113-116 The playwright should write a Nāṭaka having [different] Styles and minor Limbs (pratyaṅga)[132] , Episode Indication (patākā)[133] Explanatory Devices (arthapratikriyā)[134] arising from the five stages (avasthā)[135] having five Segments (sandhi)[136], twenty-one Distinction of Segments[137], sixty-four Limbs (aṅga)[138], thirty-six lakṣaṇas[139], Guṇas (excellence)[140] and figures of speech (alaṃkāra)[141], many Sentiments[142], topics of many enjoyments, exalted speeches, characters of great people, description of good conduct, and it should be popular, well-knit in its Segments, easy for production [on the stage], composed with soft words, and capable of giving pleasure.

117. The condition of the world arising from the happiness and misery and connected with the activity of various people, should find a place in the Nāṭaka[143].

118. There is no wise maxim, no learning, no art or craft, no device and no action that are not found in the drama (nāṭya)[144].

119. And the human nature with its joys and sorrows depicted by the means of representation such as Gestures, [Words, Costume and Sattva] is also called a drama (nāṭya)[145].

120. A mimicry of the past exploits of gods, sages, and human beings should be also called a drama[146].

121. As [this] is represented (abhinīyate) and interpreted by the actors who after suppressing their own nature make [for this purpose] various movement of their different limbs, it is called the Nāṭaka.

122. The Nāṭaka is to be so composed as to include all Psychological States, Sentiments, inclination to all deeds, and the various conditions [of men and nature][147].

123. Those arts and crafts which are products of unique efforts should in their endless froms be applied in the Nāṭaka1.

124. One is to construct a Nāṭaka [only] after observ-ing the people’s character, strength and weakness and their [mode of] enjoyment and reasoning[148].

125. In succeeding ages men will mostly be diffident in wisdom; hence those who will be born [after us] will have small learning and intellect.

126. When the world deteriorates, men’s intellect, [production of] crafts and skill in arts will dwindle.

127. Hence after observing the strength and the weakness of human feeling, one should compose the Nāṭaka with pleasent and easily intelligible words.

128. The plays (lit. poems) which contain [harsh], words like cekrīḍita[149] is repulsive (lit. do not shine) like a courtezan in the company of a Brahmin bearing a Kamaṇḍalu.

129. O Brahmins, I have spoken about the Plot with its Segments and Limbs. I shall hereafter speak of the characteristics of the Styles.

Here ends chapter XXI of Bharata’s Nāṭyaśāstra, which treats of the Limbs of the Segments

Footnotes and references:


Also called vastu. Cf. DR, 1. II, SD. 294-295.


See DR. I, 22-23. Cf. SD, 330 and etc. See also NL. 216-217.


See DR.I. ii, SD. 295 and NL. 218-219.


Cf. DR I. 12-13, SD. 296-297; NL. 223-224.


See above note 1.


See above 3 note 1 and NL, 228-229.


Cf. Ag.


Cf. NL. 55-56.


Cf. DR. I. 19; SD. 324; NL. 57-58.


Cf. DR. 20; SD. 325; NL. 59-60.


Cf. DR. I. 20; SD. 326; NL. 66.


Cf. DR. I. 21; SD. 327; NL. 69-70.


Cf. DR I. 21; SD. 328; NL. 77.


Cf. DR. I. 22; SD. 329; NL. 89.


See NL. 442ff.


See DR. I. 19; SD. 324 NL. 57-58.


See DR. I. 18; SD. 317; NL. 134-135.


See above 20 note 2.


Cf. DR. I. 17; SD. 318; NL. 136-137.


Cf. DR. I. 17; SD. 319; NL. giving a second view about the mean ing of the bindu says:—

“anye tu, yaddhi nāṭakārthasya prakṛtibhūtamavamānotsāhābhyāṃ pratyaṅgaṃ parikortyate sa binduḥ | yathā rādhavābhyudaye keka?yāḥ pratyaṅkamutkīrtanam | veṇyāṃ ca kīrtyate draupadīkeśākarṣaṇam | utsāhe ca nāgānande jībhūtavāhanasya sarvāṅke kīrtanamiti | sa ca kāryasya samāptiṃ yāvay prarvatayitavyaḥ(?)” (159ff. 173ff.).

There is a third view also; see NL. 183ff. But bindu literally means ‘semen’. Cf. “saraṇāṃ bindupātena jīvanaṃ bindudhāraṇāt”.


Cf. DR. I. 13; SD. 320; NL. gives also a second view about the meaning of the patāka as follows: “anye patāketyupanāyakacaritameva sthūlārthamupavarṇayanti” (195ff.).


As opposed to this, the patākā possesses continuity. Anubandho nairantaryena pravartanam (NL. 204).


Cf. DR. I. 13; SD. 321 NL. 199ff.


Cf. DR. I. 16; SD. 323; NL. 209ff.


Cf. NL. 234ff.


Ag. and others read anubandha as anusandhi. Cf. DR. III. 26-27. See 25 above.


DR. (I. 14) merely defines the term, and ignores its varieties. But SD. (298-299) follows Nś. and defines them. See NL. 1000-1001. Sāgara-nandin says that these should not be applied to the last Segment (nirvahaṇa).


See SD. 300; NL. 1007.


See SD. 301 and NL, 1015.


See SD. 302; NL. 1021-1022.


See SD. 303; NL. 1033.


See DR. I. 23-24; SD. 331-332; NL. 458. These Segments do not necessity coincide with Acts. One Segment may well include more than one Act.


These relate to the Subsidiary Plot.


See DR. I. 24-25; SD. 333; NL. 536f, quotes NŚ.


Cf. DR. I. 30; SD. 334; NL. 634ff


Cf. DR. I. 36; SD. 335; NL. 710f.


DR. I. 53 calls this avamarśa. SD. 336; NL. 770ff, gives two more definitions of this Segment.


Cf. DR. I. 48-49; SD. 337; NL. 554f.


See NŚ. XX. 90ff.


See ibid 78ff.


See NŚ, XX. 48ff.


See ibid. 64ff.


See NŚ. XX. 102ff


See ibid 112ff.


See ibid 94ff.


See ibid 107ff.


B. om. 48-50. NL. 925ff. seems to give this passage in a form more correct. All these items are for giving an impetus to the Action.


See NL. 923.


Cf. DR. I. 55; SD. 407ff.


Cf. SD. 407ff.


  See DR. I. 25-26; SD. 338; NL. 552ff.


DR. I. 31-32 reads śamana for tāpana; SD. 351. NL. 645ff.


DR. I. 37-38. omits prārthanā and vidrava, adds sambhrama, and gives ākṣipta as ākṣepa; SD. 365. See NL. 724ff.


DR. I. 44-45. omits abbidrava, kheda, niṣedhana and sādana and adds vidrava, drava chalana and vicalana; SD. 378ff. follows NŚ. except that abhidrava appears there as drava; see NL. 798ff.


See SD. 391 reads kṛti as dhṛti. DR. I. 49-50 gives dhṛti as kṛti, pūrvavākya as pūrvabbāva, upasaṃhāra as kāvyasaṃhāra. NL. 250ff. omits sandhi and vibodha, gives dhṛti as dyuti, and gives instead of the first two artha and anuyoga.


Cf. DR. I. 40; SD. 374; NL. 755.


C. reads before this another couplet which in trans. is as follows: For the development of the Seed, all these (i.e. 64 limbs) should make up the Segments properly and have clear meanings. This does not occur in K.


See NL. 556; SD. 338 Cf. DR. I. 27.


See NL. 569; SD. 340; DR. I. 27.


See NL. 575; SD. 341; DR. I. 27.


See DR. I. 27; SD. 34a; NL. 586.


See SD. 343; DR. I. 28; Haas translates it differently. SD. 343 and NL. 593 seem to misunderstand this definition.


See NL. 598-599. DR. I. 28; and SD. 344 follows what seems to be wrong reading of the NŚ.


See NL. 605f CL DR. I. 28; SD. 345.


See DR. I. 28; SD. 346; NL. 609-610.


See NL. 617; Cf. DR. I. 29; SD. 347.


See SD. 348; NL. 620. Cf. DR. I. 29.


See SD. 349; NL. 623. Cf. DR. I. 29.


See NL, 626; SD. 350. Cf. DR. I. 29.


See SD. 352; NL. 650ff. Cf. DR. I. 32.


See SD. 353; DR. I. 32-33. Cf. NL. 657.


Cf. NL. 663; DR. I, 33 and SD. 354.


See NL. 669. Cf. SD. 355 defines it as upāyadarśana. DR. defines sama instead of tāpana (1.33).


Cf. DR. I. 33; DR. 356; NL. 1310ff.


Cf. DR. I. 33; SD. 357; NL. 672.


Cf. NL. 676; DR. I. 34; SD. 358.


See NL. 683; DR. I.34; SD. 358.


See NL. 687. Cf. DR. I. 34; SD. 360.


Cf. DR. I. 34; SD. 361; NL. 691.


Cf. NL. 697; I, 35; SD. 362.


See NL. 700; cf. DR. I. 35; SD. 363ff. defines it differently and refers to the view of the NŚ as kecit tu etc.


NL. 704ff. defines it as varṇitasyārthasya tíraskāraḥ (concealing the matter expressed), and refers to the view of the NŚ. as caturṇām varṇānāṃ sammelanam api ke’ pi varṇayanti. See SD. 364; DR. I. 35.


Cf. DR. 1. 38; SD. 365; NL. 727.


Cf. SD. 366; NL. 730; DR. 1. 38.


Cf. DR. I. 39; SD. 367; NL. 735.


Cf. NL. 738; DR. I. 39; SD. 368.


Cf. SD. 369; NL. 740; DR. I. 39.


Cf. SD. 370; NL. 744; DR. 1. 40.


Cf. NL. 746; DR. 1. 40; SD. 371.


Cf. SD. 372; DR. I. 40. NL. 749.


Cf. DR. I. 42 has ākṣepa; SD. 373 has kṣipti = ākṣipti; NL. 751 has utkṣipta.


Cf. SD. 375; DR. I. 40; NL. 758.


Cf. SD. 376; NL. 761; DR. 1. 42.


Cf. DR. I. 42; SD. 377. NL. 766.


See NL, 801; Cf. DR. I. 45; SD. 378.


See NL. 807, Cf. DR. I. 45; SD, 379.


See NL. 813. SD. 381 and DR. I. 45, has drava in place of abhi-drava.


Cf. NL. 819; DR. I. 49; SD. 383.


Cf. NL. 824; SD. 380 DR. I. 47.


Cf. DR. I. 46; SD. 384. NL. 826 defines difíerenely.


Cf. NL. 829; DR. I. 46, SD. 382; SD. 385.


Cf. NL. 832; SD. 385.


Cf. NL. 838, and SD. 386.


Cf. DR. I. 47, NL. 840; SD. 387.


See NL. 844, DR. I. 48; SD. 389.


See NL. 848. DR. I. 46 has wrongly chālana for sādana SD. 390 also has chādana wrongly.


See SD. 388; NL. 850. DR. I. 47.


Cf. DR. I, 51; SD. 392.


Cf. DR. I. 51; SD. 393.


Cf. DR. I. 51, SD. 394; NL. 864.


Cf. S. 395; DR. I. 51; NL. 870


Cf. NL. 873; SD. 396, DR. I. 52 defines the Limb differently.


Cf. DR. I. 53; SD. 397.


Cf. NL. 879; SD. 398; DR; I. 52.


Cf, NL. 881; SD. 399; DR. 1. 52.


Cf. DR. I. 52; SD. 400; NL. 883.


Cf. NL. 889; SD. 401; DR. I. 53.


Cf. SD. 402; DR. I. 53. NL. 891.


Cf. NL. 891; SD. 403.


See SD. 404; cf. NL. 895, DR. I. 54.


Cf. SD. 407, NL. 897. DR. 1. 54.


Cf. SD. 406; NL. 906.


See above 104 note 1.


Cf. DR. 1. 58; SD. 308. NL 393. Haas translates arthopakṣepaka as “Intermediate Scenes,” see p. 33. But the ‘Explanatory Devices’ are all not complete scenes; vide infra.


Cf. SD. 308; DR. 338; DR. I. 59 NL. 362 f. quotes the view of Cārāyaṇa as follows: “prakaraṇanāṭakaviṣayo viṣkambhaka iti.” (Viṣkambhaka relates to the Prakaraṇa and the Nāṭaka only). It seems that such was the case at a later stage of the development of Indian drama. First it related to the Nāṭakas only. Also cf. XX. 36ff.


For a definition of the middling character see XXXIV. 4


According to this direction the viṣkambhaka at the beginning of Pañca, would be an ideal one.


Cf. NL. 414 f., 438f.; DR. I. 61; SD. 310.


Cf. DR. I. 60-61; SD 309; NL. 307ff.


Cf. DR. I 62-63; SD. 311; NL. 398-399. The def. is not very clear. The aṅkāvatāra seems to furnish an indication of the subject-matter of the next Act. An example of this seems to be the dialogue of the Ceṭī and Vāsavadattā at the end of the Act II. of Svapna. This relates to the making of a garland by Vāsavadattā. Another example may be Avimāraka in the second Act (See Avi. II. 5-6). This gives a clue to the subject-matter of the next Act which treats Avimāraka’s entry into the royal harem.


The aṅkamukha seems to relate mostly to plays other than of the Nāṭaka and the Prakaraṇa types. Examples of this are perhaps the speeches of the Bhaṭa in the beginning of the Karṇa, and of the Dūtagha., The reason for the above assumption is that the rules prescribe viṣkambhaka for Nāṭakas only (see 107), and praveśakas for both Nāṭakas and Prakaraṇas (see no). Cf. DR. I. 62; SD. 312, 313; NL. 408.


Pratyaṅga has not been defined anywhere. It is possible that the reading is corrupt.


Patākā here stands for patākā-sthānaka just as “Bhīma” for “Bhīmasena;” see above 30ff.


Arthapratikriyā is only a synonym of arthaprakarī. See before 20ff.


See before 6ff.


See before 35ff.


See before 48ff.


See before 58ff.


See XVII. 1ff.


See XVII 96ff.


See XVII 43ff.


See VI.


Cf. I. 120


See I. 116


See I. 121


See I. 120


Cf. I. 113


This puts emphasis on developing characters in a drama.


Bhāsa actually uses the root of this verb in his Avi. (III.18.0).

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